首选通道三。请不要修改几个字重复大量发送,珍惜与维护平台环境是大家共同的责任。

记录群体灭绝

Documenting Genocide

中国良心犯法外处决以获取器官和铲除法轮功运动

The Extrajudicial Killing of Prisoners of Conscience for Organs in China and The Campaign to Eradicate Falun Gong

事实调查与分析报告

Fact Finding & Analysis Report

二零一九年四月

April 2019

中国器官摘取研究中心2019。

© China Organ Harvest Research Center 2019.

中国器官摘取研究中心鼓励使用这份文件。

The China Organ Harvest Research Center encourages the use of this document.

材料的任何部分都可以复制并注明属性。

Any part of the material may be duplicated with attribution.

关于中国器官摘取研究中心

About China Organ Harvest Research Center

中国器官摘取研究中心是一个非营利组织研究中心,对中国的器官移植滥用进行权威性的研究,包括为了器官而杀害良心犯。人权委员会的研究人员从中国和海外广泛的来源寻找和分析证据。除了发表报告和向政府实体和非政府组织提供咨询外,该中心还在世界各地的伦理和医学会议上介绍了其研究成果。在成立这个组织之前,该组织的主要研究人员已经对中国的器官移植系统研究了十多年,并为 CNN、 BBC、 PBS、华尔街日报、纽约时报、伦敦时报和福布斯引用的报道做出了贡献。

The China Organ Harvest Research Center (COHRC) is a nonprofit organization that conducts and presents authoritative research on organ transplant abuse in China, including the killing of prisoners of conscience for organs. COHRC researchers seek out and analyze evidence from a wide range of Chinese and overseas sources. In addition to publishing reports and providing consultation to government entities and non-government organizations, the center has presented its research findings at ethical and medical conferences around the world. Before establishing this organization, the group's lead researchers had studied the Chinese organ transplantation system for over a decade and contributed to reports cited by CNN, BBC, PBS, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, The Times of London, and Forbes.

为器官杀人是危害人类罪,是一种新形式的国家恐怖主义。中国器官摘取研究中心认为,提高对这些暴行的认识是我们的共同责任。我们期待着与其他研究人员、政策制定者、组织、公司、记者和人权倡导者合作,帮助结束这种野蛮的做法,维护人类尊严。

Killing for organs is a crime against humanity and a new form of state terrorism. COHRC believes it is our shared responsibility to raise awareness of these atrocities. We look forward to collaborating with other researchers, policymakers, organizations, corporations, journalists, and human rights advocates to help end this barbaric practice and safeguard human dignity.

作者和编辑

Authors & Editors

格蕾丝·尹,李,夏,李

Grace Yin, David Li, Yiyang Xia, Huige Li

安·F·科尔森,威廉·H·博里克

Ann F. Corson, William H. Boericke

调查员及调查队成员

Investigators & Investigation Team Members

格蕾丝·尹,李,夏,李,李,黄,傅

Grace Yin, David Li, Yiyang Xia, Huige Li, Michelle Li, Tom Huang, Mercy Fu

孙灿、彭、史

Can Sun, Yongfeng Peng, Jackie Shi

关于本报告

About This Report

2006年,首次曝光的指控是,中国各地看守所和医院的法轮功信徒被要求为器官移植手术采购器官而遭到杀害。1从那时起,国际研究人员对这些指控进行了调查,并发表了确凿的报告。2尽管如此,中国的器官移植产业在过去的十年里继续快速增长,从非法来源获取器官也是如此。

In 2006, allegations first came to light that Falun Gong adherents in detention facilities and hospitals throughout China were being killed on demand to source organs for transplant surgeries.1 Since then, international researchers have investigated these allegations andpublished corroborating reports.2 Nevertheless, the organ transplant industry in China has continued to grow at a rapid pace over the past decade, as has the harvesting of organs from illicit sources.

为了确定问题的规模、用于器官移植的器官的实际来源以及中国器官移植系统从使用囚犯器官到自愿捐献的转变程度,中国器官摘取研究中心分析了全国数百家移植医院,通过追踪各地区的捐献数量以及时间表和围绕官方器官来源不断演变的政策,评估了捐献系统的实施情况。所有这些数据都与政府和行业声明、政策、立法、法规、项目、资金、医学期刊、医院档案网站以及中文、英文和其他语言的媒体报道一起进行了检查。2018年7月,中国器官摘取研究中心发表了一份关于其调查结果的综合报告,题为“中国的移植虐待仍在继续,尽管有改革的说法”。3

To determine the scale of the problem, the actual sources of organs used for transplantation and the extent of the purported transition from the use of prisoner organs to voluntary donations by China’s organ transplant system, the China Organ Harvest Research Center (COHRC) analyzed hundreds of transplant hospitals across the country and evaluated the implementation of the donation system by tracking the number of donations by region as well as the timeline and evolving policies surrounding official organ sources. All this data was examined in conjunction with government and industry statements, policies, legislation, regulations, projects, funding, medical journals, archived hospital websites, and media reports in Chinese, English, and other languages. COHRC published a comprehensive report of its findings in July 2018 titled “Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform.”3

这份事实陈述包括了中国器官摘取研究中心的综合报告摘要,中国器官移植系统自2016年6月以来的最新发展,对器官摘除受害者的亲属和其他失踪人员的采访,以及在中国因宗教信仰而被拘留和遭受酷刑但逃脱器官摘除的幸存者的采访。这些第一手的证词,以及其他以前发表的对中国医院医务人员的访谈,在本报告及其附录中被引用,或者可以索取。

This statement of facts incorporates a summary of COHRC’s comprehensive reports, recent developments in China’s transplant system since June 2016, interviews with relatives of organ harvesting victims and other missing persons as well as survivors who were detained and tortured in China for their religious beliefs but escaped organ harvesting. These first-hand testimonials, and other previously published interviews of Chinese hospital medical staff, are cited in this report and its appendices or are available on request.

本报告第一至第六部分涉及中国器官移植系统中使用的器官的规模、按需性质和来源,中国政府及其授权机构在指导和延续不道德的器官采购行为方面的作用,以及在中国政权的器官移植对法轮功的迫害背景下的大量良心犯。第八部分从法律上分析了中国共产党政权在从活着的良心犯身上摘取器官和开展铲除法轮功运动时是否犯有群体灭绝罪和(或)危害人类罪。

Parts I-VI of this report cover the scale, on-demand nature, and sources of organs used in China’s transplant system, the role of the Chinese government and its authorized agencies in directing and perpetuating unethical organ procurement practices, and the mass extrajudicial killing of prisoners of conscience for organs in the context of the Chinese regime’s persecution of Falun Gong. Part VIII provides a legal analysis of whether the Chinese communist regime has committed genocide and/or crimes against humanity in its harvesting of organs from living prisoners of conscience and campaign to eradicate Falun Gong.

法轮功既不是第一个也不是最后一个受到中国共产党政权迫害的团体,但它是唯一一个被公开列为铲除目标的团体。已经积累了大量的证据,以便对迫害的发展、方法和结果进行详细的研究。反法轮功运动的规模、复杂性、残酷性和持久性,使其成为21世纪最可怕的人权灾难之一。

Falun Gong is neither the first nor the last group to be persecuted by the Chinese communist regime, but it is the only group that has been openly targeted for eradication. Ample evidence has been accumulated to allow for a detailed study with respect to the development, methods, and outcomes of the persecution. The scale, sophistication, cruelty and longevity of the campaign against Falun Gong make it one of the most hideous human rights disasters of the 21st century.

这场反法轮功运动的一个关键方面是,通过迫使法轮功学员放弃法轮功的教学——“真、善、忍”的普世价值——来“改造”法轮功学员。更广泛地说,共产党对所有信仰和人权捍卫者的迫害剥夺了其人民的基本信仰自由,剥夺了他们的基本人权。在中国,那些没有成为直接目标的人被迫参与对他人的迫害。由于党精心策划的虚假信息运动,隐瞒事实,以及政治和经济胁迫,中国以外的许多人被迫与政权合作,或者保持沉默。世界上还有更多的人尚未意识到这一罪行及其严重性,因此国际社会没有采取充分行动制止这些暴行。

One of the key aspects of the campaign against Falun Gong is the program to “transform” Falun Gong practitioners by forcing them to renounce Falun Gong’s teachings, the universal values of “Truthfulness, Compassion and Forbearance.” More broadly, the Communist Party’s persecution of all faiths and human rights defenders deprives its people of the fundamental freedom of belief and denies them basic human rights. Those in China who are not directly targeted are compelled to participate in the persecution of others. As a consequence of the Party’s sophisticated disinformation campaigns, concealment, and political and economic coercion, many outside of China have been pressured to cooperate with the regime or have remained silent. Many more in the world have not yet been made aware of this crime or its severity, and thus there is insufficient action from the international community to stop these atrocities.

提供这些调查结果和分析,以帮助世界了解中国器官摘除的性质、规模、严重性、驱动力,以及来自良心犯、对法轮功的迫害和其他宗教信仰的影响。本报告的主要目的是促进决策者努力制定立法,制定政策,并针对这些国家驱动的犯罪制定有效的战略和措施,以支持司法,并确保问责制。

COHRC provides these findings and analysis to help the world understand the nature, scale, severity, driving forces, and implications of China’s organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience as well as the persecution of Falun Gong and other faiths in China. This report is primarily intended to facilitate policymakers’ efforts to shape legislation, formulate policy and develop effective strategies and measures in response to these state-driven crimes, to support justice, and ensure accountability.

鉴于本报告中提出的事实,我们必须作出道德选择,这将在现在和未来产生深远的影响。

Given the facts presented in this report, we have moral choices to make that will be far-reaching in their impact both now and in the future.

中国器官摘取研究中心研究小组

COHRC Research Team

I. 自2000年以来将器官移植纳入国家战略

I. Inclusion of Organ Transplantation in National Strategy since 2000

2000年以来,中国政府在国家发展战略中将器官移植工业列为优先事项4 5,并不断将器官移植工业纳入多个部委的五年规划。因此,政府在移植技术的研究、开发和人员培训方面投入了大量资金,以满足这一快速增长的产业的需求。

Since 2000, the Chinese government has prioritized the organ transplantation industry in its national development strategy4 5 and continuously incorporated organ transplantation into its Five-Year Plans for multiple ministries. As such, the government has invested heavily in research, development, and personnel training in transplantation technology to meet the needs of this rapidly growing industry.

中国的五年计划是一系列社会和经济发展举措,是中国共产党通过中央委员会全体会议和全国代表大会制定的中国国家经济发展计划的一部分。6 7卫生部在2001年的第十个五年计划中提出了建立器官移植卫生条例的目标。82004年,器官移植技术9被列入国家卫生、科学和技术发展第十个五年计划的重点研究领域和关键技术,2008年被列入国家第十一个五年关键技术研究开发计划,102011年再次被列入国家第十二个五年关键技术研究开发计划。11 12

The Five-Year Plan of China is a series of social and economic development initiatives that are part of China's national plan for economic development shaped by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) through plenary sessions of the Central Committee and national congresses.6 7 The goal of establishing organ transplantation regulations was set forth in the Tenth Five-Year Plan for the Ministry of Health in 2001.8 In 2004, organ transplantation technology was added as a major research area and key technology in the Tenth Five-Year Plan for National Health, Science and Technology Development of the People’s Republic of China9 as well as in the Eleventh Five-Year National Key Technology Research and Development Program in 2008,10 and once again in the Twelfth Five-Year National Key Technology Research and Development Program in 2011.11 12

在卫生部、科学技术部、教育部以及中央政府其他部门建立的主要国家项目的资助下,已经开发了大量的器官移植项目。这些项目包括“973计划”13(国家重点基础研究项目计划)、“863计划”14(国家高技术研究与发展计划) ,以及由国家自然科学基金会资助的主要项目。15军队和地方政府也对国内的医疗机构进行了大量投资,以促进器官移植的基础研究和发展,并促进其工业化。

A large number of organ transplantation projects have been developed with funding from major national programs established by the ministries of health, science and technology, and education, as well as from other sources within the central government. These programs include the 973 Program13 (National Program on Key Basic Research Projects), the 863 Program14 (National High Technology Research and Development Program), as well as major programs funded by the National Natural Science Foundation.15 The military and local governments have also invested heavily in domestic medical institutions to facilitate basic research and development in organ transplantation and promote its industrialization.

经卫生部批准的几乎所有名牌大学医院以及军队和民用医科大学医院的器官移植中心都得到各级政府和军队的大量资助,用于新技术研究和开发、促进工业化和移植人员培训。16

Ministry-approved organ transplant centers at almost all prestigious university hospitals as well as military and civilian medical university hospitals receive significant funding from all levels of government and the military for new technology research and development, promotion of industrialization, and transplant personnel training.16

因此,中国的器官移植中心在器官移植的关键能力和技术上取得了突破,这使得器官移植行业在2000年以来的短短几年内成为世界上最多产的行业。这些倡议和发展发生在2010年中国第一个器官捐献项目试点之前。17近年来,中国已经从世界移植技术的“追随者”跃升为“领导者”。18

As a result, China’s transplant centers have made breakthroughs in key organ transplantation capabilities and technologies which have allowed the industry to become the most prolific in the world in just a few years since 2000. These initiatives and developments took place before China piloted its first organ donation program in 2010.17 China has leapt from “follower” to “leader” of worldwide transplantation technology in recent years.18

例如,2013年中山大学第一附属医院器官移植部门的存档网页显示,该部门在过去三年中参与了863计划和国家十二五关键技术研发计划下的50多个研究项目,以及国家自然科学基金会下的一个项目。19

For example, an archived web page of the organ transplant department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from 2013 showed that this department was engaged in over 50 research projects under the 863 Program and the Twelfth Five-Year National Key Technology Research and Development Program, as well as a project under the National Natural Science Foundation during the three previous years.19

截至2018年4月,器官移植中心的学术负责人何晓顺主持了30多个研究项目,总资金超过4000万元人民币。20从1996年到1998年,尽管他在这个领域工作了十多年,但他只获得了8万元人民币的资助。从2001年到2008年的七年间,他获得了85万元人民币的研究经费,增长了10倍。从2008年到2015年,他的团队获得了总计1200万元人民币的研究项目资助,在7年内增长了14倍。21他的团队在2016年至2020年期间获得了3300万人民币的研究经费,这几乎是2008年至2015年这7年研究经费的三倍。22这项投资使何的团队能够专注于关键技术研究,并在非缺血和多脏器移植领域取得突破。23

As of April 2018, He Xiaoshun, the academic leader of the transplant center, had presided over 30 research projects with total funding of more than 40 million RMB.20 From 1996 to 1998, he received only 80,000 RMB in funding despite having worked in this field for over ten years. In the seven years from 2001 to 2008, he received research funding of 850,000 RMB, a 10-fold increase. From 2008 to 2015, his team obtained research project grants totaling 12 million RMB, a 14-fold increase in 7 years.21 He’s team has also secured 33 million RMB in research funding for the period between 2016 and 2020, which is almost triple the funding for the 7 years between 2008 and 2015.22 This investment has enabled He's team to focus on key technology research and make breakthroughs in the areas of non-ischemic and multivisceral transplantation.23

在2010年10月庆祝其成立100周年之际,该医院表示,那里“有数万名患者接受了肝脏或肾脏移植”。24这家医院的研究经费数额和趋势也提供了一个透镜,通过它我们可以感觉到中国政府在器官移植产业发展方面投资的巨大。

In celebration of its 100th anniversary in October of 2010, the hospital stated that “tens of thousands of patients have received liver or kidney transplants” there.24 The amount and trend of research funding at this one hospital also provides a lens through which we can sense the enormity of investment by the Chinese government in the development of its organ transplant industry.

II. 中国器官移植手术的按需性质

II. On-Demand Nature of Transplants Performed in China

在中国,器官移植手术通常是根据需要进行的,等待时间很短;他们是提前安排的,使用的器官来自活体。虽然世界各地的器官移植手术都是在有捐献者的情况下进行的,但在中国,包括重要器官在内的器官可以根据需要提供。

Organ transplant operations in China are usually conducted on demand with short wait times; they are scheduled in advance and use organs taken from living sources. While organ transplants around the world are conducted only as donors become available, in China, organs, including vital organs, can be made available as needed.

1. 提前预定移植时间

1. Transplants Scheduled Ahead of Time

在中国,器官移植手术大多是提前安排的,从医院档案、媒体报道和其他资料中可以看到个人和机构账户。其中包括许多预定移植给外国患者的病例。

Transplant surgeries in China are mostly scheduled ahead of time, as seen in individual and institutional accounts reflected in hospital profiles, media reports, and other sources. These include many cases of pre-scheduled transplants provided to foreign patients.

2016年11月,澳大利亚参议员德林·欣奇(Derryn Hinch)告诉议会,他被告知自己只有12个月的生命,因此被鼓励前往中国进行器官移植:“墨尔本的一位资深商人告诉我,下周我可以去上海,花15万美元买一个新的肝脏。由此我推测,他们几乎会按顺序执行。多年来,一些知名人士购买器官进行移植。”25 26

In November 2016, Australian Senator Derryn Hinch told Parliament that he was encouraged to travel to China for an organ transplant after he was informed that he had only 12 months to live: “I was told by a senior businessman in Melbourne that I could go to Shanghai and for $150,000 get a new liver next week. I presume from that they would almost execute on order. Some well-known people have bought organs for transplant over the years.”25 26

另一个病例是一名以色列病人,他于2005年前往中国,预定在两周前进行心脏移植手术。27 282008年11月,一个名叫 Oscar Garay 的西班牙人前往中国的天津市第一中心医院医院接受了一个新的肝脏;他支付了13万欧元,并提前接受了预定的移植手术。292016年初,马来西亚政治家达图·莫邦拉汀来到中国接受肾移植手术。302016年8月,一名加拿大病人在访问中国期间只等了三天就接受了肾移植手术。31这些案件以及2017年秋季韩国记者的现场调查表明,中国的移植系统不仅可以保证捐赠者的死亡,还可以保证其死亡时间。(见证据1:预定手术32

Another case was that of an Israeli patient who traveled to China in 2005 for a heart transplant scheduled two weeks ahead of time.27 28 In November 2008, a Spaniard named Oscar Garay traveled to Tianjin First Central Hospital in China to receive a new liver; he paid 130,000 euros and received the transplant that was scheduled in advance.29 In early 2016, Malaysian politician Datuk Bung Moktar Radin traveled to China to receive a kidney transplant.30 In August 2016, a Canadian patient received a kidney transplant after waiting for only three days during his trip to China.31 These cases, as well as an on-site investigation by Korean journalists in the fall of 2017, suggest that the Chinese transplant system can guarantee not only a donor’s death but also the time of his/her death. (See Evidence 1: Pre-Scheduled Surgeries32)

除了预定的外科手术之外,医院档案、媒体报道和其他资料来源中的许多个人和机构账户显示,个别部门在24小时内同时进行了10个甚至20个肾移植手术。一个部门同时进行了5例肝脏移植和6例肾脏移植,另一个医院在一个下午同时进行了4例心脏移植。33

In addition to pre-scheduled surgeries, many individual and institutional accounts in hospital profiles, media reports, and other sources show individual departments conducting multiple transplants simultaneously with more than 10 or even 20 kidney transplants within 24-hour periods. One department conducted 5 liver transplants and 6 kidney transplants simultaneously, and another hospital carried out 4 heart transplants simultaneously in one afternoon.33

如果由于不匹配或排斥反应而需要备用器官,医生可以为病人快速连续获得多个器官。一个病人接受来自不同器官捐献者的同一器官的多次移植并不罕见。34

Doctors can procure multiple organs for a patient in quick succession in case a spare is needed due to mismatch or rejection. It is not uncommon for a patient to receive multiple transplants of the same organ that have come from different donors.34

一家医院声称有“捐赠者寻找匹配的接受者” ,并在其网站上保证,“(我们)将继续进行移植手术,直到手术成功,如果手术失败,将不再收费。”35(见证据2:随需移植36

One hospital claimed to have “donors seeking matched recipients” and guaranteed on its website, “[we] will continue to perform transplants until one is successful and will not charge for the repeat surgeries in case of failure.”35 (See Evidence 2: On-Demand Transplants36)

所有这些程序不仅需要事先规划,而且还需要一个全国性的器官采购网络基础设施。

All such procedures would have required not only advance planning but also a nationwide infrastructure of organ procurement networks.

2. 从活人身上取得的器官

2. Organs Taken from Living Sources

重要器官移植的一项核心伦理原则是”死亡捐赠者规则” ,其中规定器官捐赠者在获得器官之前必须死亡,而获得器官本身不得导致捐赠者死亡。然而,有证据表明,在中国,一些器官是从在这个过程中被杀害的活人身上切除的。(见证据3:活体器官来源37

A core ethical principle in transplantation of vital organs is the “dead donor rule,” which stipulates that organ donors must be dead prior to procurement and that the procurement itself must not cause the death of the donor. However, evidence shows that some organs were excised in China from living people who were killed in the process. (See Evidence 3: Living Organ Sources37)

中国国际移植网络援助中心(CITNAC)在其网站上表示,2004年38至2007年,39“在中国,我们进行活体供肾移植。这与你在日本医院和透析中心听到的尸体肾脏移植完全不同。” 40这是在中国没有器官捐献制度的时候说的。截至2005年底,活体捐献仅占所有肾移植的1.5% 左右,411995年至2005年间,中国共有73例活体肝移植。42

The China International Transplantation Network Assistance Center (CITNAC) stated on its website between 200438 and 2007,39 “In China, we carry out living donor kidney transplants. It is completely different from the cadaveric kidney transplants you hear about in Japanese hospitals and dialysis centers.”40 This was said when China had no organ donation system. At the end of 2005, living donations accounted for only about 1.5% of all kidney transplants41 and there was a total of just 73 living-donor liver transplants in China between 1995 and 2005.42

在此期间,中国的外科医生开发了热缺血时间在五分钟以下的肝脏取出术,这已经成为行业标准。中国发表的医学论文也引用了0到10分钟的热缺血时间,声称这些器官来自脑死亡的捐赠者、尸体、心脏停止跳动的尸体或健康的年轻尸体。43

In this time period, Chinese surgeons developed liver extraction procedures with warm ischemia times (WITs) of under five minutes, which has since become an industry standard. Medical papers published in China also cited WITs between 0 and 10 minutes, claiming that the organs were sourced from brain-dead donors, cadavers, non-heart-beating cadavers, or healthy young cadavers.43

这些热缺血时间意味着器官在经过冷灌注冷却前几分钟仍然与供血者的血液相连。44

These WITs mean that the organ was still connected to the donor’s blood supply just minutes before it was cooled with cold perfusion.44

一种可能的情况是捐献者已经脑死亡。然而,当时中国还没有采用确定脑死亡的标准,也没有器官捐献系统,因此脑死亡捐献者是一个微不足道的来源。从全国范围来看,在2001年到2010年7月间,脑死亡后成功捐赠的不到70例。45此外,在中国的医学文献中,很大一部分器官移植被列为来自“脑死亡捐赠者” ,而器官获取程序的描述则另有说明。在一个已发表的案例中,一名“捐献者”被宣布脑死亡,既没有确定脑死亡,也没有达到心脏死亡的标准;“脑死亡捐献者”实际上是一个活人。46这不是一个孤立的案例,因为其他医学期刊也记录了类似的做法。

One possible scenario is that the donor was brain-dead. At that time, however, China had not yet adopted standards for determining brain death and did not have an organ donation system, making brain-dead donors a negligible source. Nationwide, there were fewer than 70 successful donations after brain death between 2001 and July 2010.45 Furthermore, in Chinese medical papers, a large portion of transplant organs were listed as coming from “brain-dead donors” while the descriptions of organ procurement procedures indicated otherwise. In one published case, a “donor” was declared brain-dead with neither a determination of brain death nor meeting the criteria for cardiac death; the “brain-dead donor” was, in fact, a living human being.46 This is not an isolated case as other medical journals have also recorded similar practices.

对于尸体(唯一的另一种情况) ,只有在器官准备好后,当血液供应停止时,立即进行冷灌注,才可能实现0分钟的热缺血时间。造成血流停止的原因可能是:(1)捐赠者的心跳正好在那一刻停止;(2)医生停止了心跳;(3)在心脏继续跳动的同时,医生钳住了通往器官的供血动脉。上述任何一种可能性都意味着在心脏还在跳动的时候就已经开始了器官获取,这是一种需要时间来打开体腔和准备器官的外科手术。换言之,只有通过器官获取过程从活人身上获得器官,才能获得0分钟的热缺血时间。

With cadavers (the only other scenario), 0-minute WITs would be possible only if the organs were prepared such that cold perfusion could be performed immediately as the blood supply ceases. The stoppage of blood flow could be caused by (1) the donor’s heartbeat stopping at exactly that moment, (2) the heartbeat being stopped by doctors, or (3) the supply artery to the organ being clamped by doctors while the heart continues beating. Any of the above possibilities would mean that organ procurement, a surgical procedure requiring time to open body cavities and prepare organs, had already been started while the heart was still beating. In other words, WITs of 0 minutes could only be obtained if organs were procured from living people who became cadavers only as a result of the organ procurement process.

同时也开发了快速提取腹部器官的技术,通过同时切除周围器官,进一步减少器官损伤和智能障碍。Citnac 于2004年表示:“本科采用快速联合腹部器官切除技术,切除肝脏,缩短热缺血时间,降低器官排斥率,促进移植物功能的恢复。”47 这种方法在中国许多医院得到了广泛的应用。

Techniques were also developed for the rapid extraction of abdominal organs by excising surrounding organs simultaneously, further reducing both organ damage and WITs. CITNAC stated in 2004, “Our department has adopted a quick combined abdominal organ-cutting technique to cut the liver, shorten the time of warm ischemia, reduce the rate of organ rejection, and facilitate the recovery of graft function.”47 This procedure is widely used in many hospitals throughout China.

其他一些创新技术已经开发出来,可以在移植的最佳条件下提取器官。2012年在美国领事馆寻求庇护的知名执法官员王立军,因为开发了一种新的保护性解决方案而获奖,该方案大幅提高了注射死刑后摘取的器官移植成功率。这种方法是以成千上万的活体实验为基础的。48

Other innovations have been developed to extract organs in the best possible condition for transplants. Wang Lijun, a high-profile law enforcement official who sought asylum at an American consulate in 2012, won an award for developing a new protective solution that substantially increased transplant success rate with organs extracted after lethal injections. This method was predicated on thousands of experiments on living bodies.48

3. 等候时间短

3. Short Waiting Times

中国的医院通常报价器官移植的等待时间在天到周之间,包括在失败的情况下再次移植的等待时间。早在2010年中国还没有器官捐献制度之前,49情况就是如此。2015年中国宣布向自愿捐献过渡之后,情况依然如此。2015年之前,中国宣布向自愿捐献过渡,这一来源比死刑执行更少,也更容易获得。50 51

Hospitals in China normally quote wait times for organ transplants between days and weeks, including for re-transplants in case of failure. This was the case even before 2010, when China had no organ donation system,49 and continued after 2015 when China announced its transition to voluntary donations, a source less abundant and readily available than death-row executions, the main source cited before 2015.50 51

中国肝脏移植登记处在2006年报告,超过25% 的病例是急诊移植,在几天甚至几小时内就能找到器官。52

The China Liver Transplant Registry reported in 2006 that more than 25% of cases were emergency transplants, for which organs were found within days or even hours.52

2017年10月,韩国主要电视台朝鲜电视台(TV Chosun)的调查记者进行了一次现场调查,并录制了隐藏的摄像机镜头,其中一名护士引用了器官等待时间,从几天到几周不等。他们还记录了医务人员从病人那里索取货币“捐赠”以换取更快安排移植手术的过程。53

Investigative journalists from TV Chosun, a major South Korean TV station, conducted an on-site investigation in October 2017 and recorded hidden camera footage in which a nurse quoted wait times for organs ranging from days to weeks. They also documented that medical staff solicited monetary “donations” from patients in exchange for scheduling transplants even more quickly.53

中国也报告了许多等待时间在0到1天之间的案例(见证据4:短等待时间54)。例如:

China also reported many cases of wait times of between 0 and 1 days (see Evidence 4: Short Wait Times54). For example:

III. 中国移植系统的规模

III. Scale of China’s Transplant System

2000年以后,尽管缺乏自愿的器官捐献系统,中国在短短几年内进行的器官移植比世界上任何其他国家都多。58 59

After the year 2000, China came to perform more transplants than any other country in the world in just a few years despite the lack of a voluntary organ donation system.58 59

在2006年强迫囚犯接受移植器官摘除的指控引起了国际社会的关注之后,卫生部建立了一个新的批准制度,要求医院在2007年7月之后获得卫生部的许可才能继续进行移植手术。在申请的1000多家医院中,有164家获得了许可。这种变化造成了一种错误的印象,即2007年7月以后移植量减少了。然而,在政府的全力支持下,由卫生部批准的大型医疗机构大幅扩张,增加了更多的床位和新的病房、侧楼和建筑物。60

After allegations of forced organ harvesting from prisoners attracted international scrutiny in 2006, the Ministry of Health established a new approval system that required hospitals to obtain permits from the Ministry to continue performing transplants after July 2007. Of the more than 1,000 hospitals that applied, 164 were given permits. This change created a false impression that transplant volume decreased after July 2007. However, the large Ministry-approved institutions expanded significantly with full government support by adding more beds and new wards, wings and buildings.60

根据政府对移植中心实施的最低移植床要求(15张床专门用于移植肝脏移植,20张床专门用于移植肾移植) ,由卫生部批准的164家移植医院将有能力每年进行超过7万例移植手术。然而,大多数被批准的医院都超过了政府规定的最低床位数。有些医院有数百张专门用于器官移植的床位,床位利用率在100% 到200% 之间。此外,许多没有得到许可的中心在2007年后继续进行移植手术。因此,中国每年进行的器官移植手术的实际数量很可能远远高于最低系统容量的70,000例,也比官方引用的每年10,000到15,000例的数字高出一个数量级。61

Based on government-imposed minimum transplant bed requirements for transplant centers (15 beds dedicated to liver transplantation and 20 beds dedicated to kidney transplantation), the 164 Ministry-approved transplant hospitals would have the capacity to conduct more than 70,000 transplants per year. However, most of the approved hospitals exceed the government-stipulated minimum bed counts. Some have hundreds of beds dedicated to organ transplantation with bed utilization rates between 100% and 200%. In addition, many centers that did not receive permits continued to perform transplants after 2007. The actual number of transplants performed yearly in China is therefore likely to be much higher than the minimum system capacity of 70,000 and an order of magnitude greater than the officially cited figures of between 10,000 to 15,000 transplants per year.61

事实上,中国只要少数几家医院就超过了这一官方数字。例如,天津的东方器官移植中心2006年开业,拥有500个床位。在增加床位之前,其床位利用率在2009年达到90% ,在2013年达到131% 。即使有500张床位,100% 的利用率,平均住院时间为3至4周,它的移植量也可以达到每年6,000至8,000个。622017年10月26日至28日,朝鲜电视台的调查记者参观了这个移植中心,他们观察了24小时使用的手术室。在记者访问的前一天,仅国际部就进行了3例肾脏移植(包括一例胰肾联合移植)和4例肝脏移植。该中心除了拥有自己的设施外,还将外国病人安置在附近的一家酒店,其中包括三个专门的国际移植病房。这些发现表明,该中心每年继续进行数千例移植手术。63

In fact, this official figure is surpassed by just a handful of hospitals in China. For instance, the Oriental Organ Transplant Center in Tianjin opened in 2006 with 500 beds. Its bed utilization reached 90% in 2009 and 131% in 2013 before more beds were added. Even with 500 beds, a 100% utilization rate, and an average hospitalization time of 3 to 4 weeks, its transplant volume could have reached 6,000 to 8,000 per year.62 On October 26-28, 2017, Korean investigative journalists from TV Chosun visited this transplant center, where they observed operating rooms in use around the clock. The day before the journalists' visit, the international department alone performed 3 kidney transplants (including one combined kidney-pancreas transplant) and 4 liver transplants. The center also housed foreign patients in a nearby hotel in addition to its own facilities, which includes three dedicated international transplant wards. These findings suggest that the center continues to perform thousands of transplants per year.63

IV. 器官来源

IV. Sources of Organs

作为对2006年以来国际社会批评的回应,中国官员声称,几乎所有的器官移植都来自死囚,后来又来自自愿捐赠。我们的分析表明,这些来源不可能提供足够的器官来满足移植手术的数量。

In response to international criticism since 2006, Chinese officials claimed that almost all transplant organs came from death-row prisoners and, later, from voluntary donations. Our analysis shows that these sources could not have provided enough organs to supply the number of transplants performed.

1. 死刑执行人数及其下降趋势

1. Number and Declining Trend of Death-Row Executions

国际组织估计,自2000年以来,中国每年执行死刑的人数已达数千人。然而,死刑执行率正在下降,64 65 66部分原因是最高人民法院于2007年1月开始了新的审查程序。在最高法院复审的第一年,死刑犯人数减少了30% ;2008年处决人数也减少到5000人。67

International organizations estimate that death-row executions in China have numbered in the thousands each year since 2000. However, the rate of executions is in decline,64 65 66 partially due to a new review process by the Supreme People’s Court that began in January 2007. In the first year of Supreme Court review, the number of death-row sentences decreased by 30%; executions also decreased to 5,000 in 2008.67

2013年,国家器官捐赠和移植委员会主席、前卫生部副部长黄洁夫证实了这一趋势,他证实,十多年来,死刑犯每年减少10% ,实际上死刑犯很少。68

In 2013, Huang Jiefu, Chairman of the National Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee and former Deputy Minister of Health, corroborated this trend by confirming that death-row executions had decreased by 10% each year for more than a decade and that there were, in fact, very few death-row prisoners.68

此外,黄在2016年表示,“依赖死囚器官的器官移植已经变成了‘一条没有源头的溪流’。对于中国的器官移植行业来说,从死囚区器官到公民捐赠的转变是一个生死攸关的问题。”69

Additionally, Huang stated in 2016, “Transplants that rely on death-row organs had become ‘a stream without a source.’ The transition from death-row organs to citizen donations is a matter of life and death for China’s transplant industry.” 69

2. 捐款数目70

2. Number of Donations70

中国直到2010年3月才有了器官捐献系统,当时中国首次在19个省市试行了器官捐献计划。71尽管在最初的两年里只收到了207份捐赠,72但随着2013年8月中国器官移植响应系统(COTRS)国家器官分配系统的公布,该项目已经扩展到全国范围。73

China did not have an organ donation system until March 2010, when it first piloted a program in 19 provinces and cities. 71 Despite receiving only 207 donations in its first two years,72 the program was expanded nationwide with the announcement of a national organ allocation system, the China Organ Transplant Response System (COTRS), in August 2013.73

2013年9月,中国政府公布的数据显示,用于器官移植手术的器官中,有23% 来自自愿捐赠;742014年,政府公布的器官移植数据显示,80% 的器官来自自愿捐赠,752015年1月,中国完全停止使用死刑犯的器官。76但捐献数字的这一跃升似乎是在事后策划的,目的是为了弥合与中国所谓的器官采购道德“新时代”之间的差距。

Chinese government figures stated in September 2013 that 23% of organs used for transplant surgeries came from voluntary donations;74 in 2014, they stated that 80% of transplant organs came from voluntary donations75 and that China stopped using death-row organs completely in January 2015.76 But this jump in donation figures appears to have been contrived after the fact to bridge the gap to China's supposed “new era” of ethical organ procurement.

根据美国登记捐赠者与实际捐赠者的比例,77截至2017年底,中国大力宣传了373,536名登记捐赠者,78但实际捐赠者不到29人。从未登记的捐赠者(主要来自重症监护病房)采购的器官不可能是所建议的主要器官来源,因为每个区域报告的捐赠总额(包括登记和未登记的捐赠者)远远低于政府每年15000例移植的官方统计数字。79

Based on the proportion of registered donors to actual donors in the United States,77 China’s heavily publicized 373,536 registered donors as of the end of 201778 would have yielded less than 29 actual organ donors. Organs procured from non-registered donors (mainly from intensive care units) could not be the main organ sources as suggested, as the sum of reported donations in each region (including both registered and non-registered donors) was far lower than even the official government statistics of 15,000 transplants each year.79

造成我国器官自愿捐献不足的几个因素。80其中包括长期存在的文化禁令和器官捐献的障碍,缺乏关于脑死亡的立法,没有足够的法律框架来保障道德捐献,以及公众对医疗系统缺乏信任。

Several factors contribute to the insufficiency of voluntary organ donations in China.80 These include longstanding cultural prohibitions and impediments to organ donation, a lack of legislation for brain death, an insufficient legal framework to guarantee ethical donations, and a lack of public trust in the medical system.

3. 捐赠与分配制度的实施程度

3. Extent of Implementation of the Donation and Allocation System

2015年底,黄洁夫表示,由他担任主席的国家器官捐赠与移植委员会“名存实亡” 。812017年,黄进一步透露,中国只有一个人监督器官捐赠和移植,而美国只有1500人。82没有一个机构对器官捐献、获取和移植的日常过程提供监督或执行。

At the end of 2015, Huang Jiefu said that the National Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee he chaired “exists in name only.”81 In 2017, Huang revealed further that China had only one person overseeing organ donation and transplantation, compared to 1,500 in the United States.82 No agency provides oversight or enforcement for the day-to-day process of organ donation, procurement, and transplantation.

虽然 COTRS 旨在管理该国所有捐助者和受援者,83但截至2017年3月,官方网站上仅登记了31000名潜在受援者。84截至2017年6月的一项电话调查显示,85中国大多数移植医院无法使用 COTRS 系统。

While COTRS is designed to manage all donors and recipients in the country,83 only 31,000 potential recipients had been registered on the official website as of March 2017.84 A phone survey ending in June 2017 showed that most transplant hospitals in China could not access COTRS.85 It thus follows that most transplant organs are highly unlikely to have come from COTRS.

此外,中国还没有颁布有关器官来源、捐赠、采购、分配和移植的基本法律,其器官移植规定中存在非法器官来源的漏洞。其行政政策和条例受到特殊利益集团的严重影响,不在医疗系统中执行,这些条例也不能控制参与移植的军事、司法和其他实体。86

In addition, China has not enacted fundamental laws governing organ sourcing, donation, procurement, allocation, and transplantation; its transplant regulations embed loopholes for illicit organ sourcing. Its administrative policies and regulations are heavily influenced by special interest groups and are not enforced in the medical system, nor can these regulations control the military, judiciary, and other entities that participate in transplantation.86

中国的器官采购组织(OPOs)建立在政府批准的器官移植中心内。87黄洁夫承认,“器官资源——所有的受赠者和捐赠者,整个器官捐赠和移植链——都在医院。”88 他们在没有监督的情况下进行手术,包括参与不道德的器官获取的同一批外科医生。89

China’s Organ Procurement Organizations (OPOs) are established inside ministry-approved transplant centers.87 Huang Jiefu has acknowledged, “organ resources—all recipients and donors, the entire chain of organ donation and transplantation–are in the hospitals.”88 They operate without oversight and include the same surgeons who have been involved in unethical organ procurement.89

黄洁夫在2017年表示,70% 的器官来自脑死亡捐献者,其他器官主要来自脑死亡后的捐献,其次是循环死亡(DBCD)。90然而,到2014年底,中国90% 的医生还不知道脑死亡的标准程序。912017年的情况依然如此。92这一矛盾表明中国普遍存在滥用脑死亡决定论的现象。

Huang Jiefu said in 2017 that 70% of organs came from brain-dead donors and that the others were mainly from donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (DBCD).90 However, 90% of doctors in China were unaware of a standard procedure to determine brain death as of late 2014. 91 This remained the case in 2017. 92 This contradiction suggests widespread abuse of brain death determination in China.

死刑犯(从2015年开始被重新归类为自愿公民捐献者93 94)和自愿捐献加在一起,只占中国所有器官移植手术的一小部分。因此,大多数器官必须来自其他来源。

Death-row prisoners (who were re-categorized as voluntary citizen donors starting in 201593 94) and voluntary donations combined can account for only a small fraction of all transplants performed in China. Thus, most of the organs must be coming from another source.

4. 中国政府在器官采购中的主导作用

4. Leading Role of the Chinese Government in Organ Procurement

黄洁夫在2015年接受央视采访时说,中国在短短几年内就建立起了自己的器官捐赠和移植框架,而在其他国家这个过程需要几十年的时间。95 96他在2017年进一步指出,中国模式与西方模式的区别在于,中国是唯一一个中央政府在发展器官捐赠和移植方面发挥主导作用的国家。”97

Huang Jiefu said in a CCTV interview in 2015 that China built up its organ donation and transplant framework in only a few years, whereas in other countries this process required decades.95 96 He further stated in 2017 that the difference between the Chinese model and that of the West is that China is the only country where a central government plays a leading role in developing organ donations and transplants.”97

器官移植协会前主席南希·阿舍尔也将强有力的政府参与列为“中国模式”中最重要的因素之一。98

Nancy Ascher, former president of The Transplantation Society, also named strong government engagement as one of the most important factors in the “Chinese mode.”98

根据2004年中国国际移植网络援助中心(CITNAC)的网站,该中心主要关注外国患者,将其成就归功于政府的支持。99

According to its website in 2004, the China International Transplantation Network Assistance Center (CITNAC), which focused primarily on foreign patients, attributed its achievements to government support.99

“为了能够每年完成如此大量的器官移植手术,我们需要对政府给予的支持表示感谢。特别是,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部、卫生部、民政部联合颁布法律,规定机关采购得到政府的支持和保护。这是世界上独一无二的。”

“To be able to complete such a large number of organ transplant surgeries every year, we need to give all of our thanks to the support given by the government. In particular, the Supreme People's Court, Supreme People's Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Civil Affairs have jointly promulgated laws to establish that organ procurement receives government support and protection. This is one of a kind in the world.”

5. 利用囚犯作为资源的历史

5. History of the Use of Prisoners as Resources

中国有记载的第一起利用囚犯进行医疗的案件发生在1940年,当时三名“反革命分子”奉共产党官员康生的命令被杀,目的是制作解剖用的尸体。1001962年以来的文件显示,中国共产党中央军事委员会制定了一项政策,即所有死刑犯和重罪犯都可以按照国家和社会主义发展的需要来对待,并可以按照“革命议定书”101来处理,根据这项议定书,国家的敌人被剥夺一切权利,被用作国家资源。这项政策至今仍然有效。

China’s first recorded case of using prisoners for medical purposes was in 1940, when three “counterrevolutionaries” were killed on orders of Communist Party official Kang Sheng in order to produce cadavers for dissection.100 Documents dating from 1962 show that the Chinese Communist Party’s Central Military Commission initiated a policy, still in place today, that all death row prisoners and serious offenders may be treated according to the needs of national and socialist development and can be dealt with according to “revolutionary protocol,”101 under which enemies of the state are deprived of all rights and utilized as state resources.

中国在20世纪60年代器官移植开始进行实验。1021978年,中国的一名政治犯在行刑过程中首次出现了器官摘除的记录。1031984年,多个政府机构和部委联合颁布了一项条例,允许国家在某些条件下随意使用囚犯的身体和器官。104中国后来在90年代开始使用来自良心犯和包括维吾尔族在内的少数民族的器官。105

China began to conduct experiments in organ transplantation in the 1960s.102 The first recorded instance of organ harvesting from a Chinese political prisoner during execution was in 1978.103 In 1984, multiple government bodies and ministries jointly promulgated a regulation allowing the bodies and organs of prisoners to be used at will by the State under certain conditions.104 China later started using organs from prisoners of conscience and minorities, including Uyghurs, in the 1990s.105

直到2000年,中国政府开始在国家战略中优先考虑器官移植,在研究、开发、工业化和人员培训方面投入大量资金,这个行业才有了重大发展。中国移植中心的数量从1999106年前的150个增加到2004107年底的570个,2007年超过1000个。108 109 2000年,进行肝脏移植的人数是1999年的10倍;到2005年,这一数字进一步增加为三倍。110在没有自愿捐献系统支持的情况下,器官移植数量呈指数级增长,这恰好与中国共产党铲除法轮功的运动相吻合。111

There was no major development in this industry until 2000 when the Chinese government started prioritizing organ transplantation in its national strategy with significant investment in research, development, industrialization, and personnel training. The number of transplant centers in China grew from 150 before 1999106 to 570 by the end of 2004107 and more than 1,000 in 2007.108 109 In the year 2000, the number of liver transplants performed reached ten times the number performed in 1999; by 2005, the number had tripled further.110 This exponential rise of organ transplants, without support of a voluntary donation system, coincides exactly with the Chinese Communist Party's campaign to eradicate Falun Gong.111

V. 铲除法轮功运动

V. Campaign to Eradicate Falun Gong

1. 关于法轮功

1. About Falun Gong

法轮功是一种佛家冥想系统,于1992年由中国气功大师李洪志推出。修炼法轮功需要精神和身体两方面的因素。112虽然“宽容”也可以翻译成“忍耐” ,其中包含了基督教理想的各个方面,即“打另一边的脸” ,但是“真、善、忍”的指导原则代表了精神层面的本质。

Falun Gong is a Buddhist meditation system that was brought to the public in 1992 by Li Hongzhi, a Chinese chi gong master. The practice of Falun Gong entails both spiritual and physical components. The essence of the spiritual component is represented by the guiding principles of “Truthfulness, Compassion, and Tolerance,”112 although “Tolerance” may also be translated as “Forbearance,” which contains aspects of the Christian ideal “turn the other cheek.”

法轮功的身体组成部分包括五套温和的气功炼功,外观类似太极,已被证明可以改善健康和福祉。113有记录在案的案例表明,这种做法有助于治疗从抑郁症到晚期癌症的一系列疾病。114 115 116

The physical component of Falun Gong comprises five gentle chi gong exercises, similar in appearance to Tai Chi, that have been shown to improve both health and well-being.113 There are documented cases where the practice was instrumental in curing a wide range of ailments from depression to terminal cancer.114 115 116

法轮功既不遵守宗教仪式,也没有成员结构,其课程和活动对公众开放,并且是免费的。据中国政府估计,到1999年,已经有超过7000万人定期修炼。117

Falun Gong neither adheres to religious formalities nor has a membership structure, and its classes and activities are open to the public and free of charge. It thus spread like wildfire throughout China, and according to Chinese government estimates, by 1999 there were over 70 million people practicing it on a regular basis.117

中国政府严格控制着中国的所有宗教和精神传统。起初,中国政府认为法轮功只是一种炼功,但在1996年,中国政府开始警惕法轮功的精神层面,并开始在媒体上诋毁法轮功。118由于法轮功的道德基础、对神圣的敬畏以及修炼的精神和肉体利益,法轮功学员并没有被政府的批评所吓倒。

The Chinese government controls all religions and spiritual traditions in China with a very tight rein. It initially viewed Falun Gong as only a form of exercise but, in 1996, the Party became wary of its spiritual aspects and began a media campaign to discredit the practice.118 Due to the moral underpinnings of Falun Gong, its reverence for the divine, and the spiritual and physical benefits of the practice, Falun Gong practitioners were undeterred by government criticism.

法轮功受欢迎程度和有神论教义的激增,以及法轮功信徒拒绝放弃法轮功的做法,导致党将法轮功视为对其意识形态控制的严重威胁。1999年7月20日,中国共产党在没有法律依据的情况下宣布禁止法轮功,并动员国家大量资源铲除法轮功,开始了历史上最残酷的侵犯人权行为之一。

Falun Gong’s surging popularity and theistic teachings, as well as the refusal of Falun Gong adherents to renounce the practice, led the Party to deem Falun Gong a serious threat to its ideological control. On July 20, 1999, the Communist Party, without legal basis, announced a ban on Falun Gong and mobilized the state’s massive resources to eradicate it, beginning one of the most brutal human rights abuses in history.

(见附录 I 中的证词和个人陈述)

(See Testimonies and Personal Accounts in Appendix I)

2. 创建了“610办公室” ,这是铲除运动的神经中枢

2. Creation of the “610 Office,” the Nerve Center of the Eradication Campaign

1999年6月7日,江泽民在政治局会议上发表讲话,宣布中共中央已经同意成立“中央处理法轮功问题领导小组” 119李岚清被任命为小组主席,罗干和丁光恩为副主席。成员单位包括最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、国家安全部、中央宣传部、外交部等中央机构。江要求“中共所有中央部门,所有部委,所有省份,所有城市必须与这个团体密切合作。” “610办事处”是在这个中央领导小组下设立的一个特设机构,并以其成立日期(一九九九年六月十日)命名。120 121 122在接下来的几个月里,每个党委梯队,直至地方一级,都成立了自己的”处理法轮功问题领导小组”和610办公室。123

Jiang Zemin made a speech at a Politburo Meeting on June 7, 1999 and declared that the CCP Central Committee had agreed to establish a “Central Leading Group for Handling the Falun Gong Issue.”119 Li Lanqing was appointed chair of the group, with Luo Gan and Ding Guangen as vice chairs. Member units included the Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of State Security, Central Propaganda Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and other central agencies. Jiang required that “all CCP central departments, all ministries, all provinces, and all cities must cooperate with this group closely.” The “610 Office” was created as an ad hoc agency under this central leading group and named after the date of its founding, June 10, 1999.120 121 122 Over the next few months, each echelon of party committees, down to the local level, established their own “leading groups for handling the Falun Gong issue” and 610 Offices.123

2003年,中央处理法轮功问题领导小组办公室(610办公室)改名为“国务院预防和处理邪教问题办公室”。这个机构被列为中共中央委员会的直接下属机构。处理法轮功问题中央领导小组也改名为”预防和处理邪教问题中央领导小组” 124。预防和处理邪教问题办公室各级与该党的政治和法律事务委员会共用同一个办公室。这种结构允许党直接操作国家机器和控制政府的工作。从那时起,610办公室已经扩大和加强成为一个庞大的系统,从上到下遍及全中国的党、政府、军队、企业、单位、学校和社区。125它被赋予了非常广泛和超越法律的权力,以系统地铲除法轮功。后来,它把镇压法轮功的任务扩大到镇压其他不遵循共产党指示的宗教团体和气功组织。

In 2003, the Office of the Central Leading Group for Handling the Falun Gong Issue (the 610 Office) was given a second name, the “State Council Office for the Prevention and Handling of Cult-Related Issues.” This agency is listed as a direct subordinate of the CCP Central Committee. The Central Leading Group for Handling the Falun Gong Issue was also renamed to the “Central Leading Group for the Prevention and Handling of Cult-Related Issues.”124 All levels of the Office of the Prevention and Handling of Cult-Related Issues share the same offices as the Party’s Political and Legal Affairs Committee. This configuration allowed the Party to directly operate the state machinery and control the work of the government. The 610 Office has since been expanded and strengthened into a gigantic system extending from top to bottom throughout the Party, government, military, enterprises, units, schools, and communities all over China.125 It was endowed with extraordinarily broad and extralegal power to systematically eradicate Falun Gong. It later broadened its mandate from suppression of Falun Gong to include suppression of additional religious groups and qigong organizations that did not follow the Communist Party’s direction.

610办公室的运作是保密的。无论是中共中央委员会还是国务院,都没有在公开的组织结构图或新闻发布中承认该机构的存在。126然而,它偶尔出现在一些报道和地方政府网站上。预防和处理邪教相关问题中央领导小组于2013年12月首次公布,但该报告后来从网站上删除。127官员们也避免承认该机构的存在。例如,在2001年2月27日国务院新闻办公室举行的记者招待会上,国务院防范和处理邪教问题办公室办公厅主任刘静曾回避回答记者关于610办公室的问题。128

The operations of the 610 Office are secret. Neither the CCP Central Committee nor the State Council acknowledged the existence of the agency in either public organizational charts or news releases.126 However, it has occasionally appeared in some reports and regional government websites. The Central Leading Group for the Prevention and Handling of Cult-Related Issues was first revealed in December 2013, but the report was later removed from the website.127 Officials have also avoided acknowledging the agency’s existence. For example, the head of the central 610 Office, Liu Jing, once avoided answering a question from a reporter regarding the 610 Office at a press conference hosted by the State Council Information Office on February 27, 2001.128

610办公室发布的命令是机密文件,有些只是口头通报。例如,湖北省随州市经济贸易委员会收到的204份重要文件中,唯一一份被列为绝密的文件来自省610办公室。129

Orders issued by the 610 Office are classified documents, with some communicated only verbally. For example, among the 204 important documents received by the Suizhou Economic and Trade Commission in Hubei Province, the only one classified as top secret came from the provincial 610 Office.129

3. 展开非法宣传运动

3. Launch of the Illegal Campaign

610办公室成立40天后,中共中央和中国政府发布了镇压法轮功的公告。1999年7月20日前后发布的几份文件标志着官方对法轮功的镇压。130

Forty days after the 610 Office was formed, the CCP Central Committee and the Government of China issued public notices to suppress Falun Gong. The official suppression of Falun Gong was marked by several documents issued around July 20, 1999.130

虽然通知声称法轮功学员受到“特殊对待” ,因为“法轮功是一个非法组织” ,但法轮功是一种信仰,而不是一个组织。中国宪法保障信仰自由,中国没有法律规定修炼法轮功是非法的。135

Although the notices claimed that Falun Gong practitioners are “specially treated” because “Falun Gong is an illegal organization,” Falun Gong is a belief rather than an organization. The Chinese constitution guarantees the freedom of belief, and there exists no law in China stating that the practice of Falun Gong is illegal.135

相反,610办公室既没有经过全国人民代表大会批准,也没有经过国务院批准,上述党的文件只适用于党员,对整个社会没有法律约束力。内政部通知也没有立法或司法权力来决定一个组织或团体的合法性。610办公室、上述通知和对法轮功的迫害的设立均违反了《中华人民共和国宪法》第36条(宗教信仰自由)、第5条(宪法至上)和第89条(国务院列举的权力)。136

On the contrary, the 610 Office of the Central Committee has been approved by neither the National People's Congress (NPC) nor the State Council; the above Party document is applicable only to Party members and not legally binding for society at large. Ministry notices also have no legislative or judicial power to decide the legality of an organization or a group. The establishment of the 610 Office, the above notices, and the persecution of Falun Gong all contravene the Constitution of the People's Republic of China in violation of article 36 (freedom of religious belief), article 5 (constitutional supremacy), and article 89 (enumerated powers of the State Council).136

1999年10月30日,全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准了《关于取缔邪教组织、防范和惩治邪教活动的决定》137 这经常被引用作为这场运动的基础。然而,它违反了宪法第36条,使其无效。尽管中国当局通常会利用这一规定和其他反邪教规定,为针对法轮功学员的行为辩护,但从法律角度来看,这些规定本身并未提及法轮功。2011年3月1日,新闻出版总署发布决定,废除对法轮功出版物的禁令,以促进法治。138

In addition to the above documents issued in the early days of the persecution, on October 30, 1999 the National People's Congress Standing Committee ratified a “Decision to Ban, Safeguard Against, and Punish Cult Activities.”137 This is often cited as the basis of the campaign. However, it contravenes article 36 of the Constitution, rendering it invalid. Although the Chinese authorities typically use this and other anti-cult regulations to justify targeting Falun Gong practitioners, from a legal standpoint, the regulations themselves do not mention Falun Gong. On March 1, 2011, the General Administration of Press and Publication issued a decision to abolish the prohibition of Falun Gong publications in order to promote the rule of law.138

因此,中国政府从未在法律上禁止过法轮功。铲除法轮功运动是中国共产党领导人江泽民的个人意愿发起的,没有法律依据。610办公室没有法律地位,其权力只来自共产党的领导。以国家名义镇压法轮功被视为最重要的“政治任务”

Thus, Falun Gong has never been legally banned by the government of China. The campaign to eradicate Falun Gong was launched by the personal will of Communist Party leader Jiang Zemin and has no legal basis. The 610 Office has no legal standing and derives its power only from the Communist Party leadership. The suppression of Falun Gong in the name of the State was made the most important “political task.”

4. 煽动仇恨

4. Incitement to Hatred

暴力通常源于仇恨,而仇恨通常源于歪曲的信息。这一点在中国政权的对法轮功的迫害中得到了充分的体现。

Violence often originates from hatred, and hatred usually arises from distorted information. This is thoroughly reflected in the Chinese regime’s persecution of Falun Gong.

这个党国利用全国性的宣传运动作为镇压法轮功的主要工具。自1999年7月开始迫害以来,该政权利用3000多份报纸和杂志以及数百家电视台和广播电台散布诽谤法轮功的宣传。1999年7月至12月,中央电视台每天播出7个小时的反法轮功节目,妖魔化法轮功及其创始人。它还利用新华社、中国新闻社、党控制的海外媒体和中国领事馆向全球传播这种宣传。在同一时期,党控制的媒体(国内外)共发表了30多万篇诽谤法轮功的文章。139

The party-state has used nationwide propaganda campaigns as key tools in the suppression of Falun Gong. Since the persecution began in July 1999, the regime has used more than three thousand newspapers and magazines, as well as hundreds of television and radio stations to spread propaganda defaming Falun Gong. Between July and December 1999, CCTV broadcast anti-Falun Gong programs for seven hours each day, and demonized Falun Gong and its founder. It also has used Xinhua News Agency, China News Service, Party-controlled media overseas, and Chinese consulates to spread this propaganda globally. Within the same period of time, Party-controlled media (both inside and outside of China) published a total of more than 300,000 articles defaming Falun Gong.139

1999年10月25日,在接受法国报纸《费加罗报》(Le Figaro)的采访时,江泽民称法轮功是“邪教”。1401999年9月在新西兰举行的亚洲太平洋经济合作组织峰会上,江亲自向其他代表,包括克林顿总统和其他世界领导人分发了一本诽谤法轮功的书。1412000年9月,在哥伦比亚广播公司的一次电视采访中,江继续捏造事实诽谤法轮功。142

In an interview with the French newspaper Le Figaro on October 25, 1999, Jiang Zemin called Falun Gong “an evil cult.”140 During the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in New Zealand in September 1999, Jiang personally handed out a book defaming Falun Gong to other delegates, including President Clinton and other world leaders.141 In a televised CBS interview in September 2000, Jiang continued his fabrications to slander Falun Gong.142

与此同时,中国政府花费了大量的资源来控制互联网上的信息流动。1999年12月,国务院成立了由国务院副总理吴邦国领导的全国新闻工作领导小组。国家互联网审查和监控系统,长城防火墙(以前称为金盾)实施。据外界估计,有30多万人参与了世界上最大和最严格的网络监测系统的开发和运作。143世界上主要的信息技术公司,如思科、雅虎、微软、谷歌和北电,都在不同程度上参与了这种审查制度。例如,“金盾”在思科的一次演示中宣称的目标之一就是“打击‘法轮功’邪教和其他敌对势力”。144

Meanwhile, the Chinese regime has spent an enormous amount of resources to control the flow of information on the internet. In December 1999, the State Council established a National Information Work Leadership Team led by Deputy Premier Wu Bangguo. A national internet censorship and monitoring system, the Great Firewall (formerly known as the Golden Shield) was implemented. Outside estimates claim that more than 300,000 personnel have been employed in the development and operation of the largest and most rigorous network monitoring system in the world.143 The world’s major information technology companies, such as Cisco, Yahoo, Microsoft, Google, and Nortel have participated in this censorship system to varying extents. For example, one of the Golden Shield’s stated goals in a Cisco presentation was to “combat ‘Falun Gong’ evil religion and other hostiles.”144

根据哈佛大学教授约翰·帕尔弗里2005年的一份研究报告,中国政府封锁了不到10% 的色情网站,80% 的政治网站,以及100% 与法轮功有关的网站。145

According to a 2005 research report by Harvard professor John Palfrey, the Chinese regime blocked less than 10% of pornographic websites, 80% of political websites, and 100% of websites related to Falun Gong.145

在这个封闭的环境中,谎言重复了一千次就变成了真相,公众对法轮功的同情被仇恨所取代。妖魔化和煽动对法轮功的仇恨,为对法轮功学员的犯罪行为提供了理由。许多人别无选择,只能直接或间接地参与迫害。

In this enclosed environment, lies repeated a thousand times became the truth, and the public’s sympathy for Falun Gong was replaced by hatred. The demonization of and incitement of hatred toward Falun Gong provided the basis on which crimes against practitioners could be justified. Many were left with no choice but to participate in the persecution, either directly or indirectly.

5. 破坏政策

5. Policy of Destruction

党对法轮功的政策如下(见附录II中张忠余和张亦洁的证词) :

The Party’s policies with respect to Falun Gong were as follows (See testimonies of Zhang Zhongyu and Zhang Yijie in Appendix II):

“禁止党员修炼法轮功。”

“Party members are prohibited from practicing Falun Gong.”

“三终止一拘留” :开除党籍、撤职、停职、拘留。

“Three terminations and one detention”: being expelled from the party, removed from official posts, terminated from one’s job, and detained.

“100% 转变(放弃实践) ,绝对没有例外。”

“100% transformation (renouncing the practice) with absolutely no exceptions.”

1999年11月30日,国务院防范和处理邪教问题办公室召集了3000多名官员到人民大会堂发表反法轮功运动的讲话。中央应对法轮功问题领导小组组长李岚清宣布了政府的新政策:“从政治上粉碎他们,切断他们的经济来源,毁掉他们的名誉。”(见附录 II 李百根的证词)

On November 30, 1999, the Central 610 Office called more than 3,000 officials to the Great Hall of the People to address the campaign against Falun Gong. The head of the Central Leading Group on Dealing with the Falun Gong Issue, Li Lanqing, announced the government’s new policy: “Crush them politically, cut them off financially, and ruin their reputations.” (See testimony of Li Baigen in Appendix II.)

2000年8月21日,公安部召开全国电话会议,传达了在三个月内铲除法轮功的新命令。146

On August 21, 2000, the Ministry of Public Security held a nationwide telephone conference to relay new orders that the practice of Falun Gong was to be eradicated in three months.146

2001年第三期《新闻前线》指出:“这场战役旷日持久、错综复杂、令人心酸…… 我们必须坚持不懈…… 把打击法轮功作为新闻宣传的一项重要政治任务…… 克服麻木、懈怠、疲劳…… 做好揭露法轮功的宣传战,做好应对教育转型的宣传战,做好反邪教的长期斗争。”147

The third issue of News Front in 2001 stated, “This battle is prolonged, complex, and poignant… We must persevere with our efforts… make the battle against Falun Gong an important political task for news propaganda… overcome numbness, slackening, and tiredness… fight well the propaganda battle to expose [Falun Gong], fight well the battle to tackle educational transformation, and fight well the prolonged battle to resist cults.”147

尽管这表明,法轮功并没有像江泽民计划的那样在三个月内铲除,而且迫害缺乏公众和共产党内部的支持,但共产党仍将打击法轮功作为一项重要的政治任务。国务院防范和处理邪教问题办公室于2001年1月23日在天安门广场上演了一场“自焚”的恶作剧,并通过各种国家控制的媒体不断播出,以煽动对法轮功的仇恨。148它继续对法轮功进行其他各种“战斗”。

Even though this revealed that Falun Gong had not been eradicated in three months as Jiang Zemin had planned and that the persecution lacked support both from the public and within the Communist Party, the Party made attacking Falun Gong an important political task. The central 610 Office staged a “self-immolation” hoax on Tiananmen Square on January 23, 2001 and continually broadcast it through every form of state-controlled media to incite hatred against Falun Gong.148 It has continued to carry out various other “battles” against Falun Gong.

2001年9月初,在受到国际社会的巨大压力之后,中国司法系统下令释放被非法拘留的法轮功学员,特别是那些超期羁押的法轮功学员。然而,中国国务院防范和处理邪教问题办公室解放军总参谋长罗干向各级司法系统发布了一项秘密命令:“任何被发现修炼法轮功的人都应该被秘密逮捕,并被判处无期徒刑,直到死亡。不逮捕法轮功学员的警察将被开除公职,他们的永久居留权注册将被吊销。”149

In early September 2001, after being subjected to intense pressure from the international community, the Chinese judicial system ordered the release of illegally detained Falun Gong practitioners, especially those who were being held beyond their terms. However, Luo Gan, the head of the Central 610 Office, issued a secret order to all levels of the judicial system: “Whoever is found to be practicing Falun Gong should be secretly arrested and sentenced to a life sentence until death. Police officers that do not arrest Falun Gong practitioners will be discharged from public service, and their permanent residency registrations will be revoked.”149

2002年3月5日晚上8点左右,吉林省长春市,十八名法轮功学员接入了国家有线电视广播网。他们在八个频道同时播放约45分钟的节目,以抵制对法轮功的诽谤性宣传,这种宣传渗透了所有国家控制的节目。中央处理法轮功问题领导小组组长罗干和中央处理法轮功问题领导小组办公室(610办公室)主任刘静亲自前往吉林省,秘密下令当场杀死法轮功学员。他还指示警察在发现公开张贴的法轮功贴纸或横幅时,有权开枪打死修炼者。参与窃听行动的关键人物刘成军在被捕期间腿部中弹,就是这一命令的直接后果。罗为每个警官设定了逮捕从业者的配额,这威胁到了他们和他们指挥官的工作。150几天之内,长春地区就有5000多名从业人员被捕。其中7人在几天后被殴打致死。在参与窃听电报的十八名从业者中,2人被折磨致死,1人下落不明,另外十五人被判处4至20年监禁,其中至少3人后来遭到迫害致死。151

Eighteen Falun Gong practitioners tapped into the state cable television broadcast network around 8:00 p.m. on March 5, 2002 in Changchun, Jilin Province. They broadcast programs on eight channels simultaneously for about 45 minutes to counter the defamatory propaganda against Falun Gong that saturated all the state-controlled programming. Luo Gan, the head of the Central Leading Group for Handling the Falun Gong Issue, and Liu Jing, the head of the Office of the Central Leading Group for Handling the Falun Gong Issue (the 610 Office), personally went to Jilin Province and delivered a secret order to kill Falun Gong practitioners on sight. He also instructed that police were authorized to shoot practitioners to death when they found Falun Gong stickers or banners posted in public. Liu Chengjun, a key person involved in the cable tapping operation, was shot in the leg during his arrest as a direct result of this order. Luo set a quota for every police officer to arrest practitioners, threatening both their and their commanders’ jobs.150 Within days, more than 5,000 practitioners in the Changchun area were arrested. Seven of them were beaten to death days later. Among the eighteen practitioners involved in the cable tapping, two were tortured to death, one’s whereabouts is unknown, the other fifteen were sentenced to between four and twenty years in prison, and at least three of them were later persecuted to death.151

3月中旬,江泽民发布了另一项指示。“把他们打死算不了什么。如果他们因殴打致残,就算作伤害自己。如果他们死了,那就是自杀!”(见附录II张忠余的证词)

In mid-March, Jiang Zemin issued another directive. “Beating them to death is nothing. If they are disabled from the beating, it counts as their injuring themselves. If they die, it counts as suicide!” (See Zhang Zhongyu’s testimony in Appendix II.)

后来,一些指令被传播到610办公室的所有级别。152

Later, several directives were propagated to all levels of the 610 Office.152

2002年,江泽民任命周永康为公安部部长和中央政法委副书记,中央政法委负责处理政策方针,指导最高人民检察院、最高人民法院、司法部和公安部的工作。153周把铲除法轮功作为中国国内安全工作的重点。

In 2002, Jiang Zemin promoted Zhou Yongkang to be Minister of Public Security and Deputy Secretary of the Central Political and Legal Affairs Committee, which handles policy guidelines and directs the work of the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Supreme People's Law, the Ministry of Justice, and the Ministry of Public Security.153 Zhou made the eradication of Falun Gong a major focus of domestic security work in China.

前湖北省政府工作人员杜道斌也在2003年5月报告说,当地610办公室收到的指示说,“没有法律规定法轮功学员的待遇”和“法轮功学员因殴打致死不算什么,应视为自杀;尸体应直接火化,不需调查其身份”。154

Du Daobin, a former Hubei provincial government worker, also reported in May 2003 that the local 610 Office had received instructions that stated, “No law regulates the treatment of Falun Gong practitioners” and “deaths of Falun Gong practitioners from beating are nothing and shall be counted as suicide; the bodies shall be directly cremated without investigating the person’s identification.”154

关于从业人员遗体未经其家属同意被火化的许多案例继续在明慧网上被报道。

Numerous cases of practitioners’ bodies being cremated without the consent of their families continue to be reported on Minghui.org.

2007年10月,周永康被提拔为“处理法轮功问题中央领导小组”组长,并被列入党的最高战略层——政治局常委会,以进一步开展党的打击法轮功运动。

In October 2007, Zhou Yongkang was promoted to head the “Central Leading Group for Handling the Falun Gong Issue” and was placed on the Party’s highest strategic tier, the Politburo Standing Committee, to further carry out the Party’s campaign against Falun Gong.

2010年初,国务院防范和处理邪教问题办公室发起了“2010-2012教育改革和团结之战”。155

In early 2010, the central 610 Office initiated the “2010-2012 war for educational transformation and unity.”155

2013年初,国务院防范和处理邪教问题办公室发起了“2013-2015年教育改革与法轮功学员决战”。156这项工作通过610办公室各级和“反邪教协会”进行,并扩大到省、市、区和县各级,一直到最小的社会单位——地方社区和村庄。

In early 2013, the central 610 Office initiated the “2013-2015 decisive battle in educational transformation against Falun Gong practitioners.”156 This was carried out through each level of the 610 Office and “anti-cult associations” and extended through the provincial, city, district, and county levels all the way down to local communities and villages, the smallest social units.

在国际压力下,中国政府于2013年11月15日宣布废除强迫劳动营。157在同一个月,司法部发布了一份文件,声明说:“许多劳改营目前被贴上了戒毒中心的标签。戒毒康复中心监管着超过10万名患者。在劳教制度废除之后,大多数人可以将自己重新标记为戒毒中心。不需要戒毒中心的地区的劳改营可以直接改造成监狱。” 158对法轮功的迫害并没有因为劳改营的废除而有所松动。相反,它变得更加隐蔽。

Under international pressure, the Chinese regime announced on November 15, 2013 that forced labor camps were to be abolished.157 In the same month, the Ministry of Justice issued a document stating, “Many labor camps are currently co-labeled as drug rehabilitation centers. Drug rehabilitation centers oversee more than 100,000 patients. After the labor camp system is nullified, the majority are able to relabel themselves as drug rehabilitation centers. Labor camps in areas that do not need drug rehabilitation centers can be directly converted into prisons.”158 The persecution of Falun Gong has not abated with the abolition of labor camps. Rather, it has become more hidden.

2013年底,在腐败和策划政变的指控中,中共新领导层免去了周永康的公安部长、中央政法委副书记、中央法轮功领导小组组长和政治局常委的职务。

At the end of 2013, amid charges of corruption and plotting to stage a coup, the new CCP leadership removed Zhou Yongkang from his positions as Minister of Public Security, Deputy Secretary of the Central Political and Legal Affairs Committee, head the Central Leading Group for Handling the Falun Gong Issue, and the Politburo Standing Committee.

然而,为铲除法轮功而建立的机制尚未拆除,至今仍在运作。对法轮功的迫害学员的范围扩大到捍卫自己信仰自由权利的律师和任何其他公开支持法轮功的人,这清楚地表明,对法轮功的迫害远未结束。

However, the machinery set in place to eradicate Falun Gong has not been dismantled and continues to operate today. The extension of the persecution of Falun Gong practitioners to the attorneys who defend their right to freedom of belief and to anyone else who speaks out in support of Falun Gong clearly demonstrates that the persecution of Falun Gong is far from over.

例如,在2015年7月9日开始的一次协调行动中,截至同年8月21日,警方在23个省份逮捕、传唤、拘留并失踪了276名律师、民权活动人士及其家人。有些人下落不明。159

For example, in a coordinated operation that began on July 9, 2015, as of August 21 of the same year, police arrested, summoned, detained, and disappeared 276 lawyers, civil rights activists, and their family members across 23 provinces. Some of their whereabouts were unknown.159

2015年12月25日,中央政法委党委书记、中央预防和处理邪教问题领导小组组长孟建柱在中央预防和处理邪教问题领导小组全体干部会议上发言说,中央预防和处理邪教问题领导小组2015年的主要成就之一是“打击和处理法轮功滥用职权提起诉讼,少数律师参与宣传邪教案件,维护社会政治整体稳定”。160这些诉讼涉及法轮功学员对江泽民在推动迫害中所起作用的刑事指控。

On December 25, 2015, Meng Jianzhu, Party Secretary of the Central Political and Legislative Affairs Committee and head of the Central Leading Group for the Prevention and Handling of Cult-Related Issues, said in a speech at an all-cadre meeting of the latter office that one of the agency’s major achievements of 2015 was “striking at and handling Falun Gong’s abusive filing of lawsuits and a small number of lawyers who had a hand in hyping up these cult cases, maintaining overall sociopolitical stability.”160 These lawsuits referred to criminal complaints filed by Falun Gong practitioners against Jiang Zemin for his role in driving the persecution.

受到迫害的律师包括王全璋,他在2015年8月被非法逮捕,失踪了一千多天。他的妻子李文足四处寻找他,直到2018年7月13日得知丈夫还活着。在此期间,他受到电击和其他方法的折磨,并被迫服用未知的药物。1612019年1月28日,一家法院以“颠覆国家政权”的罪名判处他四年零六个月监禁,剥夺政治权利五年。162

Among the persecuted attorneys was Wang Quanzhang, who was illegally arrested in August 2015 and disappeared for more than a thousand days. His wife, Li Wenzu, looked everywhere for help to find him until she received the news on July 13, 2018 that her husband was still alive. During this time, he was tortured with electric shocks, among other methods, and forcibly administered unknown drugs.161 On January 28, 2019, a court sentenced him to imprisonment for four years and six months and deprivation of political rights for five years on charges of “subverting state power.”162

甚至在这次逮捕之前,王就经常因为维护法轮功学员的权利而受到当局的威胁和殴打。他的妻子透露:“全璋有一次为一名法轮功学员辩护,他说了一句话,一名法警扇了他一巴掌,问他是否愿意继续说下去。他这样做了,所以他又被击中了。他总共被打了一百多次。”163

Even before this arrest, Wang was often threatened and beaten by the authorities for defending the rights of Falun Gong practitioners. His wife revealed, “When Quanzhang was defending a Falun Gong practitioner once, he said one sentence, a bailiff slapped his face and asked if he wanted to keep talking. He did, so he was hit again. Altogether he was hit more than a hundred times.”163

更多的律师受到骚扰、威胁和24小时监视,遭到殴打、拘留、强行使用未知药物,被非法吊销执照,并被禁止出国旅行。他们的家人和亲属也受到威胁。

More lawyers were harassed, threatened and monitored around the clock, beaten, detained, forcibly administered unknown drugs, had their law licenses illegally revoked and were prevented from traveling abroad. Their families and relatives were also threatened.

6. “转化”

6. “Transformation”

党的主要目标是通过摧毁信仰和良知来“改造”实践者。164随着实现“百分之百转变,绝对没有例外”的指示,几乎所有坚持自己信仰的法轮功学员,无论年龄、社会阶层或职业,都遭受了不人道的酷刑。(见附录II张亦洁和张忠余的证词)

The primary goal of the CCP is to “transform” practitioners by destroying their belief and conscience.164 With the instruction to achieve “100% transformation with absolutely no exceptions,” almost all Falun Gong practitioners who persisted in their belief suffered inhumane torture without regard for age, social class, or occupation. (See testimonies of Zhang Yijie and Zhang Zhongyu in Appendix II)

a) “转化”的标准

a) Standards for “Transformation”

最早的改造标准出现在1999年7月19日党中央关于禁止党员修炼法轮大法的通知中。165通知指出,“改造修炼法轮大法的党员的工作必须做好” ,并将“改造”的标准界定为“自愿脱离法轮功组织,从精神上断绝与之的关系,揭露和批评法轮功及其创始人”。

The earliest transformation standards appeared in the Notice by the CCP Central Committee Prohibiting Party Members from Practicing Falun Dafa on July 19, 1999.165 The notice states that “the work to transform CCP members who practice Falun Dafa must be accomplished well” and defines the standard for “transformation” as “to voluntarily separate from Falun Gong organizations, to mentally sever one’s relationship with it, and to expose and criticize Falun Gong and its founder.”

1999年8月24日,新华社发布了中共中央办公厅、国务院的通知,将上述政策从党员扩大到所有法轮功学员,“更好地完成改造大多数法轮功学员的使命”。这些文件强调,即使是“为了健康和健身而修炼法轮功的人” ,如果不持有“正确的观点” ,不放弃信仰,那么他们也必须改造。166

On August 24, 1999, Xinhua News Agency published a notice from the General Office of the CCP Central Committee and the State Council that extended the above policy from Party members to all Falun Gong practitioners “to better accomplish the mission of transforming the majority of Falun Gong practitioners.” These documents emphasized that even for “those who practice Falun Gong only for the purpose of health and fitness,” if they do not hold the “correct opinion” and do not give up their faith, then they must also be transformed.166

在后来的一系列文件中,610办公室指示所有地区的办事处“认真调查、调查并彻底澄清所有未改造的[法轮功学员]的背景”。他们要求“对于那些没有改造的法轮功学员(即使他们只在家里修炼) ,毫无例外地将他们一批批送到法律教育中心(洗脑设施ー作者笔记)进行改造。”167

In a series of later documents, the 610 Office instructed offices in all regions “to seriously get to the bottom of, investigate, and completely clarify the backgrounds of all un-transformed [Falun Gong practitioners].” They required that “for those un-transformed Falun Gong practitioners (even if they only practice at home), with absolutely no exceptions, to send them batch-by-batch to legal education centers [brainwashing facilities—authors’ note]for transformation.”167

2000年8月29日,马三家强制劳动教养所制定了一系列标准,国务院防范和处理邪教问题办公室劳动教养所所长王茂林在司法部教育改造工作分享奖励大会上介绍了这些标准。168法轮功学员必须遵循的五个标准包括:放弃修炼、撰写悔过书、交出所有法轮功书籍和材料、撰写对法轮功及其创始人的证词以及改造其他修炼者。

Masanjia Forced Labor Camp later came up with a set of standards, which the head of the Central 610 Office, Wang Maolin, introduced at the “Ministry of Justice Education and Transformation Work Sharing and Award Meeting” held on August 29, 2000.168 The five standards to which Falun Gong practitioners must adhere include: relinquishing the practice, writing the repentance statement, surrendering all Falun Gong books and materials, writing testimonials against Falun Gong and the founder, and transforming other practitioners.

如果这些标准中的任何一个没有得到满足,就不会被认为是改变了。转变导致宽大,缩短刑期,在监狱或劳改营之外服刑,在服满刑期之前被释放。中共国务院防范和处理邪教问题办公室正式向全国颁布了《马三家改造标准》。2000年9月22日发布的一份文件规定,修炼者必须公开谴责法轮功,不再参加法轮功活动,不再学习或修炼法轮功,交出所有法轮功书籍和相关物品,揭露组织法轮功活动者的身份,并积极参与改造其他法轮功修炼者。169

If any one of these standards is not met, one is not considered to be transformed. Transformation leads to leniency, shortening of one’s term, serving one’s term outside the prison or labor camp, and being released before serving the full term. The CCP Central 610 Office officially promulgated the Masanjia transformation standards to the entire country. A document issued on September 22, 2000 stipulated that practitioners had to publicly denounce Falun Gong, no longer participate in Falun Gong activities, no longer study or practice Falun Gong, turn in all their Falun Gong books and related items, expose the identities of those who organize Falun Gong activities, and actively participate in the transformation of other Falun Gong practitioners.169

还有一些非官方的标准。正如一家法律教育中心的负责人在公开场合所说的,“如果我们看到你殴打和咒骂同行,你就会被认为是完全‘转变’了。” 改变信仰的修炼者必须撒谎,诽谤法轮功及其创始人,背叛和殴打同修,以证明自己完全放弃了法轮功。拒绝这些事情表明一个人没有完全脱离法轮功,在这种情况下,这个人会受到进一步的折磨,直到他或她缓和或崩溃。170

There are also unofficial criteria. As the head of a legal education center said in public, “You are considered completely ‘transformed’ if we see you beat and swear at your fellow practitioners.” A converted practitioner must lie, slander Falun Gong and its founder, and betray and beat fellow practitioners in order to prove one has completely renounced Falun Gong. Refusing to do these things indicates that one has not completely broken away from Falun Gong, in which case the person is further tortured until he or she relents or collapses.170

b) 通过社会和家庭压力的胁迫

b) Coercion Through Social and Family Pressure

共产党不仅动员了国家机器,也动员了整个社会来迫使从业者放弃他们的信仰。因此,迫害给从业者(包括被国家拘留者和未被拘留者)和整个中国人民带来了压力。

The Communist Party has mobilized not only the state apparatus but also the entire society to force practitioners to renounce their faith. The persecution thus exerts pressure on both practitioners (both those in state custody and those who are not) and the entire population of China.

各级官员被迫通过政治压力、经济和职业激励措施以及集体惩罚相结合的方式开展铲除运动。例如,地方官员要对其管辖范围内法轮功学员的“违法行为”负责。沈阳的一项政策规定,如果三名或三名以上的法轮功学员在一个月内到北京上访,该市市委书记将被送到省政府受到申斥、处罚,甚至开除。171为了保住饭碗,辽宁各城市的官员动用了大量警力和财力,阻止法轮功学员前往北京。沈阳市的一个镇长被免职,因为镇上的从业人员多次到北京上访。

Officials at all levels have been compelled to carry out the eradication campaign through a combination of political pressure, economic and career incentives, and collective punishment. For example, regional officials were held responsible for “transgressions” of Falun Gong practitioners in their jurisdictions. A policy in Shenyang stipulated that if three or more Falun Gong practitioners went to petition in Beijing within a month, the city’s party secretary would be sent to the provincial government to be reprimanded, punished, or even dismissed.171 To protect their jobs, officials in various Liaoning cities deployed a large amount of police and financial resources to prevent Falun Gong practitioners from going to Beijing. One town mayor in Shenyang was dismissed because practitioners from the town repeatedly went to petition in Beijing.

雇主被迫迫使其组织内的修炼者放弃法轮功,包括威胁终止他们的工作或将他们送到洗脑班。对全部单位实行集体惩罚,包括扣发奖金、停发晋升职务,煽动对单位从业人员的仇恨和压力。还强迫和鼓励社区办事处监测和报告法轮功学员的活动。172

Employers have been forced to pressure practitioners within their organizations to renounce Falun Gong, including threatening termination of their employment or sending them to brainwashing classes. Entire work units have been subjected to collective punishment, including having their bonuses and their promotions withheld, to incite hatred against and pressure practitioners in the unit. Neighborhood and community offices are also forced and incentivized to monitor and report on the activities of Falun Gong practitioners.172

许多地区的学校还以开除相威胁,强迫学生签署诽谤法轮功的声明。工作场所强迫雇员签署谴责法轮功的文件,威胁他们的工作和 / 或养老金。同样,警察受到威胁,如果他们不执行610办公室的命令,他们将失去工资、住房甚至工作。在一个案例中,中国人民解放军总医院(301号)前院长李启华写了一封信,描述了他修炼法轮功的良好经历。作为回应,时任中共中央军事委员会副主席的张万年向江泽民举报了他,江泽民随后给中央政治局、书记处和中央军事委员会领导写了一封长信。张志军开始每天派军官与80多岁的李启华谈话,试图通过不间断的谈话逼迫他放弃法轮功。最终,他们捏造了一份“悔过书” ,把李阳树立为整个军队转化修炼者的典范。173

Schools in many regions have also forced students to sign statements defaming Falun Gong under threat of expulsion. Workplaces forced employees to sign denunciations against Falun Gong by threatening their jobs and/or pensions. Similarly, police officers were threatened that if they did not carry out orders from the 610 Office, they would lose pay, housing, or even their jobs. In one case, the former president of the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital (No.301), Li Qihua, wrote a letter describing his favorable experience of practicing Falun Gong. In response, then-Vice Chairman of the CCP Central Military Commission (CMC) Zhang Wannian reported him to Jiang Zemin, who then wrote a long letter to the Politburo, Secretariat, and CMC leadership. Zhang began sending officers to speak with Li Qihua, who was over 80 years old, on a daily basis, attempting to force him to renounce Falun Gong by exhausting him with non-stop conversations. Eventually, they fabricated a “regret statement” and set Li up as a model of a transformed practitioner for the whole army.173

中共当局还经常强迫从业者的家庭成员和同事说服他们放弃这种做法,包括威胁家庭成员的生计和 / 或接受教育、离婚和离职。家庭成员(包括老一辈的成员)有时被要求在被拘留的从业者面前跪下乞讨,以迫使他们放弃这种做法。174

CCP authorities also regularly coerce family members and coworkers of practitioners to persuade them to give up the practice, including threatening family members’ livelihoods and/or access to education, divorce and severance. Family members (including those of older generations) are sometimes made to beg on their knees in front of practitioners when visiting them in custody in order to pressure them to give up the practice.174

共产党政权有效地把一些家庭环境变成了监狱,把家庭成员变成了帮助国家改造从业者的共犯。例如,一位名叫林成涛的著名医学学者于2001年10月被送往北京团河劳教所,在那里受到严刑拷打。当他还没有放弃法轮功的时候,他的妻子写信给团河劳教所,建议他们用电棍、殴打、精神激动和睡眠剥夺强迫她的丈夫变形。林被迫反复阅读妻子的信件,直到失去理智。175

The communist regime has effectively turned some family settings into prisons and family members into accomplices who help the state transform practitioners. In one example, a practitioner named Lin Chengtao, a prominent medical scholar, was sent to Beijing Tuanhe Labor Camp in October 2001, where he was severely tortured. When he still did not give up Falun Gong, his wife, who had been transformed by Beijing Xin’an (Female) Labor Camp, wrote to Tuanhe Labor Camp suggesting that they use electric batons, beatings, mental agitation, and sleep deprivation to force her husband to transform. Lin was forced to read his wife’s letter repeatedly until he lost his sanity.175

更极端的例子是,2002年2月9日,法轮功修炼者杨丽蓉在保定市被丈夫打伤。1761999年10月,她因为前往北京向中央政府申请修炼法轮功的权利而被捕,并在警方向她的家人勒索5000元后被释放。警方后来在家里骚扰她,三次将她送到洗脑中心,并频繁向她的家人勒索钱财。当局威胁要解雇她的丈夫,因为他的妻子修炼法轮功。2002年2月8日,在警察洗劫了他们的家之后,杨的丈夫精神崩溃,一把勒死了她。接到报告后,官员和医生迅速赶到,并匆忙切开杨的尸体(当时还是热的) ,并带走了许多器官。她被切除的心脏散发出热量,大量流血。在现场的一名警官说:“这怎么解剖尸体呢?这是在解剖一具活体!”

In a more extreme case, Falun Gong practitioner Yang Lirong was injured by her husband on February 9, 2002, in Baoding City, Hebei Province.176 She was arrested, detained for going to Beijing to petition the central government for the right to practice Falun Gong in October 1999, and released after police extorted 5,000 yuan from her family. Police later harassed her at home, sent her to a brainwashing center three times, and frequently extorted money from her family. The authorities threatened her husband’s employment because of his wife’s practicing Falun Gong. On February 8, 2002, after police ransacked the couple’s home, Yang’s husband had a mental breakdown and strangled her. Upon receiving the report, officers and doctors arrived quickly and hurriedly cut open Yang’s body (which was still warm at the time) and took away many organs. Her excised heart radiated heat and bled profusely. A police officer at the scene said, “How is this dissecting a corpse? It’s dissecting a living body!”

从2010年1月开始,铁道部以打击倒卖车票为名,开始在乘车前要求出示个人身份证件。扫描了许多法轮功学员的身份证后,他们在火车站被逮捕。自那时以来,该制度已将身份要求扩大到日常生活的许多其他方面,包括:购买电话卡(2015年9月) ;发送特快专递(2018年5月) ;登上长途巴士(2017年3月)。警方也开始在个城市检查私家车,要求司机和所有乘客提供身份证明文件。2018年1月,地铁系统安装了入口面部识别摄像头。

Starting in January 2010, the Ministry of Railways began to require personal identification before boarding trains in the name of combating ticket scalping. Numerous Falun Gong practitioners have been arrested at train stations after their identification cards were scanned. The regime has since expanded the identification requirement to many other aspects of daily life including: buying phone cards (September 2015); sending express mail (May 2018); and boarding long-haul buses (March 2017). Police have also started inspecting private cars in cities, requiring identification documents for the driver and all passengers. Subway systems implemented entryway facial recognition cameras in January 2018.

一个“社会信用”系统177于2018年9月宣布,计划于2020年在中国大陆全面实施。根据该系统,所有公民都将受到24小时监控,并通过面部识别、语音识别、身份检查、网络浏览历史、社交媒体活动、网上购物、个人政府记录(包括医疗、教育、宗教和犯罪记录)以及与谁有联系等方式给出行为评分。例如,持有被中共认定为“邪教”的信仰,被监禁或受到行政处罚,发表与党的政治观点不一致的言论,甚至有对党不利的朋友或亲戚,都会被扣分。那些社会信用评分较低的人将不被允许乘坐飞机或高铁、从事政府工作或贷款;他们子女的学校教育和亲属的就业也会受到影响。

A “social credit” system177 was announced in September 2018 and is slated to take effect across mainland China in 2020, under which all citizens will be monitored around the clock and given a behavior score using: facial recognition; voice recognition; identification checks; internet browsing history; social media activity; online purchases; personal government records (including medical, education, religious, and criminal history); and with whom one associates. For example, one would have points deducted for holding a belief the CCP identifies as “cultish,” being imprisoned or given administrative punishments, speaking not in accordance with the Party’s political views, and even having friends or relatives who express views unfavorable to the Party. Those with low social credit scores will not be allowed to board airplanes or high-speed trains, hold a government job, or take out a loan; their children’s schooling and their relatives’ employment can also be affected.

中国政府还在建设一个由“天网”(一个视频监控系统)、“安全城市”(一个综合城市安全管理系统)和“锐眼”(一个农村地区的实时监控网络)组成的大规模国家监控系统。据《纽约时报》报道,这些平台已经在全国范围内安装了超过2亿个摄像头,到2020年还将增加4亿个摄像头。这些摄像头大多能够快速识别人脸并进行步态分析。最初部署这些系统是为了限制法轮功学员的活动,但后来扩大到新疆,监视每个公民,以消除任何反对法轮功的起义机会。这些监测和控制机制计划到2020年在全国充分实施。178

The Chinese regime has also been building a massive national surveillance system consisting of “Skynet” (a video surveillance system), “Safe-City” (a comprehensive urban security management system), and “Sharp Eyes” (a real-time surveillance network in rural areas). According to the New York Times, these platforms have already installed over 200 million cameras nationwide with 400 million more to be added before 2020. Most of these cameras can quickly recognize faces and conduct gait analyses. These systems were initially deployed to constrain the activities of Falun Gong practitioners but have been expanded in Xinjiang to spy on every citizen in an effort to eliminate any chance of uprisings against the party. These surveillance and control mechanisms are planned to be fully implemented nationwide by 2020.178

c) 酷刑

c) Torture

中国政权使用精心设计的身心折磨手段迫使从业者放弃信仰,背叛自己的良心。当时担任黑龙江省委书记的徐有方告诉下属,“对于法轮功来说,没有什么是过分的。”179

The Chinese regime uses intricately designed mental and physical torture methods to force practitioners to renounce their faith and betray their conscience. Xu Youfang, the Heilongjiang provincial party secretary at the time, instructed subordinates that “Nothing was too much when it came to Falun Gong.”179

王永行律师于2009年被非法逮捕,并被判处7年有期徒刑。被释放后,他透露,自2012年2月以来,沈阳第一监狱发起了一场“在监狱内消灭法轮功”的运动,并打出了一个口号:“要么死,要么改造” 王说:“无数法轮功学员(在监狱里)所遭受的苦难,如果我们不谈论它,外面的人永远不会知道。即使我们这样说,有些人可能也不相信,因为这种迫害的邪恶程度已经达到了令人难以置信的程度。”180

Lawyer Wang Yonghang was illegally arrested in 2009 and sentenced to seven years in prison. After his release, he revealed that since February 2012, Shenyang First Prison started a movement to “destroy Falun Gong within the prison” along with a slogan: you “either die or transform.” Wang said, “The suffering of countless Falun Gong practitioners [in the prison], if we don’t talk about it, people on the outside would never know. Even if we say it, some people may not believe it, because the evilness of this persecution has reached an unbelievable degree.”180

有一次,一名警察在拷问人权律师高智晟(他是法轮功学员的代理律师,虽然他自己并没有修炼)时大喊:“拷问法轮功,这是真的。我们用来对付你的十二种酷刑方法,是我们和法轮功一起发明的!” 181

A police officer once yelled out while torturing human rights lawyer Gao Zhisheng (who represented Falun Gong practitioners, although he did not practice himself), “Torturing Falun Gong, it’s all true. The twelve torture methods we’re using to deal with you, we developed with the Falun Gong!”181

“炖老鹰” ,长期剥夺超出人体生理极限的睡眠,是一种非常常见的身心折磨形式。美国精神病学家约翰·艾伦·霍布森在他的书《睡眠》中写道:“当我们连续五到十天没有睡觉时,我们的大脑完全失去了方向感,疯狂接管了一切;信任变成了偏执;理性的、非理性的;理智的人开始看到和听到不存在的东西。” 182因此,他们更有可能签署反对他们信仰的声明。中国劳改营的一名警官对一名法轮功修炼者说:“我们用对付间谍的方法来击垮你,然后改造你。”183

“Stewing the eagle,” long-term deprivation of sleep beyond human physiological limits, is a very common form of mental and physical torture. American psychiatrist John Allan Hobson stated in his book, Sleep, “After we go five to ten days without sleep, our brain loses its bearings altogether and madness takes over; the trusting become paranoid; the rational, irrational; and the sane begin to see and hear things that aren’t there.”182 They are thus more likely to sign statements that oppose their beliefs. A police officer in a Chinese labor camp said to a Falun Gong practitioner, “We use the methods we use against spies to break you and then transform you.”183

曾任中国驻罗马尼亚大使馆外交官和对外贸易经济合作部国务院办公厅主任的张怡洁,被迫以各种手段放弃信仰,如威胁毁掉丈夫和子女的事业、离婚和遣散、解雇、判刑和酷刑。这段经历包括连续42天的睡眠剥夺。

Zhang Yijie, who once served as a diplomat of the Chinese Embassy in Romania and headed the State Council’s General Office of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, was forced to renounce her faith by various means, such as threatening to destroy the career of her husband and children, divorce and severance, dismissal, sentence and torture. This experience included 42 continuous days of sleep deprivation.

2001年11月8日至12月20日,在第一次长达18天的“围攻”未能取得成果之后,张志军被关押在一间孤立的房间里。在那里,警察、瘾君子、妓女和“转化”的从业者共有9人,昼夜轮班工作,以防止她靠在墙上或睡着。在这种严密的监视下,她被要求站立42天。如果她睡着了,就会被人用棍子打她的头,或者把一盆冰水倒进她的衬衫领子里。她被剥去了外衣,在北京寒冷的冬天冻僵了。每顿饭只给她一小块玉米面包,而且经常连续两三天不给她水喝。她也不被允许洗手或使用洗手间。当她大小便失禁的时候,有人把她推倒在一滩尿液中,并把她拖了出来。经过30多天的睡眠剥夺,饥饿、口渴和疲劳,她失去了意识,撞到了一堵墙,倒在了地板上。军官们拿来一盆又一盆的冷水泼在她身上。她被冰冷的水淋得湿透,醒了过来。她颤抖着站了起来,被迫日夜站着,一天又一天。这样,她就会跌倒,站起来,被水淋透,忍受寒冷,饥饿,干渴和疲劳。42天后,她仍然拒绝被“改造” ,她遭受了更多的暴力:四个吸毒者踢她,让她浑身是血,遍体鳞伤,17天紧紧抓住生命不放。带着对法轮大法坚定的信念,她再一次从死亡的边缘回来。(见附录II张一杰的证词)

After the first 18-day “siege” failed to yield results, Zhang was held in an isolated room between November 8 and December 20, 2001. There, police officers, drug addicts, prostitutes, and “transformed” practitioners, a total of nine people, worked in shifts around the clock to keep her from leaning against the wall or falling asleep. Under this tight monitoring, she was made to stand for 42 days. If she fell asleep, she would be beaten in the head with a rod or have a basin of ice water poured into her shirt collar. She was stripped of her outerwear and made to freeze in the frigid Beijing winter. She was given only a small piece of cornbread for each meal and often denied water for two to three days at a time. She was also not allowed to wash or use the restroom. When she became incontinent, she was pushed into and dragged through a pool of urine. After more than 30 days of sleep deprivation, hunger, thirst, and fatigue, she lost consciousness, struck a wall, and fell to the floor. Officers brought in basin after basin of cold water and poured it on her. She was awakened by being drenched in the icy water. Shivering, she stood back up and was made to stand day and night, one day after another. In this way, she would fall, stand up, be drenched in water, and endure freezing, hunger, thirst, and fatigue. After 42 days, still refusing to be “transformed,” she was subjected to more violence: four drug-addict prostitutes kicked her, leaving her bloody and bruised all over and clinging to life for 17 days. With steadfast faith in Falun Dafa, she once again came back from the verge of death. (See Zhang Yijie’s testimony in Appendix II.)

有许多证据表明,在劳改营、拘留中心、监狱、精神病院、戒毒中心和洗脑中心使用了可怕的酷刑。以下是残酷对待法轮功学员的100多种酷刑方法的例子:184

There is much evidence of the horrific torture used in labor camps, detention centers, prisons, mental hospitals, drug rehabilitation centers, and brainwashing centers. Set forth below is a sampling of the more than 100 torture methods that are used to brutalize Falun Gong practitioners:184

2001年9月,在长春市公安局第一分局郊区的一间秘密审讯室里,省级副刊副编辑张忠余被关在“铁椅子”里几天。警察用高压电棍电击他的全身,特别是他的敏感部位和生殖器。他的脸和身体都被烧成了黑色。警察用几层塑料袋包住他的头部,把一个金属桶套在他的头上,用棍子敲打桶,点燃香烟给桶内增加烟雾。他们将他的双手反铐在背后,并反复强行将他的手臂从身体后面转到身体前面,以及其他酷刑。(见附录II张忠余的证词)

In a secret interrogation room on the outskirts of the No.1 Division of the Changchun Public Security Bureau, Zhang Zhongyu, a vice editor of the provincial secondary journal, was confined to an “iron chair” for a few days in September 2001. The police used high-voltage electric batons to shock his entire body, especially his sensitive parts and genitals. His face and body were burned black. Officers covered his head with layers of plastic bags, put a metal bucket on his head, beat the bucket with a club, and lit cigarettes to add smoke to the interior. They cuffed his hands behind his back and repeatedly rotated his arms forcibly from the back to the front of his body, among other torture. (See Zhang Zhongyu’s testimony in Appendix II)

他的同行,34岁的芦园区医院 CT 科医生刘海波,将一根长长的电棍插入他的肛门,直接电击他的内部器官,直到他死去。185在 Jingyuetan Jingyue Mountain 的这个秘密的刑讯室里,至少有23名从业者被折磨致死。

His fellow practitioner, Liu Haibo, a 34-year-old doctor from the CT Section of Luyuan District Hospital, had a long electric baton inserted into his anus, which directly shocked his internal organs until he died.185 At this secret torture chamber on Jingyue Mountain, Jingyuetan, Changchun City, at least 23 practitioners were tortured to death.

另外一位姓张的知道,王玉环,是一位60岁的老妇人,她曾经在虎凳上被折磨了三天两夜,每隔五分钟还会受到残酷的折磨。在她失去知觉后,警卫将滚烫的或冰冷的水倒在她身上;在她苏醒后,他们继续折磨她。他们电击她的头部和脸部,直到烧焦;他们用香烟烫她的眼睛,用细竹棍戳她的耳朵内侧,刺穿她的耳膜,造成永久性的听力丧失。看守剥光了王和其他女修行者的衣服,展开她们的四肢,把她们绑在坚硬的木板上长达26天,并用各种可能的方式羞辱她们。王最终在2017年被杀。

Another practitioner Zhang knew, Wang Yuhuan, a 60-year-old woman, was once tortured on a tiger bench for three days and two nights and was additionally savagely tortured every five minutes. Guards poured scalding hot or freezing water on her after she lost consciousness; after she came to, they continued the torture. They shocked her head and face until they were scorched; they burned her eyes with cigarettes and stabbed the inside of her ears with thin bamboo sticks, which pierced her eardrums and caused permanent hearing loss. Guards stripped Wang and other female practitioners naked, spread their limbs, tied them to hard wooden planks for 26 days, and humiliated them in every way possible. Wang was finally killed in 2017.

从1999年到2009年,在张认识的从业者中,有超过20人被折磨致死。

Between 1999 and 2009, among the practitioners Zhang knew personally, more than 20 were tortured to death.

d) 强制药物管理局

d) Forced Drug Administration

药物是一种常见的方法用来“改造”从业人员。《反邪教内部教学参考资料》中的指导方针包括:“必要时,可以利用药物干预、医学方法和临床实验等手段实现科学转化。”

Drugging is a common method used to “transform” practitioners. Guidelines written in the “Anti-Cult Internal Teaching Reference Materials” include, “When necessary, drug intervention, medical methods, and clinical experimentation can be used to achieve the purpose of scientific transformation.”

对于那些不放弃信仰的从业者来说,这项政策实际上允许使用损害或破坏其中枢神经系统、器官和 / 或大脑,甚至造成死亡的药物,这种杀人方法使大多数受害者能够存活很短的时间,而不是立即死亡,从而使当局能够逃避谋杀的责任。该政权允许各级610办公室、监狱、劳改营、精神病院、洗脑中心和黑监狱使用药物来迷惑、使其失去能力,甚至杀害法轮功学员。186

For practitioners who do not renounce their faith, the policy effectively allows the use of drugs that damage or destroy their central nervous system, organs, and/or brain, or even cause death, this method of killing allows most victims to survive for a short period of time rather than die immediately, thereby allowing the authorities to evade responsibility for murder. The regime permits all levels of the 610 Office, prisons, labor camps, mental hospitals, brainwashing centers, and black jails to use drugs to disorient, disable, and even kill Falun Gong practitioners.186

明慧网发布了超过11000起强制药物管理事件的报告,这些事件导致法轮功学员残疾、精神疾病或死亡。23个省、直辖市和自治区报告了此类药物的使用情况。大多数精神病院和精神科都被迫参与这种违反医学道德的迫害。一些参与的医生承认,不执行这项政治任务将意味着失去他们的工作。187

Minghui.org has published reports of more than 11,000 incidents of forced drug administration that have caused disability, mental illness, or death in Falun Gong practitioners. Such use of drugs has been reported in 23 provinces, centrally-controlled municipalities, and autonomous regions. Most mental hospitals and psychiatric departments have been made to participate in this type of persecution in violation of medical ethics. Some participating doctors have confessed that failing to carry out this political task would mean losing their employment.187

7. 身体毁灭

7. Physical Destruction

面对一个拒绝通过精神和身体上的折磨来“转化”的从业者,身体毁灭是政权为了达到理想的“100% 转化率”而使用的最后手段。

Faced with a practitioner who refuses to “transform” via mental and physical torture, to destroy physically is the last means used by the regime to achieve its desired “100% conversion rate.”

北京居民陈书兰的经历尤其令人心酸。188她在河北省的核心家庭有两个姐妹,两个兄弟和她的父母,他们都练过法轮功。然而,其他五个人都在迫害中被杀害,剩下舒兰是唯一的幸存者。

The experience of Chen Shulan, a resident of Beijing, is particularly poignant.188 Her nuclear family in Hebei Province had two sisters, two brothers, and her parents, all of whom practiced Falun Gong. However, the other five people were all killed in the persecution, leaving Shulan as the sole survivor.

舒兰的弟弟陈爱中因2001年向北京中央政府请愿而被捕。他被折磨了七天四夜,包括被剥光衣服,被埋在雪地里三个小时。2001年9月12日,爱忠被非法判处在荷花坑强制劳动营服刑三年,尽管他的手脚因酷刑而残废。

Shulan’s younger brother, Chen Aizhong, was arrested for petitioning the central government in Beijing in 2001. He was tortured for seven days and four nights, including being stripped of his clothes and buried in the snow for three hours. Even though his hands and feet were crippled as a result of the torture, Aizhong was illegally sentenced on September 12, 2001, to three years in Hehuakeng Forced Labor Camp.

九天后,也就是9月21日,舒兰接到当地官员的通知,说爱中因绝食而死亡。在太平间里,舒兰发现她哥哥的尸体已经被清理干净,但是他的耳朵肿胀,看起来黑黑的,还有一只耳朵充满了血。舒兰打开他的衣服,看到他胸部左侧有一个10多厘米的伤口,从肩膀到背部有一大块血渍。

Nine days later, on September 21, Shulan was notified by local officials that Aizhong had died due to a hunger strike. In the mortuary, Shulan found that her brother's body had been visibly cleaned up, yet his ears were swollen, looked black, and one was full of blood.When Shulan opened his clothes, she saw a wound of over 10 centimeters on the left side of his chest, with a large bloody bruise extending from his shoulders to his back.

当舒兰以书面形式要求拍摄爱中死亡的照片、法医鉴定和文件时,610办公室的官员拒绝了她的要求,而劳改营的负责人告诉舒兰,如果她签署一份声明说爱中死于肾衰竭,她的要求就会得到满足。然而,尽管爱忠的亲属反对,他的遗体还是在两天后秘密火化,他的家人也没有收到他的骨灰。

When Shulan opened his clothes, she saw a wound of over 10 centimeters on the left side of his chest, with a large bloody bruise extending from his shoulders to his back. When Shulan asked to take photographs, forensic identification, and documentation of Aizhong’s death in writing, the officer from the 610 Office denied her request, while the head of the forced labor camp told Shulan that her demands would be met if she signed a statement saying that Aizhong died of kidney failure. However, Aizhong's body was secretly cremated two days later despite his relatives’ opposition, and his family never received his ashes.

一年后,舒兰公布了她哥哥的死亡细节,被判处七年半监禁。当地政府说服她的父亲陈云川放弃对儿子死亡的投诉,以换取一大笔养老金或住房。2009年1月,他被一辆不明车辆压死。

One year later, Shulan was sentenced to seven and a half years in prison after she publicized the details of her brother’s death. Local authorities persuaded her father, Chen Yunchuan, to abandon his complaint over his son’s death in exchange for a big pension or housing. He was crushed to death by an unknown vehicle in January 2009.

她的妹妹红萍在2003年3月被从劳改营释放后不久,在服用了药物后死亡。她的二哥艾莉从监狱里被释放,几乎没有生命危险;他于2004年11月去世。舒兰的母亲王连荣在2006年8月4日一个个失去孩子后去世。

Her younger sister, Hongping, died shortly after her release from a labor camp in March 2003 after being administered drugs. Her second brother, Aili, was released from prison barely clinging to life; he died in November 2004. Shulan’s mother, Wang Lianrong, died on August 4, 2006, after losing her children one by one.

然而,610办公室声称这些家庭成员突然死于心脏病、肾衰竭和车辆外伤。

However, the 610 Office claimed these family members died suddenly of heart disease, kidney failure and vehicular trauma.

这只是中国大陆数十万受迫害的法轮功学员家庭的一个缩影。

This is only a microcosm of the families of hundreds of thousands of persecuted Falun Gong practitioners in mainland China.

VI. 中国器官移植行业的大屠杀

VI. Mass Murder in China’s Organ Transplant Industry

1999年7月迫害首次开始后,来自中国各地的数百万法轮功学员前往北京,向中央政府申诉。他们中的许多人都被逮捕了,但他们不愿意透露自己的身份,以保护自己的家人和朋友。因此,他们成为国家关押的大批匿名人口的一部分。在接下来的几年里,全中国有越来越多的从业者。

After the persecution first began in July 1999, millions of Falun Gong practitioners from around China traveled to Beijing to appeal to the central government. Many of them were arrested but were unwilling to disclose their identities to protect their families and friends. They thus became part of a large anonymous population held captive by the State. In the following years, more practitioners were rounded up all across China.

法轮功修炼者是中国最大的良心犯群体,他们经常接受与器官功能有关的血液测试和医学检查。189但是,这些试验不是对一般监狱人口进行的,而是对法轮功学员和其他良心犯进行的。190 191 192 193“他们的检查因地而异,但总是包括这些中心部分:血液检查、尿检、心电图和腹部 x 光检查。至关重要的是,他们随后接受了一系列通常与组织匹配相符的后续医学测试。” 194“检测和体检不太可能有健康目的。”195

Falun Gong practitioners, the largest group of prisoners of conscience in China, are frequently subjected to blood tests and medical examinations related to organ function.189 These tests are not administered to the general prison population, however, but only to Falun Gong practitioners and other prisoners of conscience.190 191 192 193 “Their exams differed from location to location, but they invariably included these central components: a blood test, urine test, EKG, and x-rays of the abdomen. Crucially, they were then given a series of follow-up medical tests that usually correspond to tissue matching.”194 “It is unlikely that the testing and examination serve a health purpose.”195

明慧网公布了警察例行公事地到从业者家中强行采集 DNA 样本和进行血液测试的第一手资料。例如,2014年4月,贵州、辽宁、湖南、湖北、北京等地的警察闯入从业者的家中,强行采集血液样本和脸颊拭子。这些军官声称是在执行上面的命令。196

Minghui.org has published firsthand accounts of police routinely going to the homes of practitioners to forcibly take DNA samples and administer blood tests. For example, in April 2014, police in Guizhou, Liaoning, Hunan, Hubei, Beijing and other locations entered practitioners’ homes and forcibly took blood samples and cheek swabs. The officers claimed to be following orders from above.196

2003年9月,《公共卫生报》报道,时任卫生部副部长的黄洁夫在中南大学 Xiangya Third Hospital 举办了关于中国器官移植立法的讲座。他认为建立一个器官分配网络可以解决器官分配和管理的混乱局面。“在卫生行政部门的参与下,可逐步形成省、区、国三级的器官分配网络。该网络的部署将防止来源器官的来回运输,并将手术费用减少一半。此外,移植质量可以大大提高,因为等待时间可以缩短。” 197这个提议是在中国建立全国性器官捐献系统整整十年之前提出的,意味着存在着一个巨大的活体器官库。

In September 2003, the Public Health newspaper reported that Huang Jiefu, then Deputy Minister of Health, had held a lecture on China’s organ transplant legislation in Xiangya Third Hospital of Central South University. He suggested that setting up an organ allocation network could resolve the chaotic situation of organ allocation and management. “With the participation of the health administrative department, an organ allocation network at the provincial, regional and national levels could be gradually formed. The deployment of the network would prevent back-and-forth transportation of source organs and cut the surgical cost by half. Also, transplant quality can be greatly improved, because the waiting time can be shortened.”197 This proposal, made a full decade before a national organ donation system was established in China, suggests the existence of a huge living organ bank.

到2017年,中国的公安系统已经建立了一个包含4000多万人的国家生物数据库。198

China’s public security system had already built a national biological database of more than 40 million individuals by 2017.198

许多遭受非人道酷刑的法轮功幸存者报告说,他们被迫接受血液测试和体检;许多拒绝放弃信仰的修炼者直接消失了。

Many Falun Gong survivors of inhumane torture, nearly to the point of death, reported being forced to submit to blood tests and physical examinations; many practitioners who refused to renounce their faith simply disappeared.

受害者和失踪人员的亲属以及幸存者提供了大量证词和报告,表明法轮功修炼者因器官或器官采购目标而被杀害。例如,江西庆(男,66岁,重庆)的家人在2009年1月29日被告知他已经去世。前一天,当他的家人去劳改营看望他时,他看起来很健康。当江的亲属发现他的尸体在太平间冰箱里放了几个小时仍然温暖,并呼叫医疗救助时,他们被警察强行带走。两天后,家人被告知,父亲在因“制作标本”而被摘除器官后已被火化。

Relatives of victims and missing persons as well as survivors have provided ample testimony and reports that Falun Gong practitioners were killed for organs or targeted for organ procurement. For example, the family of Jiang Xiqing (male, age 66, Chongqing) was notified on January 29, 2009 that he had died. He appeared healthy when his family visited him in a labor camp the previous day. When Jiang’s relatives found that his body was still warm despite being in the mortuary freezer for hours and called for medical assistance, they were forcibly removed by police officers. Two days later, the family was informed that the father had been cremated after his organs were removed for “making specimens.”

一些案例和证词载于附录二和附录三。出于安全原因,逃离器官摘除的幸存者的证词在本报告中被省略,但可根据要求提供。

Some example cases and testimonies are included in Appendix II and Appendix III. For security reasons, testimonies of survivors who escaped organ harvesting are omitted from this report but are available upon request.

最近,血液和 DNA 样本的采集范围从法轮功扩大到了维吾尔族人和其他团体。人权观察组织(Human Rights Watch)报告称,在2017年全年,中国政府以公共健康项目为幌子,强行从1900万维吾尔族人中收集生物数据,包括 DNA 和血液样本。在这个项目中,所有公民都要接受体检。199截至2018年10月9日,超过100万维吾尔族和其他少数民族被关押在新疆的政治再教育营地。200此外,其他地区的警方也在大规模收集 DNA 样本,但没有说明收集的原因。全国范围内,警方已经制定了一个目标,到2020年 DNA 记录数量将翻一番,达到1亿份。201

The collection of blood and DNA samples has recently been expanded from Falun Gong to include Uyghurs and other groups. Human Rights Watch reported that throughout 2017, the Chinese government forcibly collected biological data, including DNA and blood samples, from 19 million Uyghurs under the guise of a free public health program in which all citizens are given physical examinations.199 More than one million Uyghurs and other minorities were being detained in political reeducation camps in Xinjiang as of October 9, 2018.200 Furthermore, police in other regions are also collecting DNA samples on a large scale without giving a reason for the collection. Nationwide, police have set a goal to double the number of DNA records to 100 million by 2020.201

这些数据库的发展表明,当局计划利用这些系统来扩大对更广大民众的监视和意识形态控制。

The development of such databases suggests that the regime plans to use these systems to expand its Surveillance and ideological control over a wider population.

1. 来自最高层的器官摘除指示

1. Direction of Organ Harvesting from Highest Levels

2014年9月30日,前中国人民解放军卫生总后勤部部长白树忠被一名假冒党调查员的调查员问话。白说,前共产党领导人江泽民下令从法轮功学员身上摘取器官,而且不仅限于军队。202

On September 30, 2014, Bai Shuzhong, former head of the People’s Liberation Army, General Logistics Department, Health Division, was questioned by an investigator who assumed the identity of a Party investigator. Bai said that former Communist Party leader Jiang Zemin had ordered the harvesting of organs from Falun Gong practitioners and that it was not limited to the military.202

“江主席在位的时候,非常重视这个问题,他在这个问题上给出了指示…… 关于出售人们的肾脏用于移植手术。我应该说,不仅仅是军方在做肾脏移植。江下达命令后,我们都做了很多反法轮功的工作…… 我们直接控制了军医大学。他们直接隶属于中国人民解放军总后勤部,多次接到命令。”

“Chairman Jiang, when he was in the position, put a lot of emphasis [on this issue], he gave instructions on this ... about selling people’s kidneys for transplant surgeries. I should say, it was not just the military that was doing kidney transplants. After Jiang issued the order, we all did a lot of work against Falun Gong … We directly control the military medical universities. They are directly affiliated with the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department, and they received repeated orders.”

白的任期从1998年到2004年,包括对法轮功的迫害的前五年。作为负责军队卫生系统后勤工作的最高官员,他本应是负责执行灭绝政策的主要人员。

Bai’s tenure in this position spanned from 1998 to 2004 and included the first five years of the persecution of Falun Gong. As the top officer in charge of logistics for the military health system, he would have been the primary person responsible for implementing the extermination policy.

2006年9月13日,时任商务部部长薄熙来在时任总理温家宝陪同下访问了德国汉堡。薄接到了一个调查人员打来的电话,他自称是中国驻德国大使馆的一等秘书。薄被问到是谁下令从活着的法轮功学员身上摘取器官,他回答说是”江主席”下的命令。203

On September 13, 2006, Bo Xilai, then-Minister of Commerce, visited Hamburg, Germany in the company of then-Premier Wen Jiabao. Bo received a phone call from an investigator posing as the First Secretary of the Chinese Embassy in Germany. Bo was asked who had issued the order to harvest organs from living Falun Gong practitioners, and he answered that it was “Chairman Jiang” who gave the order.203

2. 党的纪律与教化

2. Party Discipline and Indoctrination

对于共产党来说,国家是维持其统治的工具,法律是党的意志的体现。在长期的洗脑和灌输计划下,党成为了统治阶级的代表,领导人的意志成为了国家的意志。党的高压、严厉的政治执政形成了“党员个人服从党的组织,少数服从多数,下级党组织服从上级党组织,党的所有组成机构和党员服从党中央”的制度 204。任何不服从的个人或组织都会受到严厉的惩罚。

For the Communist Party, the state is a tool for maintaining its rule and laws are a manifestation of the will of the Party. Under its long-term brainwashing and indoctrination programs, the Party has become the representative of the ruling class, with the leader’s will becoming the will of the state. The Party’s high-pressure, harsh political governance has developed a system in which “individual Party members are subordinate to the Party organization, the minority is subordinate to the majority, the lower Party organizations are subordinate to the higher Party organizations, and all the constituent organizations and members of the Party are subordinate to the Central Committee of the Party.”204 Any noncompliant individual or organization is punished severely.

因此,当江泽民作为中国共产党总书记和中央军委主席下令铲除法轮功时,他能够指导全党乃至全社会不受法律约束地使用任何必要的手段实现他的意志。

Thus, when Jiang Zemin, as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, gave the order to eradicate Falun Gong, he was able to direct the entire Party and even all of society to carry out his will using any means necessary without being restrained by the law.

下面是一些灌输技术,使医生合理化从活人身上获取器官。

Below are some of the indoctrination techniques that have enabled doctors to rationalize harvesting organs from living people.

伊力哈木,前维吾尔族外科医生,在中国接受教育长大,现居伦敦。1995年,他被告知在一个处决地点从一名活着的囚犯身上提取器官。他在证词中解释了中国的医生是如何参与器官谋杀的。

Enver Tohti, a former Uyghur surgeon educated and raised in China, currently lives in London. He was told to extract the organs from a living prisoner at an execution site in 1995. He explains in his testimony how doctors in China become involved in killing for organs.

“任何人,如果他们给自己贴上共产主义者或共产党员以外的标签,那么他们就会被视为国家公敌。因此,他们甚至不具备人类的资格。因此,他们会受到任何可能的惩罚。”

“Anybody, if they label themselves [anything] other than communist, or Communist Party member, then they will be treated as an enemy of the state. Therefore, they are not even qualified as human beings. Therefore, they are subject to whatever punishment is available.”

“他们(党)使你不能独立思考。我的整个身体变成了一个机器人,做了我被编程要做的事情……” “所有从他们的体制毕业的人,他们也有同样的心态;他们是中共的产物。当时,我们相信能够参与消灭国家的敌人是一件光荣的事情,甚至真诚地相信我们所做的一切都是为了一个好的事业。”205

“They (the Party) made you unable to think [for] yourself. My whole body became a robot and [did] what I had been programmed to d…” “All the people [who] graduated from their system, they too have the same mindset; they are the product of the CCP. At the time, we believed that it was a glorious thing to be able to participate in doing away with the country’s enemies, even genuinely believing what we were doing [was] for a good cause.”205

2015年2月8日,复旦大学中山医院肝病科主任谭云山告诉海外记者:“所有捐献的肝脏都是从源头直接提取出来的。因为我们是自己提取的,而且可以获得关于捐赠器官的原始信息,所以我们可以确定捐赠的肝脏是否可以使用…… ”206

On February 8, 2015, Tan Yunshan, director of the liver disease department at Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, told an overseas reporter, “All the donor livers are directly extracted at the source. Because we do the extraction ourselves and have access to the original information about the donor organ, we would know for sure whether a donor liver can be used or not…”206

当被问及医院是否使用了法轮功修炼者的器官时,谭回答说:“我们不在乎这是否来自法轮功修炼者。我们不参与政治。作为医生,我们只关心供肝是否满足移植的要求。如果它符合要求,我们不在乎是谁送的。”

When asked whether the hospital used organs from Falun Gong practitioners, Tan answered, “We don’t care whether it’s from a Falun Gong practitioner or not. We don’t get involved in politics. As doctors, we only care about the donor liver, about whether it meets the requirements of transplantation. If it meets the requirements, we don’t care who it’s from.”

中国器官移植行业的官员在医疗行业积极领导这项运动。2001年2月,时任中山大学第一附属医院移植科主任的黄洁夫告诉媒体,“反对法轮功是一场严重的政治斗争。对付一小撮中坚反动派,我们不能心软。” 207 208不久之后,黄洁夫于次年11月被提升为卫生部副部长。209

Officials in China’s organ transplantation industry actively led this campaign in the medical profession. In February 2001, Huang Jiefu, then director of the transplant department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, told the media, “Opposing Falun Gong is a grave political struggle. We must not be softhearted when dealing with a little group of hardcore reactionaries.”207 208 Soon afterwards, Huang Jiefu was promoted to Deputy Minister of Health the following November.209

在没有器官捐赠的情况下,黄不仅尽一切努力促进中国器官移植产业化,而且亲自进行了大量的器官移植手术。在2013年的一次采访中,黄表示,仅在2012年,他就进行了500多例肝脏移植手术,其中11月的一例是“第一例符合中国标准的公民自愿捐献”。210在这些肝脏来源之前,上百个移植的肝脏在哪里?

Huang has not only made every effort to promote the industrialization of transplantation in China in the absence of organ donations but also personally conducted a large number of transplant surgeries. In a 2013 interview, Huang stated that he performed more than 500 liver transplants in 2012 alone and that one of them in November was “the first voluntary citizen donation meeting Chinese standards.”210 Where were the hundreds of livers transplanted before that sourced from?

除了作为中国最著名的器官移植外科医生之一,郑树森还担任浙江省反邪教协会主席。该协会由共产党领导层专门成立,旨在妖魔化法轮功,并监督修炼者的意识形态转变,通常是通过在押期间的身体和心理虐待。郑在2009年出版的《反法轮功》一书序言中写道:“‘法轮功等邪教就像病毒侵蚀人类机体,扭曲信徒灵魂,破坏社会秩序,扰乱经济发展,成为人类的公害,成为社会的毒瘤。”211 212 213

Zheng Shusen, in addition to his role as one of China’s most prominent transplant surgeons, also chairs the Zhejiang Province Anti-Cult Association, which was established by the Communist Party leadership specifically to demonize Falun Gong and oversee practitioners’ ideological conversion, usually through physical and psychological abuse in detention. In a preface to an anti-Falun Gong book published in 2009, Zheng wrote, “‘Falun Gong’ and similar evil religions are like viruses corroding the organism of humanity, warping the souls of believers, destroying social order, disrupting economic development, and have become a public nuisance to mankind and a cancer on society.”211 212 213

浙江大学第一附属医院有340张床位的肝胰胆科,包括3个专门的移植病房,据称是中国东部最大的移植中心。2142005年1月28日,郑先生在一天之内完成了5例肝脏移植手术,那一周共完成了11例手术,当时中国还没有器官捐献系统。215截至2017年10月,他进行了超过2200例肝脏移植手术。216

Zheng’s 340-bed hepatopancreatobiliary department at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, including three dedicated transplant wards, claimed to be the largest transplant center in eastern China.214 Zheng performed 5 liver transplants in one day on January 28, 2005 and a total of 11 that week; this took place when China did not have an organ donation system.215 As of October 2017, he had performed over 2,200 liver transplants.216

3. 主要党派、政府和军事机构

3. Key Party, Government, and Military Agencies

如前所述,中国进行器官移植的规模远远大于官方宣称的规模。国际上推广的“中国模式”器官捐赠被用作掩盖继续杀害良心犯的幌子,以此作为更大规模铲除行动的一部分。在幕后,中共动员了整个国家机器开展打击法轮功的运动。以下是基于公共信息参与的主要党、政府和军事机构的角色。内部人士的证词和承认填写了进行这种迫害的详细职责和操作。

As discussed earlier, China conducts organ transplants on a far larger scale than it officially claims. The internationally promoted “Chinese mode” of organ donation is used as a façade to hide the continued killing of prisoners of conscience as part of a larger eradication campaign. Behind the scenes, the CCP has mobilized the entire state apparatus to carry out its campaign against Falun Gong. Below are the roles of the main party, government, and military agencies involved based on public information. Insiders’ testimonies and admissions fill in detailed duties and operations in carrying out this persecution.

610办公室和政法委有权管理公安部(警察系统)、国家安全部、外交部等20多个党政机关和组织的人员和资源,以及全国各地的财政、教育、科学技术、卫生等领域。217它策划并推动了铲除法轮功的运动,其指令中包括了器官摘除组织。

The 610 Office and the Political and Legal Affairs Committee have the power to control personnel and resources under more than 20 Communist Party and government agencies and organizations, such as the Ministry of Public Security (police system), Ministry of State Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, various propaganda departments, and the fields of finance, education, science and technology, and health throughout the country.217 It orchestrates and drives the eradication campaign against Falun Gong, which includes organ harvesting in its directives.

卫生部及其继任机构国家卫生和计划生育委员会全面负责中国器官移植行业及其器官捐赠和分配制度的总体规划、决策、监管和管理。218

The Ministry of Health and its successor, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC), have been fully responsible for the overall planning, policy making, regulation and management of China's transplant industry and its organ donation and allocation system.218

中国人民解放军是世界上为数不多的属于政党而非国家的军队之一。江泽民授权总后勤部作为核心单位,领导各级军队铲除法轮功。军方被赋予管理和监督秘密拘留设施和集中营、监督器官采购以及派遣器官来源(活的“捐赠者”)的权力。219

The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is one of the few militaries in the world that belongs to a political party rather than the state. Jiang Zemin authorized the General Logistics Department to serve as the core unit to lead every level of the military to eradicate the practice of Falun Gong. The military was given the power to manage and oversee secret detention facilities and concentration camps, to supervise organ procurement as well as to dispatch organ sources (living “donors”).219

中国大陆有超过1000家民用、解放军和武警部队医院参与了这次器官移植。220 221

Over 1,000 civilian and PLA and Armed Police Force hospitals in mainland China have been involved in organ transplantation.220 221

2013年3月,在第十二届全国人民代表大会上,原卫生部解散,免去黄洁夫卫生部副部长职务。同时,新的国家卫生和计划生育委员会(NHFPC)成立。222一年后,国家器官捐赠与移植委员会成立,黄洁夫被任命为委员会主席。223尽管该委员会宣布,它将作为一个中央管理单位来指导和监督中国的器官移植和捐赠系统,但它不是一个政府机构。这种结构可能使中国政府避免因滥用移植器官而承担刑事责任和未来受到起诉。

In March 2013, at the Twelfth National People’s Congress, the former Ministry of Health was dissolved, and Huang Jiefu was relieved of his position as Deputy Minister of Health. Meanwhile, the new National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) was founded.222 One year later, the National Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee (NODTC) was established and Huang Jiefu was named the committee’s chairman. 223 Even though the committee declared that it would function as a central management unit to guide and oversee the organ transplant and donation system in China, it is not a government agency. This structure potentially allows the Chinese regime to avoid criminal liability and future prosecution for transplant abuses.

根据政府记录,虽然黄洁夫是国际公认的中国器官移植行业的发言人,但他不再担任政府职务。224黄宣布,中国在2015年1月1日后停止使用死囚器官,这一宣布无法追溯到任何官方颁布的政策声明或法律,也没有任何法律效力。2007年3月21日颁布的《国务院人体器官移植条例》225没有废除1984年关于允许从囚犯身上获取器官的《暂行条例》。1984年《暂行规定》今天仍然有效。

Even though Huang Jiefu is internationally recognized as the spokesperson for China’s transplant industry, according to government records, he no longer holds a government position.224 Huang’s announcement that China discontinued the use of organs from death-row prisoners after January 1, 2015 cannot be traced to any officially promulgated policy statements or laws, and it has no legal effect. The State Council’s Human Organ Transplant Ordinance, promulgated on March 21, 2007,225 did not abolish the Provisional Regulations of 1984 that allow the sourcing of organs from prisoners. The 1984 Provisional Regulations remain valid today.

4. 经济收益

4. Financial Gain

始于上世纪90年代的中国医疗体系改革迫使医院追逐利润以求生存。器官移植是一种不受价格控制的新服务,需要持续使用抗排斥药物,成为中国医院赚钱的主要途径。226

A reform in China’s health system that began in the 1990s forced hospitals to chase profits to survive. Transplantation, a new service that is not covered by price controls and requires ongoing use of anti-rejection drugs, became a primary way for hospitals in China to make money.226

2010年3月,《广州南方周末》报道称,自2000年以来,器官移植的销售已经成为“一个不会枯竭的高品位矿藏”。227

Guangzhou Southern Weekend reported in March 2010 that since 2000, the sale of organs for transplants has become “a mine of high-grade ore that can’t be exhausted.”227

2014年10月,Beijing Tsinghua Chang Gung Hospital 肝胆外科主任董家红向新华社透露:“对于肝癌患者来说,一次普通的肝切除手术可能要花费2万到3万元人民币。肝脏移植的花费可能超过20万人民币,而且每年都有后续费用。” 228处方免疫抑制药物也为医生提供回扣。

Dong Jiahong, director of the hepatobiliary surgery department at Beijing Tsinghua Chang Gung Hospital, revealed to Xinhua News Agency in October 2014, “For a liver cancer patient, an average liver resection may cost 20,000 to 30,000 RMB. Liver transplantation may cost over 200,000 RMB, and there are follow-up costs each year.”228 Prescribing immunosuppressant pharmaceuticals also provide doctors with a source of kickbacks.

截至2007年,中国国际器官移植网络援助中心(CITNAC)229的网站上列出了外国人的器官移植价格。肾脏移植的费用超过65,000美元,肝脏移植的费用为130,000美元,肺和心脏移植的费用都在150,000美元左右。230

As of 2007, the website of the China International Transplant Network Assistance Center (CITNAC)229 listed transplant prices for foreigners. Kidney transplants cost more than $65,000 USD, liver transplants were $130,000, and lung and heart transplants each cost around $150,000.230

2017年10月,朝鲜电视台的一项现场调查发现,天津中心医院韩国患者的常规肾移植费用为1.2亿至1.4亿韩元(约合90万元人民币或12万美元)。捐赠100,000元人民币(约合1500万韩元或13,000美元)可以加快移植手术从几周到几天。231

An on-site investigation by TV Chosun in October 2017 found that the regular kidney transplant cost for Korean patients at Tianjin Central Hospital was 120 million to 140 million South Korean won (about 900,000 RMB or $120,000 USD). A donation of 100,000 RMB [about 15 million won or $13,000 USD] above the regular charge could expedite the transplant from weeks to days.231

2007年5月,黄洁夫公开表示:“中国是世界上器官移植成本最低的国家之一。肝脏移植的费用大约是美国的1 / 10,而肾脏移植的费用大约是同样的1 / 10。”232

Huang Jiefu publicly stated in May 2007, “China is one of the cheapest countries in the world for organ transplants. Liver transplants [cost] about 1/10 of those in the U.S., and for kidney transplants it is about the same ratio [1/10].”232

然而,移植费用并不总是很低,取决于接受者的紧迫性和支付能力。例如,在2014年和2015年,居住在丹麦的中国国内事务专家杨光透露了中国东北一所医科大学附属的两家医院的内幕消息,那里的外国人器官移植价格不固定。通常,医院收取50万到100万美元的费用。在某些情况下,那些急需器官的有钱人,需要为器官移植和住院支付高达200万美元的费用。一名日本妇女接受了一名年轻女孩的肝脏,被索赔500万美元。233

However, transplant fees are not always low and depend on recipients’ urgency and ability to pay. For example, in 2014 and 2015, Yang Guang, an expert in Chinese domestic affairs who resides in Denmark, revealed the inside stories of two hospitals affiliated with a medical university in northeastern China where organ transplant prices for foreigners are not fixed. Usually, the hospitals charged $500,000 to $1 million USD. In some cases, those with money, desperate for organs, have been charged up to $2 million USD for a transplant and hospital stay. A Japanese woman who received a young girl’s liver was charged $5 million USD.233

位于北京的解放军第309医院器官移植中心网站公开表示:“我们的器官移植中心是我们的主要收入来源。2003年的总收入为1607万元人民币。2004年1月至6月,年收入1357万元人民币。今年(2004年)有机会突破3亿元人民币。”234 它的收入从2006年的3000万人民币进一步增长到2010年的2.3亿人民币,仅仅四年就增长了近8倍。235这个例子表明,2006年之后,器官移植的增长仍在继续,当时活的器官摘除第一次被暴露出来。

The website of the Organ Transplant Center of the People’s Liberation Army Hospital No. 309 in Beijing openly stated, “Our Organ Transplant Center is our main revenue source. Its gross income in 2003 was 16,070,000 RMB. From January to June of 2004, income was 13,570,000 RMB. This year (2004) there is a chance to break through 30,000,000 RMB.”234 Its revenue further rose from 30 million RMB in 2006 to 230 million RMB in 2010, an increase of nearly 8-fold in just four years.235 This example shows that the growth in organ transplantation continued after 2006 when the live organ harvesting was first exposed.

法轮功学员提供的大量器官供应对医院和器官移植专业人员来说是一个机会。病人为器官支付的大笔费用不仅用于医务人员和医院,而且部分用于军事和法律实体中为法轮功被拘留者提供器官的人。腐败在中国已经无处不在,杀害法轮功器官只是一个例子。

The massive organ supply available from Falun Gong practitioners is an opportunity for hospitals and transplant professionals. The large sums patients pay for organs go not only to medical personnel and hospitals but also, in part, to those in military and legal entities who provide Falun Gong detainees. Corruption has become pervasive in China, and the killing of Falun Gong for their organs is but one example.

5. 全球扩张236

5. Global Expansion236

中国对器官移植有着巨大的需求。中国负责器官移植的最高官员黄洁夫将限制因素归结为缺乏合格的医院和经验丰富的医生,而不是器官供应。237 238他在2015年宣布,计划在未来几年内,将核准的移植医院数量从169家增加到300家,甚至增加到500家。2392017年8月,黄宣布,中国将把核准的器官移植医院数量增加到300家,到2020年实施世界上最多的器官移植手术。240

There is enormous demand for transplants in China. Huang Jiefu, China’s top transplant official, attributed the limiting factor not to organ availability but rather to a lack of qualified hospitals and experienced doctors.237 238 He announced plans in 2015 to increase the number of approved transplant hospitals from 169 to 300 and even to 500 over the next few years.239 Huang declared in August 2017 that China would increase the number of approved transplant hospitals to 300 and perform the most transplants in the world by 2020.240

除了延续入境器官移植旅游,中国正在寻求让其他地区的居民能够获得在大陆采购的器官。2014年12月,黄洁夫访问台湾,推动建立一个“两岸器官交换平台” ,将大陆的器官出口到台湾,以便“患者不再需要前往大陆接受器官移植。”241

In addition to perpetuating inbound transplant tourism, China is seeking to make organs procured in the mainland available to residents in other regions. Huang Jiefu visited Taiwan in December 2014 to promote a “cross-strait organ exchange platform” to export organs from the mainland to Taiwan so that “patients would no longer need to travel to China to undergo transplants.”241

2015年8月,他还将中国的器官移植推广到海外市场,他说:“中国未来的器官移植成本仍将是世界上最便宜、最便宜、质量最高的。”242

He also promoted transplantation in China to overseas markets in August 2015, stating, “The future transplant costs in China will still be the cheapest, most accessible in the world, and of high quality.”242

中国通过公关活动塑造了一种改革形象,在这些活动中,中国展示了伪造的数据和未执行的计划,同时将国家驱动的系统性滥用的证据斥为孤立的刑事案件。这导致一些国际组织赞同“中国模式”的器官捐赠和移植,并与其移植实体恢复合作。

China has created an image of reform through public relations campaigns in which it presents falsified data and unimplemented plans while dismissing evidence of state-driven systemic abuse as isolated criminal cases. That has led some international organizations to endorse the “Chinese mode” of organ donation and transplantation and renew collaboration with its transplant entities.

2017年11月,中国器官移植发展基金会与澳门卫生局签署了器官共享协议,以缓解当地器官短缺的问题。澳门、香港和台湾的居民可以通过 COTRS 登记器官。截至2017年12月,有519名香港居民和50名澳门居民在中国大陆接受了器官移植。243

The China Organ Transplantation Development Foundation (COTDF) signed an organ sharing agreement with the Macau Health Bureau in November 2017 to alleviate the organ shortage there. Residents of Macau, Hong Kong, and Taiwan can register for organs through COTRS. As of December 2017, 519 Hong Kong and 50 Macau residents had received organ transplants in mainland China. 243

这些扩张计划并不局限于亚洲。在2017年中国器官移植大会上,黄洁夫颁发了器官移植作为中国“一带一路”倡议的一部分。该倡议旨在加强中国与亚洲、欧洲、非洲和大洋洲其他地区之间的经济和政治联系。2442017年11月,Tahoe 集团向中国匹兹堡大学发展基金捐赠了1亿元人民币,并与中国医疗中心签署了战略合作备忘录,引进其在器官移植和其他领域的领先技术和专业知识。245

These expansion plans are not limited to Asia. At the 2017 Chinese Transplant Conference, Huang Jiefu presented organ transplantation as part of China’s “One Belt, One Road Initiative”. The initiative aims to strengthen economic and political ties between China and other parts of Asia, Europe, Africa, and Oceania.244 In November 2017, the Tahoe Group, which has donated 100 million RMB to the COTDF, signed a memorandum of strategic cooperation with the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center to import its leading technology and expertise in organ transplantation and other subjects.245

在2000年至2017年间,一项2018年对445篇关于中华人民共和国的器官移植的研究论文进行的研究发现,超过90% 的论文未能达到国际公认的伦理标准,这些论文涉及来自死刑犯的生物材料。

A 2018 study of 445 research papers on organ transplantation in China that were published in peer-reviewed English language journals between 2000 and 2017 found that more than 90% of the papers failed to meet international accepted ethical standards for publication of research involving biological material from executed prisoners.

一个由150名中国专家组成的代表团参加了2018年7月在马德里举行的器官移植协会大会,一些西方移植专家支持中国的器官捐赠制度,尽管有可信的指控称中国存在滥用器官的。

A delegation of 150 Chinese experts took part in the July 2018 Congress of The Transplantation Society in Madrid, where some Western transplant experts endorsed China’s organ donation system despite credible allegations of transplant abuses.

世界卫生组织器官捐赠和移植项目的医学主任 José Núñez 说:“国际移植就像一艘船,多年来,中国一直在船外游泳。现在,随着中国的加入,这艘船正以前所未有的速度前进。” 246据报道,他补充说,“中国的努力正在引领船只前进的方向。”247

José Núñez, the medical director of the World Health Organization’s organ donation and transplantation program, said, “International transplantation is like a boat, and for many years, China was swimming outside of the boat. Now the boat, with China jumping on board, is moving faster than ever before.”246 He reportedly added, “China’s efforts are leading the boat’s way.”247

中国的器官谋杀和全球器官移植系统的扩张给世界各地的政府、机构和个人带来了道德挑战。

China’s killing for organs and global expansion of its transplant system raise ethical challenges for governments, institutions, and individuals around the world.

VII. 事实摘要

VII. Summary of Facts

从2000年开始,中国的器官移植行业开始呈指数级增长,在短短几年时间里,中国进行的器官移植手术比其他任何国家都多,尽管死刑执行率在下降,自愿器官捐献系统也不存在。248 249 250在2006年首次引起国际关注后,其器官移植产业继续增长。

Beginning in 2000, the transplant industry in China began growing exponentially and China came to perform more transplants than any other nation in just a few years despite a declining rate of death-row executions and the absence of a voluntary organ donation system.248 249 250 Its transplant industry continued to grow after the killing of prisoners of conscience for organs first gained international attention in 2006.

根据政府对器官移植中心实施的最低移植床要求,由卫生部批准的164家移植医院将有能力每年进行超过7万例移植手术。然而,大多数被批准的医院都超过了政府规定的最低床位数。有些医院有数百张专门用于器官移植的床位,床位利用率超过100% 。此外,许多没有得到许可的中心在2007年后继续进行移植手术。因此,中国每年进行的器官移植手术的实际数量很可能远远高于最低系统容量的70,000例,也比官方引用的每年10,000到15,000例的数字高出一个数量级。

Based on government-imposed minimum transplant bed requirements for transplant centers, the 164 Ministry-approved transplant hospitals would have the capacity to conduct more than 70,000 transplants per year. However, most of the approved hospitals exceed the government-stipulated minimum bed counts. Some have hundreds of beds dedicated to organ transplantation with bed utilization rates beyond 100%. In addition, many centers that did not receive permits continued to perform transplants after 2007. The actual number of transplants performed yearly in China is therefore likely to be much higher than the minimum system capacity of 70,000 and an order of magnitude greater than the officially cited figures of between 10,000 to 15,000 transplants per year.

尽管中国声称自2015年以来捐献器官已经成为唯一的器官来源,但中国仍继续根据需求进行器官移植,其规模远远超过官方统计的每年1.5万例。此外,大量的外国人继续前往中国进行器官移植,尽管官方的声明与此相反。

Despite its claim that donations have become the sole organ source since 2015, China continues to perform transplants on demand on a scale far greater than its official figure of 15,000 per year. Additionally, large numbers of foreigners continue to travel to China for organ transplants despite official statements to the contrary.

国家器官捐献与分配制度(COTRS)被用作非法器官清洗的幌子。鉴于在美国登记的捐助者和实际捐助者的比例,截至2017年底,在中国登记的捐助者总数可能不到29个。此外,各地区报告的捐赠数量,包括医院重症监护病房的捐赠数量,也无法支持官方已经被低估的器官移植数量。

The national organ donation and allocation system (COTRS) is used as a façade to launder illicitly obtained organs. Given the ratio of registered and actual donors in the United States, the number of registered donors in China, as of the end of 2017, would likely have yielded fewer than 29 donors in total. Furthermore, the number of reported donations from various regions, including from hospital intensive care units, also cannot support the official number of transplants, which is already understated.

监管没有跟上所宣称的改革步伐。中国的器官捐赠体系和监管框架仍处于初级阶段,无法支撑中国进行的器官移植数量,更不用说满足中国器官移植行业的需求本质了。据称为捐赠系统提供监管的机构仍然是空壳,大多数用于移植的器官不是,也不可能来自国家捐赠和分配系统,这个系统作为中国器官移植的主要来源提供给国际社会。

Regulation has not kept pace with claimed reform. China’s organ donation system and regulatory framework are still in their early stages and cannot support the number of transplants being performed in China, let alone accommodate the on-demand nature of China’s transplant industry. Agencies that purportedly provide regulatory oversight for the donation system remain empty shells, and most organs used for transplants do not, and cannot, come from the national donation and allocation system that is presented to the international community as the primary source of transplant organs in China.

器官的替代来源必须存在,因为自愿捐赠根本无法支持每年进行的器官移植的实际数量。专家们承认,近年来刑事处决的数量有所下降,但有证据表明,继续通过法外处决有系统地从良心犯那里获取器官。从这些器官中获取器官,是为了帮助共产党摧毁它所宣称的“国家公敌” 它还服务于共产党的“统一战线”努力,以获得对外国政要和海外华人精英的影响力,并提供名望和经济利益,以鼓励医院和医生参与这些杀戮。251

An alternate source of organs must exist because voluntary donations simply cannot support the actual number of transplants performed every year. Experts acknowledge a decline in the number of criminal executions in recent years while evidence exists that organs continue to be procured systematically from prisoners of conscience via extrajudicial killings. The harvesting of organs from this source serves the Communist Party’s campaign to destroy what it declared to be an “enemy of the state.” It also serves the Communist Party’s “United Front” efforts to gain influence with foreign dignitaries and the elite among overseas Chinese, and provides fame and financial gain with which to incentivize hospitals and doctors to participate in these killings.251

移植器官的主要来源必须是法轮功学员,他们是中国最大的良心犯群体。铲除法轮功的运动是由中国共产党中央领导下令,通过610个办公室的网络进行协调,并通过军事单位和文职政府机构开展,包括执法、司法和刑事系统。中国政府利用政治灌输,包括煽动对法轮功的仇恨,以及个人利益的前景来鼓励政府官员和医务人员参与这项运动。结果,法轮功学员在国家拘留所和家中遭到有系统的监禁、酷刑,并被强迫接受血液测试和其他与器官功能有关的医学检查,在此之后,数十万名法轮功学员人间蒸发。

The main source of transplanted organs must be Falun Gong practitioners, who constitute the largest group of prisoners of conscience in China. The campaign to eradicate Falun Gong was ordered by the central leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, coordinated through a network of 610 Offices, and carried out through both military units and civilian government agencies, including law enforcement, the judiciary, and the penal system. The Chinese regime used political indoctrination, including incitement of hatred against Falun Gong, and the prospect of personal gain to incentivize both government officials and medical professionals to participate in the campaign. As a result, Falun Gong practitioners have been systematically imprisoned, tortured, and forcibly subjected to blood tests and other medical examinations related to organ function, both in state custody and in their homes, after which many, numbering in the hundreds of thousands, have simply disappeared.

该政权还加强了对其他宗教团体的迫害,包括维吾尔穆斯林、藏传佛教徒和家庭基督徒。目前有100多万维吾尔族人被关押在新疆的政治改造营中,受到类似于法轮功的”改造”手段。他们被强制进行血液测试,接受其他医学检查,并收集 DNA 数据。中国共产党现在正在扩大再教育运动、监督和器官摘除的目标,以利用中国各地更多的人口。

The regime has also intensified its persecution of other faith groups, including Uyghur Muslims, Tibetan Buddhists, and House Christians. More than one million Uyghurs are now detained in political reeducation camps in Xinjiang and subjected to similar “transformation” techniques as those used on Falun Gong. They have been forcibly blood tested, given other medical examinations, and had DNA data collected. The Communist Party is now expanding its targets for reeducation campaigns, surveillance, and organ harvesting to exploit much larger populations across China.

中国正在向国外扩展移植系统,并寻求通过器官共享协议和其他形式的国际组织与中国移植医院和人员的接触,包括学术合作、商业交易和移植旅游,重新定义其作为全球领导者的角色。

China is expanding its transplant system outside its borders and is seeking to redefine its role as a global leader through organ sharing agreements and other forms of engagement by international parties with Chinese transplant hospitals and personnel, including academic collaboration, commercial transactions, and transplant tourism.

VIII. 法律适用

VIII. Application to Law

1. 群体灭绝

1. Genocide

联合国防止及惩治灭绝种族罪公约安理会第二条规定:252

Article II of the United Nations’ Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide states:252

“在本公约中,群体灭绝是指下列任何一种行为,意图全部或部分消灭一个民族、人种、种族或宗教团体:

“In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

(a)杀害该团体的成员;

(a) Killing members of the group;

(b)对该团体成员造成严重的身体或精神伤害;

(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;

(c)故意使该群体处于某种生活状况,以便使其全部或部分遭到实际破坏;

(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;

(d)实施旨在防止群体内生育的措施;以及

(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; and

(e)强行将该群体的儿童转移到另一群体。

(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

要得出群体灭绝行为已经发生的结论,就必须证明某一受保护群体是目标,对该群体成员采取了一项或多项被禁止的行为,而且这些行为的目的是全部或部分摧毁受保护群体本身。”

To conclude that genocide has been committed requires showing that a protected group was targeted, that one or more of the prohibited acts were taken against members of the group, and that the acts were committed with an intent to destroy the protected the group as such, in whole or in part.”

根据这些要求,本分析认为,没有合理的理由怀疑对法轮功学员实施了群体灭绝。

Based on these requirements, this analysis finds no reasonable basis for doubt that genocide has been committed against Falun Gong practitioners.

a) 将法轮功归类为宗教团体并将其作为攻击目标

a) Categorization and Targeting of Falun Gong as a Religious Group

中国政府的强制改宗政策毫无例外地将法轮功作为一个宗教团体明确定为“转化”计划,要求修炼者公开放弃他们的精神信仰,交出与这些信仰有关的经文和其他材料,并参与强迫其他修炼者改变信仰。正如在马三家制定的转变标准所示,法轮功修炼者是否提前释放和 / 或遭受酷刑完全取决于他或她是否放弃其精神信仰,而不是取决于与在押期间的任何罪行或行为有关的因素。

The Chinese regime’s policy of forced conversion without exception expressly targets Falun Gong as a religious group as the “transformation” program requires that practitioners publicly renounce their spiritual beliefs, surrender texts and other materials related to those beliefs, and participate in the forcible conversion of other practitioners. As shown in the transformation standards developed at Masanjia, whether a Falun Gong practitioner is released early and/or tortured depends entirely upon the renunciation of his or her spiritual faith rather than elements connected to any crimes or behavior in custody.

b) 群体灭绝行为

b) Acts of Genocide

第一手证词和权威报告都表明,“转化”过程包括有系统地实施身心酷刑。这种酷刑已造成至少4,258名从业人员(身份确认案件)死亡。253江泽民的指示赋予监狱官员权力,“把他们打死没什么…… 如果他们死了,就算是自杀” ,在改造法轮功学员时,他们甚至可以毫无节制地使用致命武力。此外,政府还授权各级610办公室、监狱、劳改营、精神病院、洗脑中心和黑监狱使用药物迷惑、致残,甚至杀害法轮功学员。

Both firsthand testimonies and authoritative reports show that the “transformation” process includes the systematic application of physical and psychological torture. This torture has caused the deaths of at least 4,258 practitioners (verified cases with identities).253 Prison officials were empowered by Jiang Zemin’s directive, “Beating them to death is nothing … If they die, it counts as suicide,” to be entirely unrestrained in their use of even lethal force when transforming Falun Gong practitioners. Furthermore, the regime authorizes all levels of the 610 Office, prisons, labor camps, mental hospitals, brainwashing centers, and black jails to use drugs to disorient, disable, and even kill Falun Gong practitioners.

中国政府还大规模地法外处决了法轮功修炼者以摘取器官。官方承认的器官来源(自愿捐献和以前死囚区处决)的数量与实际进行的器官移植数量之间的脱节就说明了这一点。证人证词证实,法轮功学员被强行进行了血液测试和医疗检查,但普通监狱人口却没有这样做,从而突显了这种脱节。这些杀戮是国家驱动的消灭法轮功运动的一部分。

The Chinese regime has also extrajudicially killed of Falun Gong practitioners for organ harvesting on a large scale. This is shown by the disconnect between the number of officially acknowledged organ sources (voluntary donations and formerly death-row executions) and the number of transplants actually performed. This disconnect is underscored by witness testimonies confirming that blood tests and medical examinations were forcibly administered to Falun Gong practitioners but not the general prison population. These killings have been carried out as part of a state-driven campaign to eliminate Falun Gong.

在种族灭绝行为中,我们的分析发现,中国政权满足了《公约》(a)“杀害该集团成员”和(b)“对该集团成员造成严重身体或精神伤害”的各项规定。

Among the acts of genocide, our analysis finds that the Chinese regime has satisfied the Convention’s subsections of (a) “Killing members of the group” and (b) “Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group.”

c) 意图摧毁法轮功

c) Intent to Destroy Falun Gong

中国政权摧毁法轮功的意图可以从其指令和行动中推断出来。通过将所有从业者送到洗脑机构“绝对没有例外”的政策,该组织清楚地表明了其摧毁整个集团的意图 这项政策给这个群体的每个成员留下了两个选择:通过违背他们的良心放弃他们真诚持有的宗教信仰来停止成为这个群体的一部分,或者通过酷刑和潜在的器官摘除被实际摧毁。

The Chinese regime’s intent to destroy Falun Gong can be inferred from both its directives and its actions. It made clear its intent to destroy the group as a whole through its policy to “transform” all practitioners by sending them to brainwashing facilities “with absolutely no exceptions.” This policy leaves each member of the group with two options: to cease being part of the group by renouncing their sincerely held religious beliefs against their conscience or to be physically destroyed through torture and potential organ harvesting.

中国政权最高层的指示是毁掉他们的名誉,在财政上摧毁他们,在肉体上摧毁他们。最后一个环节是通过中国的执法系统,对法轮功学员实施酷刑至死,并通过使用神经、器官和 / 或脑损伤药物杀死他们。为了满足中国器官移植行业的贪婪需求,还通过中国医疗系统摘取了法轮功学员的器官。

The directive from the highest level of the regime was to ruin their reputations, break them financially, and destroy them physically. The last component, physical destruction, has been carried out through the Chinese law enforcement system by torturing Falun Gong practitioners to death and killing them through the administration of nerve, organ, and/or brain-damaging drugs. It has also been carried out through the Chinese medical system by harvesting the organs of Falun Gong practitioners to supply the rapacious demands of the Chinese organ transplant industry.

中国政权通过媒体渠道和直接干预工作场所和学校,蓄意煽动对法轮功的仇恨。因此,许多公众,包括一些从业者的家人和朋友,对从业者遭受的暴行视而不见,在许多情况下,甚至代表国家积极参与实施迫害。

The Chinese regime has deliberately incited hatred against Falun Gong through both media channels and direct intervention in workplaces and schools. As a result, much of the public, including some practitioners’ families and friends, turn a blind eye to the brutalities committed against practitioners and, in many cases, even participate actively in carrying out the persecution on behalf of the state.

器官移植领导人黄洁夫和郑树森发表的贬义文章,是一场宣传运动的表现形式,这场宣传运动如此普遍,以至于即使在医疗领域,医生和其他人员也被迫参与该政权铲除法轮功的运动。在纳粹政权为迫害其认为不受欢迎的团体而进行的宣传中也可以找到类似的语言。

Derogatory writings published by transplantation leaders Huang Jiefu and Zheng Shusen are manifestations of a propaganda campaign so pervasive that, even within the medical field, doctors and other personnel were driven to participate in the regime’s campaign to eradicate Falun Gong. Similar language can be found in propaganda used by the Nazi regime to justify its persecution of groups it deemed undesirable.

正如共产党高层领导人、对法轮功学员进行转化和折磨的警察以及器官移植医生中的领导人的声明所表明的那样,中国政权对法轮功学员采取的行动,包括身体和心理折磨、强迫注射神经损伤药物以及为器官杀人,都是为了从肉体上摧毁这个宗教团体。

As shown by the statements of top Communist Party leaders, police officers who carry out the transformation and torture of practitioners, and leaders among transplant doctors, the actions taken by the Chinese regime against Falun Gong practitioners, including physical and psychological torture, forced injections of nerve-damaging drugs, and killing for organs, are done with the intent to physically destroy the religious group.

d) 总结

d) Conclusion

实际上,中国政府的政策迫使从业者在两种选择中做出选择:(1)放弃宗教信仰;(2)继续无休止的折磨;服用神经损伤药物;甚至为器官而被杀害。对于一个真正的信徒,放弃自己的信仰意味着精神上的死亡,而坚持自己的信仰,考虑到迫害,可能会导致身体上的排斥。从这两个角度来看,中国政权都试图系统地消灭法轮功。

In effect, the Chinese regime’s policy forces practitioners to make a choice between (1) giving up their religious beliefs or (2) sustaining endless torture, the administration of nerve-damaging drugs, or even being killed for organs. For a true believer, renouncing one’s faith means spiritual death, while persevering in one’s belief, given the persecution, likely leads to physical elimination. From both perspectives, the Chinese regime has attempted to systematically annihilate Falun Gong.

2. 危害人类罪

2. Crimes Against Humanity

根据国际法,确定是否实施了危害人类罪要求存在某些相关因素和实施某些被禁止的行为。

Under international law, the determination as to whether crimes against humanity have been committed requires the existence of certain contextual elements and the performance of certain prohibited acts.

所需的背景要素是:(1)广泛或有系统地针对任何平民人口的攻击;(2)被禁止的行为与攻击之间的联系;(3)被告知道攻击。最高国际刑事法院罗马规约还要求攻击必须是“依据或推进国家或组织政策”。

The required contextual elements are (1) a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, (2) a nexus between the prohibited acts and the attack, and (3) knowledge of the attack by the accused. The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court also requires that the attack be “pursuant to or in furtherance of a State or organizational policy.”

界定危害人类罪的所有三项联合国规约所禁止的行为是:254 255 256

The acts prohibited by all three United Nations statutes defining crimes against humanity are:254 255 256

(a)谋杀;

(a) murder;

(b)灭绝;

(b) extermination;

(c)奴役;

(c) enslavement;

(d)递解离境;

(d) deportation;

(e)监禁;

(e) imprisonment;

(f)酷刑;

(f) torture;

(g)强奸;

(g) rape;

(h)基于政治、种族和宗教理由的迫害;以及

(h) persecutions on political, racial and religious grounds; and

(i)其他不人道行为。

(i) other inhumane acts.

我们的分析将这些要求应用于事实,并得出结论认为,中国政权打击法轮功的行动满足了构成危害人类罪的所有要素。

Our analysis applies these requirements to the facts and concludes that the Chinese regime’s campaign against Falun Gong has satisfied all of the elements that constitute crimes against humanity.

a)针对平民人口的广泛或有系统的攻击

a) A Widespread or Systematic Attack Directed Against a Civilian Population

自从1999年铲除法轮功运动开始以来,中国政权对法轮功学员的监禁、酷刑、谋杀、迫害和其他行为都有详尽的记录。共产党自己的指示也明确指出,这次袭击是针对平民的(法轮功)。

The Chinese regime’s imprisonment, torture, murder, persecution, and other acts against Falun Gong practitioners have been well-documented since the eradication campaign began in 1999. It has also been made clear in the Communist Party’s own directives that the attack was directed against a civilian population (Falun Gong).

事实表明,这次袭击在地理位置、频率和受害者人数上都很普遍。在正式开始运动之前,江泽民指示“所有部委,所有省份,所有城市”与610办公室密切合作。事实上,在中国的每一个省份和直辖市,法轮功学员都因其信仰而被逮捕和监禁。全中国至少有成千上万的信徒因为信仰而被拘留,超过4000人被证实死于迫害的直接后果。

The facts show that the attack is widespread in geography, frequency, and number of victims. Before the official start of the campaign, Jiang Zemin directed that “all ministries, all provinces, and all cities” cooperate closely with the 610 Office. Indeed, Falun Gong practitioners have been arrested and imprisoned for their faith in every province and directly-controlled municipality of China. At least hundreds of thousands of practitioners across China have been detained for their faith, and over four thousand have been confirmed to have died as a direct result of the persecution.

这种攻击也是有系统的。该计划由中国共产党最高领导层规划,并通过一个有组织的政府机构结构实施,其中包括610办公室、政治和法律事务委员会、各部委、执法机构、司法部门和军队。610办公室制定了标准程序(例如马三家转换标准) ,并通过其指挥系统传达其指令,由当地人员执行。它还监督从业者的整个转变过程,从监控到逮捕、监禁和洗脑。

The attack is also systematic. It has been planned by the top Communist Party leadership and carried out through an organized structure of government agencies, including the 610 Office, the Political and Legal Affairs Committee, various ministries, law enforcement agencies, the judiciary, and the military. The 610 Office established standard procedures (e.g. the Masanjia transformation standards) and transmitted its directives through its chain of command to be implemented by local personnel. It also oversees the entire transformation process of practitioners, from monitoring to apprehension, incarceration, and brainwashing.

b) 攻击的知识和关系

b) Knowledge of and Nexus for the Attack

由于这场运动的中央控制性质,共产党的授权人员,包括警察和法官,在充分了解当局对法轮功团体的攻击及其铲除该团体的意图的情况下,对法轮功学员实施了被禁止的行为。

Because of the centrally controlled nature of the campaign, the Communist Party’s authorized agents, including police officers and judges, carried out the prohibited acts against Falun Gong practitioners with full knowledge of the regime’s attack on the group and its intention to eradicate the group.

一些警察在酷刑期间告诉修炼者,他们打算“让(法轮功学员)的生活比死亡更糟糕” ,或者发表类似的言论,表明他们了解共产党政权的整体攻击,以及他们自己在这场运动中的角色。其他官员,即使他们没有从行为中获得个人享受,也被迫逮捕从业人员,因为他们的工作受到威胁。同样,参与强迫注射神经损害药物的医生也承认违反医学道德,因为如果他们不能完成”政治任务” ,他们的工作就会受到威胁。

Some police officers told practitioners during torture that they intended to “make [Falun Gong practitioners’] lives worse than death” or made similar remarks that indicated knowledge of the communist regime’s overall attack and their own roles within the campaign. Other officers, even if they did not derive personal enjoyment from the act, were compelled to arrest practitioners because their jobs were threatened otherwise. Similarly, doctors who participated in the forced administration of nerve-damaging drugs have admitted to carrying out the acts in violation of medical ethics because their jobs were threatened if they failed to complete the “political task.”

此外,由于修炼法轮功在中国是受宪法保护的权利,不受法律禁止,执法和司法人员在执行公务时,除了执行政权攻击法轮功的任务外,没有理由因其宗教信仰而逮捕或起诉修炼法轮功的人员。

Furthermore, because practicing Falun Gong is a constitutionally protected right in China and not prohibited by law, law enforcement and judicial officials would have no reason to arrest or prosecute Falun Gong practitioners on account of their religious belief in the course of their official duties other than to carry out the regime’s attack on Falun Gong.

c) 国家和组织政策

c) State and Organizational Policy

对法轮功学员的袭击是中共中央领导层下达指令的结果,其中包括毫无例外地通过任何必要手段”改造”所有学员的政策、有罪不罚的政策,甚至奖励造成学员死亡的警察。这些指令的目的是毁掉他们的名誉,在经济上摧毁他们,在身体上摧毁他们。610办公室还在拘留设施中积极推广对法轮功学员使用的酷刑方法和其他被禁止的行为。

The attack carried out on Falun Gong practitioners is the result of directives issued by the central Communist Party leadership, including its policy of “transforming” all practitioners without exception and through any means necessary, its policy of impunity and even rewards for police officers who caused the deaths of practitioners in their charge. The directives aim to ruin their reputations, break them financially, and destroy them physically. The 610 Office has also actively promoted torture methods and other prohibited acts across detention facilities for use against Falun Gong practitioners.

国家还通过资助和其他方式促进器官移植的工业化,而不是试图建立一个器官捐赠和分配系统,而这个系统对于器官的道德采购是必需的。

The state has also perpetuated the killing of prisoners of conscience for organs by funding and otherwise promoting the industrialization of organ transplantation without attempting to build an organ donation and allocation system that would have been required for the ethical sourcing of organs.

d) 违禁行为的实施

d) Commission of Underlying Prohibited Acts

自从中国政府开始铲除法轮功运动以来,它已经系统地在警察局、看守所、黑监狱、监狱、强制劳动营、精神病院、洗脑中心和其他设施中关押和虐待修炼者。本文件和其他报告都详细记录了大量关于酷刑的报道,包括监狱当局和当局煽动的囚犯实施的强奸和性虐待。还得出结论认为,中国政权为获取器官杀害了大量法轮功学员。

Since the Chinese regime began its campaign to eradicate Falun Gong, it has systematically confined and abused practitioners in police stations, detention centers, black jails, prisons, forced labor camps, mental hospitals, brainwashing centers, and other facilities. Widespread accounts of torture have been thoroughly documented both within this document and in other reports, including rape and sexual abuse by prison authorities and by inmates instigated by the authorities. It has also been concluded that the Chinese regime has killed large numbers of Falun Gong practitioners for the purpose of organ procurement.

通过“转化”运动和器官摘除实践的结合,中国政权至少犯下了(a)谋杀、(b)灭绝、(c)奴役、(e)监禁、(f)酷刑、(g)强奸、(h)迫害,以及(i)其他针对法轮功学员的非人道行为,这些都是攻击法轮功的一部分。

Through a combination of its “transformation” campaign and organ harvesting practices, the Chinese regime has committed, at a minimum, acts of (a) murder, (b) extermination, (c) enslavement, (e) imprisonment, (f) torture, (g) rape, (h) persecution, and (i) other inhumane acts against Falun Gong practitioners as part of its attack on the group.

e) 总结

e) Conclusion

我们的分析得出结论,中国共产党政权对法轮功犯下了反人类罪。

Our analysis concludes that crimes against humanity have been committed by the Chinese communist regime against Falun Gong.

IX. 建议

IX. Recommendations

根据本报告提出的事实和分析,中国器官摘取研究中心敦促:

Based on the facts and analysis presented in this report, COHRC urges:

1. 国家元首和国家立法机构发表声明,谴责并呼吁中国共产党政权停止迫害法轮功学员和其他良心犯的器官摘除;并呼吁中国政府允许国际调查人员对移植设施、登记数据和器官捐赠记录进行独立检查。

1. Heads of state and national legislatures to issue statements to condemn and call for an end to the persecution and organ harvesting organs of Falun Gong practitioners and other prisoners of conscience by the Chinese communist regime; and call upon the Chinese government to allow international investigators to conduct independent inspections of transplant facilities, registry data, and organ donation records.

2. 各国政府禁止前往其他国家接受来自非法或不明来源的器官,并禁止为这种移植和术后护理提供财政补偿,以防止其公民在不知情的情况下成为这种种族灭绝的同谋。

2. National governments to prohibit travel to other countries to receive organs from illegal or unidentified sources, as well as prohibit financial reimbursement for such transplants and postoperative care, so as to prevent their citizens from unwittingly becoming complicit in this genocide.

3. 各国政府寻求将中国政治犯滥用器官移植问题纳入联合国和欧盟的器官交易决议,敦促成员国通过与伊斯坦布尔宣言卫生组织相一致的立法。

3. National governments to seek the inclusion of organ transplant abuse involving prisoners of conscience in China in organ trafficking resolutions of the United Nations and the European Union to urge member states to adopt legislation consistent with the Declaration of Istanbul.

4. 各国政府建议对参与从良心犯或其他非自愿捐献者身上摘取器官或组织的个人实施制裁。

4. National governments to recommend sanctions for individuals involved in the harvesting of organs or tissues from prisoners of conscience or other involuntary donors.

5. 卫生部门为教育和提高认识举措提供资金,向公众宣传出国进行器官移植的医疗和伦理风险。

5. Health departments to fund education and awareness initiatives to inform the public of the medical and ethical risks of going abroad for an organ transplant.

6. 卫生保健提供者教育潜在的器官移植接受者到国外接受器官移植的医疗、道德和法律风险,包括已知的政府从被处决的囚犯和 / 或良心犯获取器官的案例。

6. Health care providers to educate potential transplant recipients on the medical, ethical, and legal risks of traveling abroad to receive an organ transplant in another country, including known cases of governments engaging in organ procurement from executed prisoners and/or prisoners of conscience.

7. 医疗和学术机构、专业协会和商业实体与中国器官移植项目进行互动和交易时,必须遵守更严格的监督和执行道德标准。

7. Medical and academic institutions, professional associations, and commercial entities to condition interaction and transactions with Chinese transplant programs on more stringent monitoring and enforcement of ethical standards.

8. 国际组织,包括联合国和世界卫生组织,促进对中国器官采购行为的独立调查。

8. International organizations, including the United Nations and the World Health Organization, to facilitate independent investigations into organ procurement practices in China.

“我们试图谴责和惩罚的错误是如此精心策划、如此恶毒和如此具有破坏性,以至于文明不能容忍对它们的忽视,因为它们无法在重复中生存。”

“The wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant, and so devastating, that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored, because it cannot survive their being repeated.”

——美国首席大法官罗伯特·H·杰克逊在纽伦堡审判国际军事法庭受审

—U.S. Chief Justice Robert H. Jackson before the International Military Tribunal at the Nuremberg Trials

附录一:关于法轮功的证词和个人陈述

Appendix I: Testimonies and Personal Accounts Regarding Falun Gong

法轮功的创始人李洪志先生将“修炼”定义为“一种存在的完美和实现”。

Mr. Li Hongzhi, the founder of Falun Gong, defines “cultivation” as “the perfection and fulfillment of a being.”

1. 居住在德国的中国学者钟维光

1. Zhong Weiguang, a Chinese scholar living in Germany

资料来源:钟维光,学者和自由撰稿人,德国(2013年5月16日)257

Source: Zhong Weiguang, scholar and freelance writer, Germany (May 16, 2013)257

学者兼自由撰稿人钟维光在1999年“4月25日呼吁”期间首次开始研究法轮功。当时,1万名修炼者平静地聚集在北京,要求政府给予公平对待。以下是他对法轮功的观察和理解。258以下是根据采访记录撰写和编辑的。

Zhong Weiguang, a scholar and freelance writer, first started researching Falun Gong during the “April 25 Appeal” in 1999, when 10,000 practitioners peacefully gathered in Beijing to request fair treatment from the government. Below are his observations and understandings of Falun Gong.258 The following was written and compiled based upon the transcript of the interview.

一位学者对法轮功的看法

A Scholar's Perspective on Falun Gong

4月25日的呼吁引起了我的注意
The April 25 Appeal Caught My Attention

1999年初夏,我在德国的一家报纸上读到了有关4月25日事件的新闻。在那之前我对法轮功一无所知。因此,我感到惊讶和有点震惊,但也很高兴。

Early in the summer of 1999, I read news about the April 25 incident in a newspaper in Germany. I had not known anything about Falun Gong prior to that. Therefore, I was surprised and a little shocked, but also pleased.

中国人民经历了如此多的“斗争” ,尤其是1989年的六四清场,它只是强化了中国人民对自己政府手中恐怖活动的记忆。突然之间,在大屠杀10年后,超过1万名中国人和平地聚集在中南海政府大楼附近。我觉得很难相信。

Chinese people had gone through so many “struggles,” notably the 1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre, which had simply reinforced the Chinese people's memories of terror at the hands of their own government. And suddenly, 10 years after the massacre, more than 10,000 Chinese had peacefully gathered near the Zhongnanhai government complex. I found it hard to believe.

这些人很平静,甚至在离开之前清理了现场。我也觉得很难相信,因为我们都知道中国人对这些事情并不太在意。在中国,有10000人参加了这个自发的活动,没有具体的清理指示,他们表现出了比普通中国人更好的性格。

These people were peaceful and even cleaned up the site before they left. I found that hard to believe as well, for we all know that the Chinese do not pay much attention to such things. For the 10,000 people in China who had attended the spontaneous event, and without specific instructions to clean up, they demonstrated better character compared to the average Chinese.

更重要的是,从业者的抵制已经持续了这么久。随后的镇压并没有镇压法轮功。这种吸引力至今仍在继续,而且已经发生了变化。

What's more, the practitioners’ resistance has lasted so long. The ensuing crackdown did not manage to suppress Falun Gong. The appeal continues today, and it has evolved.

一开始,我简直不敢相信我正在读的新闻。我非常清楚,在中国共产党统治下的几十年已经完全摧毁了中国的传统。

In the beginning, I could not believe the news I was reading. I knew too well that the several decades under the reign of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) had completely destroyed Chinese traditions.

钟维光,学者兼自由撰稿人,德国

Zhong Weiguang, scholar and freelance writer, Germany

传统的中国文化被破坏得如此频繁,以至于它变成了一块反复耕种的农田。损害是彻底的。

Traditional Chinese culture had been sabotaged so often that it had become like a plot of farmland that's been plowed over and over again. The damage was thorough.

然而就在这个蓄意破坏似乎达到顶峰的时候,法轮功出现了!我很惊喜。然而我不知道它的力量从何而来。

Yet at this time, when the sabotage seemed at its peak, Falun Gong emerged! I was pleasantly surprised. Yet I could not figure out where its strength came from.

当时,我不明白法轮功的核心价值观——真、善、忍的力量。后来,我意识到这种信仰深深植根于修行者的灵魂中。否则,他们不可能达到如此高度的性格发展。

I did not understand the strength of the core values of Falun Gong, Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance, at the time. Later, I realized that such faith was deeply rooted in the souls of its cultivators. Otherwise, they could not have achieved such a high degree of character development.

随着时间的推移,我逐渐了解到4月25日的上诉是因为大学教授何佐秀的诽谤。1988年来德国之前,我在中国科学院自然科学史研究所工作,认识何祚庥。中共中央宣传部是乔治·奥威尔《1984》中真理部的真实写照。它的“学术思想”只不过是用来发动攻击的政治宣传。一切努力都是为了维持中国共产党的权力。

With time, I came to understand that the April 25 appeal came about because of slander by He Zuoxiu, a university professor. Before I came to Germany in 1988, I worked at the Institute for the History of Natural Sciences at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and knew He Zuoxiu. The CCP’s Central Propaganda Department was a real-life manifestation of the Ministry of Truth in George Orwell’s 1984. Its “academic thoughts” were merely political propaganda used to mount attacks. Everything worked to sustain the power of the Chinese Communist Party.

中宣部的“知识分子精英”负责媒体审查和制造虚假新闻。这种宣传策略始于1949年。这一群体后来成为中共在辩证法、哲学和科学史等领域意识形态的主要捍卫者。在各种迫害运动中充当武器的大多数意识形态文章都是这个团体撰写的。何祚庥的事业始于为余光远提供钱包。预防和处理邪教相关问题办公室(610办公室)的刘敦后来成为自然科学史研究所所长,是这个团体培养的典型例子。

The “intellectual elites” led by Yu Guangyuan at the Central Propaganda Department are in charge of media censorship and creating fabricated news. Such propaganda tactics began in 1949. People in this group later became the backbone defenders of CCP ideology in areas such as dialectics, philosophy, and the history of science. Most ideological articles that have served as weapons in various persecution campaigns were written by this group. He Zuoxiu began his career by carrying the purse for Yu Guangyuan. Liu Dun of the Office for the Prevention and Handling of Cult-Related Issues (the 610 Office) later became the head of the Institute for the History of Natural Sciences and is a typical example of someone groomed by this group.

认识法轮功后的思考
My Thoughts After Getting to Know Falun Gong

1969年文化大革命期间,我被送到农村,自学了哲学。经过反思,我意识到我被党愚弄了20年,我不再相信马克思主义了。

I taught myself philosophy when I was sent to a rural area during the Cultural Revolution in 1969. While reflecting, I realized that I had been fooled by the CCP for 20 years, and I no longer believed in Marxism.

1970年,我开始系统地学习哲学、数学、物理学、外语和历史。我希望能够清楚地说明党的真实性质。在20世纪80年代早期,我成为了中国科学院自然科学史研究所的一名研究生。

In 1970, I started my systematic studies in philosophy, mathematics, physics, foreign languages, and history. I wanted to be able to clearly illustrate the true nature of the CCP. In the early 1980s, I became a graduate student at the Institute for the History of Natural Sciences at the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

1999年,我偶然看到一些关于极权主义的西方书籍,特别是拉尔夫·G·达伦多夫的作品。达伦多夫认为,极权主义有两个主要特征:一是反对当代人权和自由,二是反对传统价值观。此外,达伦多夫说,极权主义必然会遭到抵制和对抗。

In 1999, I came across some Western books on totalitarianism, especially the works of Ralf G. Dahrendorf. According to Dahrendorf, totalitarianism has two main characteristics: an opposition to contemporary human rights and freedom, and a stance against traditional values. In addition, Dahrendorf says that totalitarianism is bound to be resisted and confronted.

然而,我感到困惑的是,为什么自从1949年政权建立以来,我没有看到任何传统力量对政权的抵抗或运动。上世纪90年代以后,从表面上看,中国的许多地区似乎不再那么反对传统了。他们甚至采用了一些传统文化的形式。中共能否与传统文化和平共处?

However, I was confused as to why I had not seen any resistance or movements of a traditional force to the regime since it had been against traditional culture since its inception in 1949. After the 1990s, superficially, many areas in China did not seem to be so opposed to tradition anymore. They even adopted some formalities of traditional culture. Could the CCP peacefully co-exist with traditional culture?

法轮功就是在这段时间出现的。我在1999年底接受 BBC 英国广播公司采访时指出,法轮功现象代表了中国传统文化的觉醒和复兴。我的观点当时只是一个粗略的理论。

It was during this time that Falun Gong emerged. During my interview with the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) at the end of 1999, I pointed out that the Falun Gong phenomenon represented the awakening and revival of traditional Chinese culture. My viewpoint was then only a rough theory.

2010年2月,在前中共总书记江泽民访问柏林期间,我参加了一些抗议活动。这是我第一次认识法轮功修炼者,这次经历帮助我获得了第一手的视角。

In February 2010, I attended some protest activities in Berlin during a visit of former CCP General Secretary Jiang Zemin. It was my first time getting to know Falun Gong practitioners, and this experience helped me gain a first-hand perspective.

我知道一些法轮功学员参加了1989年的学生抗议活动。他们中的许多人现在专注于谋生和做生意。这几名法轮功学员在非常寒冷的天气里驱车长途前往柏林参加抗议活动。他们甚至带走了他们的孩子。我非常感动,这给我留下了深刻的印象。

I knew that a few of the Falun Gong practitioners had taken part in the 1989 student protests. Many of them were now focused on making a living and doing business. These several Falun Gong practitioners drove a long way to attend the Berlin protests in very cold weather. They even took their kids. I was very moved, and this left a deep impression on me.

法轮功学员的行动是发自内心的,而不是一个组织、命令或个人利益。当我问一位修行者,有多少人会来参加抗议活动时,他说他不知道,但到时候人们会来的。老实说,我对此表示怀疑。我认为,真正的信息是不与我分享,因为我是一个局外人。十年后,我现在相信了他告诉我的话。每一项活动都是这样处理的,而且一直都是这样。

Falun Gong practitioners act upon their hearts rather than an organization, orders, or personal gain. When I asked one practitioner how many would show up for the protest activities, he said that he did not know, but that people would come when it was time. Honestly speaking, I was skeptical. I thought that the real information was not being shared with me because I was an outsider. After a decade, I now believe what he told me. Every activity was treated in this way, and they always have been.

当前中国社会科学的逻辑是奇怪的。例如,4月25日的上诉对于中国人来说是不可想象的,也是不合逻辑的,他们已经在中共手中经历了那么多残酷的迫害运动。特别是在1989年的血腥镇压之后,如此多的人仍然自发地聚集在中南海附近,同时保持如此良好的纪律,这无法用“正常”的中国逻辑来解释。然而,如果我们从另一个角度来审视它,从一个有真正信仰的人的角度来看,那么不参与就是不合理的。

The current Chinese social science logic is strange. For example, the April 25 appeal is unthinkable and illogical for the Chinese who have been through so many brutal persecution campaigns at the hands of the CCP. Especially after 1989's bloody crackdown, for so many people to still spontaneously gather near Zhongnanhai while maintaining such good discipline, it could not be explained using the “normal” Chinese logic. However, if we examine it from another perspective, from the perspective of someone with true belief, then not attending was simply unreasonable.

在1999年之前的30年里,我读了很多书。在20世纪90年代早期,我开始重新评估中国传统文化。出于研究文化现象的冲动,我开始研究法轮功。后来,我打破了学术框架的束缚,提高了我对法轮功的理解。这样的想法也启发和拓宽了我对中国传统文化的理解和对整个世界的认识。

In the 30 years before 1999, I read many books. In the early 1990s, I started reevaluating traditional Chinese culture. Out of my urge to research cultural phenomena, I began my research on Falun Gong. In later years, I broke through the constraints of academic frameworks and advanced my understanding of Falun Gong. Such thinking has also inspired and broadened my understanding of traditional Chinese culture and my understandings of the entire world.

从根本上改变身心
Fundamentally Changing the Mind and Body

真、善、忍是法轮功修炼者所坚持的核心价值观。经过多年的了解,我不认为这是一个简单的从业人员冠冕堂皇的口号。许多中国人会同意我的观点。

Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance is the core value that Falun Gong practitioners adhere to. After getting to know practitioners over the years, I do not think that it is simply a pretty-sounding slogan for them. Many Chinese people would agree with me.

这些年我见识了很多。法轮功学员参加活动始终是自愿的,他们花自己的钱参加所有活动。我也看到了我的许多朋友在学习法轮功后的变化:他们变得更加纯洁、和平、无私。我知道一些管理者更喜欢雇佣法轮功学员,因为他们值得信赖,工作勤奋。真、善、忍是法轮功学员的血液。这是他们的真实生活。

I have seen a lot during the years. Falun Gong practitioners' attendance at activities is always voluntary, and they spend their own money to be a part of all the functions they attend. I have also seen the changes in many of my friends after they took up cultivation in Falun Gong: they have become more pure, peaceful, and selfless. I know that some managers prefer to hire Falun Gong practitioners because they are trustworthy and hardworking. Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance is in the blood of Falun Gong practitioners. It is their true life.

我也更好地理解了信仰对个人和社会的积极作用。我也知道为什么中共痛恨和害怕修炼法轮功:法轮功从根本上改变了人们。法轮功的培育者再也不能被政治或贿赂所控制。它是精神的,比起政治、金钱和个人利益的肤浅,它达到了更深刻、更深刻的层次。这就是为什么该政权将这种做法视为头号敌人的原因。

I have also come to better understand the positive role that faith plays for both individuals and society. I also know why the CCP hates and fears the practice: Falun Gong changes people fundamentally. Falun Gong cultivators can no longer be controlled by politics or bribery. It is spiritual and reaches a deeper and more profound level than the superficialities of politics, money, and personal gain. This is why the regime has identified the practice as its number one enemy.

从业者不参与政治或为个人利益而战,所以他们不会受到政治或经济手段的影响。这就是信仰和灵性的力量。

Practitioners do not engage in politics or fight for personal gain, so they cannot be influenced by political or economic means. This is the strength of faith and spirituality.

那么,既然法轮功对社会没有危害,既没有政治利益,也没有社会偏好,为什么还要迫害呢?

So, if Falun Gong poses no harm to society and has no political interests or social preferences, why is it being persecuted?

这把我们带回到真、善、忍的问题。谎言和暴力的存在被那些在政治上控制中国的人认为是最重要的。但是,法轮功强调真、善、忍,修炼者必须讲真话,生活在真理中。就其本质而言,善和忍完全是暴力和欺骗的对立面,善和忍的存在粉碎了那些控制中国的人的生存支柱。

This takes us back to the issue of Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance. The existence of lies and violence is what's considered most important by those who control China politically. However, Falun Gong emphasizes Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance, and its practitioners have to tell the truth and live in the truth. By their very nature, compassion and forbearance are completely the opposite of violence and deception, and the existence of compassion and forbearance shatters the pillars of existence for those in control of China.

这么多年来,法轮功一直朝着一个非常道德的方向努力。当然,中共不能容忍这样的方向。

For so many years, Falun Gong has been striving toward a very moral direction. The CCP, of course, cannot tolerate such a direction.

启发和拓展人们对宇宙的认识
Inspiring and Broadening One's Understanding of the Universe

1989年之后,许多西方人认为极权主义政权的崩溃会带来和平。在1990年代中期,一些人甚至提出,世界未来的冲突将是东西方文明和文化之间的冲突。然后,2001年的9 / 11悲剧迫使人们重新认识到恐怖主义和极权主义的存在。

After 1989, many Westerners thought peace would follow in the collapse of totalitarian regimes. In the mid-1990s, some even proposed that future conflicts in the world would be between the eastern and Western civilizations and cultures. Then the 9/11 tragedy in 2001 forced people to re-acknowledge the existence of terrorism and totalitarianism.

恐怖主义的起源是什么?至少有一个学派认为,恐怖主义的起源与共产主义的起源是一样的。它源于自我的极度膨胀。直到这种根源被消除,暴力才会发生,极端分子才会采取极端主义。

What is the origin of terrorism? At least one school of thought proposes that the origin of terrorism is the same as that of communism. It originates from the extreme expansion of ego. Until this origin is eliminated, violence will occur, and extremists will adopt extremism.

在这方面,我认为法轮功代表了超越物质世界追求的最和平的回归传统文化的方式。它敦促个人从更深入和更基本的层面考虑人与宇宙之间的关系。

On this aspect, I think Falun Gong represents the most peaceful way of returning to traditional culture, beyond pursuit in the material world. It urges individuals to consider the relationships among people and the universe on a deeper and more fundamental level.

我在一元论的教育体系中长大,年轻的时候我非常以自我为中心。我的思想集中在个人发展和欲望的扩张上。我对中国传统的“中庸之道”嗤之以鼻。现在我意识到,在满足自己的欲望时,我失去了很多。然后我需要重新思考许多个人和共同的社会问题的一般假设。

I grew up in a monistic education system, and I was quite self-centered when I was young. My thoughts centered on my individual development and the expansion of my desires. I smirked at the traditional Chinese “middle way.” Now I realize that I lost much while satisfying my desires. I then needed to rethink the general assumptions of many individual and common societal issues.

以自由市场经济为例。我认为自由竞争是普遍存在的,也是社会应该存在的唯一方式;只有在这样的制度下,社会才能发展。现在我知道人们应该用更广阔的思维来思考问题。如果一个社会完全建立在自由竞争的基础之上,并且它将人们的欲望和消费扩大到一切都被消耗殆尽的地步,我们的后代将无法在和平中生活。

Take the free market economy as an example. I thought that free competition was universal and the only way that society should be; only amid such a system could society develop. Now I know that people should think about issues with a broader mind. If a society is completely built upon free competition and it expands people's desires and consumption to the point that everything is used up, our future generations will be unable to live in peace.

作为一个学者,我在黑暗中摸索,慢慢地学习。我花了20年时间从一元主义转变为多元主义,然后又转变为传统和宽容,最后才与我的东方根源融合在一起。如果我可以重新开始我的生活,我会选择更传统的生活,这对人类的生存更好。我将不再依赖纯粹的冲动。

As a scholar, I have searched in the dark and taken it slowly. It took me 20 years to change from monism to pluralism and then to tradition and tolerance before converging upon my Oriental roots. If I could live my life again, I would choose the more traditional life, which is better for human existence. I would no longer rely on sheer impulse.

法轮功启发了人们对人与自然关系的新观点和新思维。它也包含了更高层次的原则,有了它的存在,我们应该重新思考我们当前的目标和观念。

Falun Gong inspires new perspectives and thoughts about the relationships between humanity and nature. It also contains higher-level principles, and with its presence, we should rethink our current aims and notions.

一位西方人写道:“现代物理学和东方神秘主义。” 这证明了现代物理学包含了东方人理解世界的方式。然而,东方的理解不仅仅是一种方法的描述:其核心是另一种类型的天、地和人之间的关系。

One Westerner wrote “Modern Physics and Oriental Mysticism.” This is evidence that modern physics incorporates the way that the East understands the world. However, the Oriental understanding is not just a description of a method: at its core is another type of relationship between the heavens, earth, and humanity.

许多学者,包括爱因斯坦和牛顿,都有坚实的宗教背景。随着他们研究的进一步深入,它不可避免地落在了信仰的平台上。例如,爱因斯坦认为神不可能不存在于一个充满魔法的世界。他也承认他根本看不到神的存在。此外,他对超常的能力非常好奇,并相信它们的存在。只是他无法解释。

Many scholars, including Einstein and Newton, had solid backgrounds in religion. As their research went further, it inevitably landed on the platform of faith. For example, Einstein felt that it would be impossible for gods not to exist in a world so full of magic. He also acknowledged that he simply could not see the existence of gods. Additionally, he was very curious about supernormal abilities and believed in their existence. It was only that he could not explain them.

终极赞赏
Ultimate Admiration

我们现代中国人已经失去了根基,在过去的半个世纪里,我们社会的道德和伦理迅速滑落。

We modern Chinese have lost our roots, and morality and ethics in our society have slid rapidly over the past half-century.

然而,法轮功是一个中流砥柱。它直接抵制和扭转了潮流,其影响只会在未来增长。我很惊讶地意识到这一点。我钦佩法轮功。国内外的许多学者也对此印象深刻。这是一个奇迹。

However, Falun Gong is a mainstay. It directly resists and turns the tide, and its impact will only grow in the future. I am surprised to realize this. I admire Falun Gong. Many scholars inside and outside of China are also impressed. This is a miracle.

面对残酷的迫害,面对充斥着中共谎言的世界,面对歪曲和误解,法轮功没有倒下。相反,它依靠自己的力量继续在世界各地发展。这再次证明了真、善、忍不是一个口号。这是真实的,这是他们信仰的基本原则。

In the face of brutal persecution, in a world filled with the lies of the CCP, in the face of distortion and misunderstandings, Falun Gong has not fallen. Instead, it has continued to develop around the world, relying on its own strength. This has again proven that Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance is not a slogan. It is real, and it is the basic principle of their faith.

我把法轮功对迫害的抵抗和犹太人的抵抗作了类比。在20世纪30年代,犹太人受到希特勒的迫害,整个世界对此视而不见。第二次世界大战结束后,进行了许多调查,最后,对犹太人的迫害和种族灭绝在全世界得到充分承认。

I have made an analogy between Falun Gong's resistance to the persecution and that of the Jews. In the 1930s, when the Jewish people were persecuted by Hitler, the entire world looked the other way. After the end of the Second World War, there were many investigations, and in the end, the persecution and genocide perpetrated upon the Jewish population were fully acknowledged worldwide.

法轮功学员也面临着类似的冷漠和误解。然而,他们坚持告诉人们迫害的事实。在迫害结束之前,他们已经起诉了在许多国家犯下危害人类罪的首要肇事者。这些修行者树立了正直的榜样。

Falun Gong practitioners have faced similar indifference and misunderstanding. However, they have persevered in telling people the facts of the persecution. Before the persecution ends, they will have already sued the head perpetrator of the persecution for crimes against humanity in many countries. These practitioners have set a righteous example.

2007年,中国文化自由运动向法轮功学员颁发了“2007年特别精神信仰奖”。中国自由学者在社会历史运动的旗帜下,首次表达了对法轮功的钦佩和支持,以及对法轮功受迫害的抗议。当时,我对法轮功的历史意义及其对全人类的意义有了更深刻的理解。作为一个见证了这个群体对中国文化、中国社会乃至整个世界的影响的学者,我对法轮功表达了最终的敬意和钦佩。

In 2007, the Chinese Cultural Freedom Movement (CCFM) gave the“2007 Special Spiritual Faith” award to Falun Gong practitioners. For the first time, under the banner of historical movements in society, Chinese free scholars expressed their admiration of and support for Falun Gong, as well as their protest of the persecution. At that time, I reached a deeper understanding of the historical significance of Falun Gong and its significance to all of mankind. As a scholar who has seen the impact of this group upon Chinese culture, Chinese society, and the whole world, I express my ultimate respect and admiration for Falun Gong.

2. 法轮功修炼者的经验

2. Experiences of Falun Gong Practitioners

修炼者如何理解法轮功?为什么一亿人在短短几年内就开始修炼法轮功,尽管遭到暴力镇压,却拒绝放弃?法轮功学员来自不同的背景,从事修炼的理由也各不相同,但个人记述中普遍存在的一点是,修炼使他们的日常生活、家庭和社会和谐相处。面对共产主义政权的诽谤、酷刑,甚至杀戮,每个修行者都不得不选择自己的道路。以下是法轮功学员个人经历的摘录。

How do practitioners understand Falun Gong? Why did a hundred million people start practicing Falun Gong in just several years and refuse to give it up despite violent suppression? Falun Gong practitioners come from different backgrounds and have different reasons for taking up the self-cultivation practice, but something commonly reported in personal accounts is that the practice brought them harmony in their daily lives, families, and society. Facing slander, torture, and even killings by the communist regime, each practitioner has had to choose his or her path. Below are excerpts of Falun Gong practitioners’ personal experiences.

a)“我做出了最好的选择”

a) “I've Made the Best Choice”

资料来源:张忠余,加拿大温哥华(2013年7月14日)259

Source: Zhang Zhongyu, Vancouver, Canada (July 14, 2013)259

交河市组织部副部长、吉林省级《兰台内外》杂志副总编辑张忠余先生选择了“真、善、忍”的原则 他已向人们澄清事实,以帮助制止残酷的迫害。在被逮捕和拘留了十次,经历了许多残酷的折磨之后,他并没有后悔自己的选择。

Mr. Zhang Zhongyu, who was the deputy director of the Jiaohe City Organization Department and the deputy chief editor of Jilin Provincial-level Lantaineiwai magazine, chose to follow the principles of “Truth-Compassion-Forbearance.” He has clarified the facts to people to help stop the brutal persecution. After being arrested and detained ten times, and subjected to many cruel torturous acts, he did not regret his choice.

1999年7月21日,张先生与许多其他从业人员一起向中国共产党吉林省委员会上诉。几个月后,也就是9月30日,当地警察闯入了他的家。当被问及是否练过法轮功时,张先生回答说:“我还在家里修炼呢。” 因此,他被逮捕并关押在长春市八里铺看守所。

On July 21, 1999, Mr. Zhang went with many other practitioners to appeal to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Committee of Jilin Province. A few months later, on September 30, local police broke into his home. When he was asked if he practiced Falun Gong, Mr. Zhang replied, “I am still practicing at home.” Because of that, he was arrested and held at Balipu Detention Center in Changchun City.

张先生说:“这是我第一次被强制劳动。拘留中心有一个篮球场那么大。当人们躺下的时候,他们就像沙丁鱼一样被挤得水泄不通。我们不得不在睡觉的地方附近上厕所。我在想:动物园里的动物比这些好人照顾得更好。在我被拘留之前,别人对我很好。然而,说‘我在家里修炼’,我立刻就成了一个囚犯!”

Mr. Zhang said, “This was the first time that I was put into a forced labor camp. The detention center was as big as a basketball field. When people were lying down, they were packed like sardines. We had to go to the toilet close to where we slept. I was thinking: Animals in a zoo are better taken care of than these good people. Before I was detained, I was treated very nicely by others. However, by saying ‘I will practice at home,’ I became a prisoner instantly!”

一位警官问张先生:“你的幸福家庭已经不在了。你失去了你的工作,你失去了一切,你在监狱里。这值得吗?如果你说你会停止修炼,我现在就会让你出去。”

A police officer asked Mr. Zhang: “Your happy family is not here anymore. You've lost your job, you have lost everything, and you are in prison. Is it worth it? If you said you would stop practicing, I would let you out right now.”

张先生的精神压力是无法承受的。他开始回忆他的修行经历,问自己是否做错了什么。他为什么要放弃这种做法呢?相信“真、善、忍”是错误的吗?为了信仰法轮功值得牺牲一切吗?

The pressure on Mr. Zhang's mind was unbearable. He began recalling his cultivation experiences by asking himself if he had done something wrong. Why should he give up the practice? Is it wrong to believe in “Truth-Compassion-Forbearance?” Is it worth sacrificing everything for having faith in Falun Gong?

2013年4月,张忠余先生和同行参加了在温哥华中国领事馆前举行的和平抗议活动,要求中国共产党政权停止对法轮功的迫害。

In April 2013, Mr. Zhang Zhongyu and fellow practitioners attend a peaceful protest in front of the Chinese Consulate in Vancouver to demand that the Chinese communist regime stop the persecution of Falun Gong.

突然摆脱名誉和自我利益
Snapping out of fame and self-interest

1996年5月的一天,张先生34岁,在吉林省档案局工作,一位同事把他介绍给了法轮功。他说:“我很快地读完了《专法论》一书。我相信真、善、忍的原则是伟大的,但我质疑谁能坚持自己的这些高标准?”

One day in May 1996, when Mr. Zhang was 34 years old, and was working at the File Bureau in Jilin Province, a coworker introduced him to Falun Gong. He said, “I quickly read through the book Zhuan Falun. I believed that the principles of Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance was great, but I questioned who could hold themselves to these high standards?”

随后,张先生被任命为 Jiaohe City 市委组织部副部长。在去他的新岗位之前,他的同事让他再读一遍《转法轮》。张先生说:“这次离开长春以后,我可以冷静下来仔细读一读。读了几页之后,我发现虽然这本书是用通俗易懂的语言写成的,但内容却非常深刻,我无法将我读过的任何教义、哲学或指导与李的法轮功相比较。与其他气功相比,法轮功的水平很高。因此,我决定修炼。”

Mr. Zhang was later appointed as the vice-minister of theorganization department of the Municipal Committee of Jiaohe City. Prior to going to his new post, his co-worker asked him to read Zhuan Falun again. Mr. Zhang said, “This time after I left Changchun, I could calm my mind to read it a bit more carefully. After I finished a few pages, I found that even though this book was written in plain language, its content was very profound, I could not compare any teachings, philosophies or guidance that I had ever read with Master Li's Falun Gong. In comparison with other Qigong, Falun Gong was at a very high level. Therefore, I decided to practice.”

张先生从书店买了一本《法轮功》 ,学会了炼功动作。他说:“在我睡得很香的那个晚上,一个奇迹发生在我身上。我那条伤痕累累的腿上的黑色皮肤开始脱落,困扰我多年的皮肤问题开始痊愈。很快,我的两条腿上就形成了一层正常的、透明的皮肤。我的其他疾病也很快消失了。”

Mr. Zhang got a copy of the book Falun Gong from a bookstore and learned how to practice the exercise movements. He said, “A miracle happened to me on that same night as I had a very sound sleep. The dark skin on my badly scarred leg began to peel off, and my skin problem which had bothered me for many years, began to heal. Soon a layer of normal clear skin had formed on both my legs. My other illnesses also soon disappeared.”

张先生受到别人的嫉妒,但他过去常常很不快乐。他说:“在个人冲突中,我过着一种精疲力尽的生活。在我开始修炼之后,我逐渐明白了一个人生活的真正本质是修炼并回归到最初的真实自我。我的思想境界因此提高了。在那之前,我害怕失去自我利益,所以我吃不好,睡不好。修行以后,我明白了‘不失不得’的道理,也明白了‘如果有东西是你的,你就不会失去。如果某样东西不是你的,即使你为之奋斗,你也不会拥有它。’(转法轮)。自从理解了这条法则,我就一直遵循着一条自然的道路,不再关注自己的利益,也不再与他人争斗。我的生活变得轻松多了!”

Mr. Zhang was envied by others, yet he was often very unhappy in the past. He said: “Among personal conflicts, I was leading an exhausting life. After I began to practice, I came to understand that the true nature of one's life is to cultivate and return to one's original true self. My realm of thought was consequently elevated. Before that, I was afraid of losing self-interest, so I couldn't eat well or sleep well. After I began to practice, I came to understand the principle of “no loss, no gain” (Zhuan Falun) and that “If something is yours, you will not lose it. If something is not yours, you will not have it even if you fight for it.” (Zhuan Falun). Since understanding this law I have been following a natural course, by not paying attention to my self-interest anymore and not fighting with others. My life became much easier!”

当时,组织部门是最具影响力的部门。他们举行过许多社交活动,在那里人们感到必须喝酒。在修炼法轮功之前,他不喜欢喝酒,因为他知道喝酒会伤害身体,但是他仍然感受到喝酒的压力。当他开始修炼后,他想知道他是否应该继续喝酒,以免惹恼他的老板,或者停止喝酒,成为一个真正的修炼者?经过深思熟虑,张先生清楚地告诉他的老板,他已经开始修炼,并且已经停止饮酒。后来,他的老板想出了一个政策,允许法轮功学员喝软饮料而不喝酒,他的同事们开始更好地了解他,把修炼者看作是好人。“当我真正放下名利,表现良好时,我并没有失去任何东西,”他反思道。

At that time, the organization department was the most influential department. They had held many social activities, where one felt compelled to drink alcohol. Before practicing Falun Gong, he didn't like drinking as he knew it harmed one's body, but he still felt pressure to do it. After he began to practice, he wondered whether he should continue to drink for the sake of not upsetting his boss, or to stop drinking and become a true practitioner? After thinking it over, Mr. Zhang clearly told his boss that he had begun to practice and had stopped drinking alcohol. Later, his boss came up with a policy allowing Falun Gong practitioners to drink soft drinks instead of alcohol, and his colleagues came to understand him better and saw practitioners as good people. “When I truly let go of fame and profit and behaved well, I didn't lose anything,” he reflected.

当张先生回到省里工作时,他担任了省级杂志《兰泰内外》的副主编。他在写文章、管理资金和处理账目。他对自己很严格,从不拿不属于他的东西,也从不贪污。在中国,为出版物选择文章是一项有利可图的生意。许多人试图贿赂他让他们的文章发表,但他善意地拒绝了他们的提议。

When Mr. Zhang came back to work in the province, he took on the post as deputy chief editor of a provincial-level magazine, Lantaineiwai. He was working on articles, managing funds and handling the accounts. He had been strict with himself by never taking things that didn't belong to him, and he was never corrupt. In China, choosing articles for a publication can be a profitable business. Many people tried to bribe him to get their articles published, but he kindly declined their offers.

张先生认为他已经开悟了人生的意义,远离了对名利的追求。他深信真、善、忍并非错误。

Mr. Zhang believed he had enlightened to the purpose of life and had become far removed from the pursuit of fame and self-interest. He had no doubt in his mind that Truth-Compassion-Forbearance is not wrong.

b)为什么一名商务部官员在1999年4月25日为法轮功上诉

b) Why a Ministry of Commerce Official Appealed for Falun Gong on April 25, 1999

资料来源:前商务部官员张亦洁(2013年4月25日)260

Source: Zhang Yijie, a former official of the Ministry of Commerce (April 25, 2013)260

1999年4月25日,当时的商务部官员张亦洁目睹了法轮功学员和平抗议的过程。20世纪80年代中期,她曾任中国驻罗马尼亚大使馆经济事务二等秘书和副处长。后来,她在上世纪90年代成为商务部办公厅处长。她因修炼法轮功被非法拘留了七次。她现在住在纽约。

Ms. Zhang Yijie, a then official of the Ministry of Commerce, witnessed what happened during the peaceful protest of Falun Gong practitioners on April 25, 1999. She was the Second Secretary of Economic Affairs and a deputy division chief at the Chinese Embassy in Romania in the mid-1980s. She later became a division chief at the General Office of the Ministry of Commerce in the 1990s. She was illegally detained seven times for practicing Falun Gong. She now lives in New York.

回顾过去的事件和她遭受迫害的经历,张女士说,她并不后悔自己做出的选择。

Looking back at past events and her experience of the persecution, Ms. Zhang says she does not regret the choices she made.

“我们有一群人,他们有社会地位,受过良好的教育。我们过去经历过政治运动,我们年迈的亲戚以前曾受到政权的迫害。虽然我们不是那种只相信任何事情的人,但我们并没有放弃对生命意义的追求。我有钱,有社会地位,有美好的家庭生活。在修炼法轮功之前,我觉得我的灵魂深处缺少了一些东西,我认为生活应该不仅仅是它本来的样子。健康是买不来的,名利也很容易消失。”

“There was a group of us who had social status and were well-educated. We had experienced politicalmovements in the past and our elderly relatives had been previously persecuted by the regime. Although we were not the kind of people who just believed in anything, we had not given up the quest for the meaning of life. I had money, social status, and a good family life. Prior to practicing Falun Gong, I felt there was something missing deep in my soul, and I thought that life should be more than just what it was. One cannot buy health; and fame and money can easily disappear.”

在那些年里,张女士读得越多,问题就越多。她无法从宗教或气功修炼中找到问题的答案。她搜索得越多,就越失望,直到1994年她学会了法轮大法。“我太震惊了!这么多年过去了,我终于找到了问题的答案,我的心敞开了。我发现了真、善、忍,这是我们所有人都应该遵循的道路!”

During those years, the more Ms. Zhang read, the more questions she had. She was unable to find the answers to her questions from religion or qigong practices. The more she searched, the more disappointed she became, until she learned Falun Dafa in 1994. “I was so shocked! I had finally found the answers to my questions after all those years, and my heart opened up. I found Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance, the path we should all follow!”

张女士通过修炼、读书、遵循“真、善、忍”的原则,治愈了自己的疾病。她精力充沛,心情愉快。她能够轻松地解决难题,提高工作质量和效率。她不再担心得失,而是善待周围的人,包括那些伤害她的人。她专注于把工作做好,没有注意别人如何评价她。她不再担心会冒犯别人,也不再担心在与别人交往时会提防别人。“我没有意识到,我可以这么轻松,无忧无虑!我周围的一切都是那么美好!我感到非常幸运能够修炼!”

Ms. Zhang's illnesses were healed after she practiced the exercises, read the books, and assimilated to the principles of Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance. She was energetic and in good spirits. She was able to solve difficult problems easily and improve the quality and efficiency of her work. She no longer worried about gain or loss, and was kind to those around her, including those who harmed her. She focused on doing a good job and paid no attention to how others evaluated her. She stopped worrying about offending others or being on guard when interacting with others. “I didn't realize that I could be so light-hearted and carefree! And everything around me was so wonderful! I felt very blessed to be able to cultivate!”

张亦洁女士

Ms. Zhang Yijie

1992年,法轮大法被公之于众,并迅速在中国传播开来。几年之内,数百万人修炼了法轮功。当时在北京,有很多为中央机关、国务院各部委、中国科学院和大学工作的人在修炼法轮功。在商务部、海外经济商务参赞处和八家外贸公司工作的许多中高级官员也在修炼法轮功。人们知道从业者有良好的道德操守,致力于他们的工作,并享有良好的健康。

In 1992, Falun Dafa was introduced to the public, and spread very quickly by word of mouth in China. Within a few years, millions of people were practicing Falun Gong. In Beijing at the time, there were many people who worked for the central authorities, the State Council's ministries and commissions, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the universities, that were practicing Falun Gong. Many of the mid- and high-level officials who worked at the Ministry of Commerce, the Overseas Economic and Commercial Counsellor’s Office, and the eight foreign trade corporations, were also practicing Falun Gong. People knew that practitioners had good moral conduct, were dedicated to their work, and enjoyed good health.

法轮功的流行使其迅速蔓延,这引发了当时的中共领导人江泽民的嫉妒和恐惧。1996年,江和他的团伙开始制定迫害法轮功的计划。1996年6月,中共官方报纸《光明日报》发表了一篇攻击法轮功的社论文章。1996年7月,中央宣传部下属的中国新闻出版局向各省市发布内部命令,禁止出版和发行法轮功图书。调查局忽略了法轮功书籍在畅销书排行榜上的事实。打击淫秽和非法出版物被用作禁书的借口。1997年初,公安局在全国范围内展开调查,收集证据,意图将法轮功定性为“邪教”。1998年5月,中国政权制造了“北京电视事件”。1999年初,公安部派便衣警察到炼功场地骚扰练习者并挑起骚乱;但这些企图由修炼者和平解决。1999年4月,政府设置陷阱,诱使从业者提出上诉。这为政权迫害法轮功创造了条件。

The popularity of Falun Gong caused it to spread rapidly and this triggered jealousy and fear in Jiang Zemin, the then-CCP leader. In 1996, Jiang and his gang began to formulate plans to persecute Falun Gong. In June 1996, the Guangming Daily, one of the CCP's official newspapers, published an editorial article attacking Falun Gong. In July 1996, the Chinese News Publishing Bureau, which is under the Propaganda Bureau at the Central Committee, issued an internal order to all cities and provinces, prohibiting the publishing and distribution of Falun Gong books. The bureau ignored that Falun Gong books were on the bestseller list. Fighting against pornographic and illegal publications was used as an excuse to ban the books. In early 1997, the Public Security Bureau began a nationwide investigation to gather evidence with the intent of casting Falun Gong as an “evil cult.” In May 1998, the regime created the “Beijing TV Incident.” In early 1999, the Ministry of Public Security sent plainclothes police to the practice sites to harass practitioners and provoke disturbances; but these attempts were peacefully resolved by practitioners. In April of 1999, the regime set traps for practitioners that would lead them to want to appeal. This created an environment for the regime to persecute Falun Gong.

“我知道会有危险。但是我已经修炼了五年,我的生活已经和大法联系在一起了。当困境围绕着大法的时候,我什么也不想,随时准备面对它们。江泽民愤怒地发誓要在三个月内铲除法轮功。修行者的残酷折磨和活生生的器官摘除就是他邪恶心灵的证据。14年过去了,法轮功依然存在,并已传播到世界各地。”

“I knew there were dangers. But I had already been practicing for five years, and my life was already connected to Dafa. When difficult situations surrounded Dafa, I didn't think about anything and was ready to face them. Jiang Zemin angrily swore that he was going to eradicate Falun Gong in three months. The brutal torture and live organ harvesting of practitioners are evidence of his evil mind. Fourteen years later, Falun Gong is still practiced and has spread to all corners of the world.”

一些人认为,共产党政权迫害法轮功的原因是,向中南海提出上访的修炼者是出于政治目的。张女士认为这种说法是没有根据的。她解释说:“参与政治的人最感兴趣的可能是获得某种权力。法轮功学员是主流社会的一部分,他们中的许多人是各自领域的领导者。耕耘者轻视名利。虽然他们生活在世俗的世界里,但他们的思想却在另一个世界里。他们不会因为任何原因对政治感兴趣。相反,自从中国共产党成立以来,它发动了无数的政治运动,造成了数百万人的死亡!如果这个政权想要迫害你们或者杀死你们,它所要做的就是制造一个毫无根据的指控并声称你们卷入了政治。它会剥夺你的一切,使你宁愿死也不愿意活着。”

Some people think the reason the Communist regime persecuted Falun Gong was because practitioners who appealed at Zhongnanhai were being political. Ms. Zhang thinks that theory is groundless. She explains, “People involved in politics are most likely interested in gaining some sort of power. Falun Gong practitioners are part of mainstream society, and many of them are leaders in their fields of work. Cultivators take fame and profit lightly. Although they live in the secular world, their minds are in another realm. They would not be interested in politics for any reason. On the contrary, since the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was established, it has launched numerous political campaigns and caused the deaths of millions of people! If the regime wants to persecute you or kill you, all it has to do is create a baseless accusation and claim that you are involved in politics. It will deprive you of everything so that you would rather be dead than alive.”

当实践者向人们澄清事实的时候,有些人认为他们是在反对党,所以党想要迫害他们。张女士说,“中共可以非法拘留你,抢劫你,折磨你,强奸你,杀死你,但是它不允许你说出来。它没有考虑它做了什么或者它如何表现为犯罪行为。然而,当揭露中共的犯罪行为时,一个人将被判有罪。中共故意歪曲事实。没有其它实体比中共更邪恶。”

When practitioners clarify the facts to people, some people think that they are acting against the Party, so the Party wants to persecute them. Ms. Zhang says, “The CCP can detain you illegally, rob you, torture you, rape you, and kill you, but it does not allow you to speak up. It does not consider what it does or how it behaves as criminal acts. Yet, a person will be found guilty of a crime when exposing the criminal acts of the CCP. The CCP deliberately distorts the facts. No other entity is more evil than the CCP.”

“在民主国家,没有这样的良心犯。人的思想本身并不构成犯罪,每个人都可以自由地思考。司法系统只惩罚那些违法的人。共产主义政权不允许人们独立思考,它想控制人们的想法。它认为根据真、善、忍的原则指导行为的人们是犯罪分子。当法轮功学员抗议迫害时,他们不是在维护每个人的权利吗?”

“In democratic countries, there are no such prisoners of conscience. People's mere thoughts do not constitute a crime, and everyone can think freely. The justice system only punishes those who break the law. The communist regime does not allow people to think independently and it wants to control what people think. It considers people who conduct themselves according to the principles of Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance criminals. When Falun Gong practitioners protest the persecution, aren't they defending the rights of everyone?”

c) 中国科学院博士研究生在4月25日呼吁期间与中国总理交谈:一个不变的选择

c) Chinese Academy of Sciences PhD Candidate Speaks to the Chinese Premier During the April 25 Appeal: An Unchanged Choice

资料来源:中国科学院博士研究生石采东261

Source: Shi Caidong, then PhD Candidate, Chinese Academy of Sciences261

当一万多名法轮功学员前往中国国家上诉办公室维护宪法赋予他们的信仰权时,史才东先生是朱镕基总理带进中南海大院的三名法轮功代表之一。十多年后,当他回忆起这段经历时,他认为这是一个“没有改变的选择”。

When more than ten thousand Falun Gong practitioners went to China's State Appeals Office to uphold their constitutional right to practice their faith, Mr. Shi Caidong was one of three Falun Gong representatives brought inside the Zhongnanhai compound by Premier Zhu Rongji. When he recalls this experience more than ten years later, he sees it as an “unchanged choice.”

他解释说:“我们向政府提出了三个要求:1)尽快释放在天津被捕的法轮功学员;2)允许出版《转法轮》 ;3)为我们提供一个践行信仰的法律环境。”

“We asked for three things from the government: 1) quickly release the Falun Gong practitioners who had been arrested in Tianjin, 2) allow the publication of Zhuan Falun, and 3) give us a legal environment in which to practice our faith,” he explained.

石说:“我从1996年开始修炼法轮功,当时我还是吉林省长春市的一名研究生…… 我生来就有追求真理的欲望。我想知道怎么回事,为什么回事,但是有太多的难题我无法找到答案。法轮大法解决了我对生命和宇宙的所有疑问。得知真相后,我的心变得安详、平静和喜悦。”

Shi said, “I began practicing Falun Gong in 1996 when I was a graduate student in Changchun City, Jilin Province… I was born with the innate desire for seeking the truth. I wanted to know how and why, but there were so many puzzles that I could not find answers to. Falun Dafa resolved all of my questions to life and the universe. After learning the truth, my heart became serene, calm, and joyful.”

“我1998年来到北京,是中国科学院地球物理研究所的一名博士生。我很快就找到了我们当地的团体炼功场地。北京到处都有很多集体炼功场地。著名的清华大学、北京大学和中国科学院每天早上都有一千多名从业者聚集在一起做集体炼功。许多受人尊敬的科学家和年轻的科学家都是修炼者。法轮功在北京学术界非常流行。”

“I came to Beijing in 1998, as a PhD student in the Geophysics Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. I soon found our local group practice site. There were so many group practice sites all over Beijing. The famous Qinghua University, Beijing University, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences had all gathered over a thousand practitioners each morning to do group exercises. Many highly respected scientists, as well as young scientists, were practitioners. Falun Gong was very popular in the Beijing academia.”

与其他从事科技工作的从业人员一样,石先生强烈感觉到:“我们的科研成果与法轮大法一致,从更高的角度解释了宇宙的发展。法轮大法是一门更高级的事实科学。如果一个真正的学者能够读懂李洪志先生的书,那么他不可能不被这些教义所说服。”

Similar to other practitioners who work in the science and technology fields, Mr. Shi strongly feels, “Our scientific research results are in line with Falun Dafa, which explains the development of the universe from a higher standpoint. Falun Dafa is a higher, factual science. If a genuine scholar can read Mr. Li Hongzhi's books, it is unlikely that he will not be convinced by the teaching.”

关于他试图告诉总理法轮功的事实,石先生总结说,”当一个人真正了解了真相,他就能分辨是非,他的选择不会因为压力或诱惑而改变。1999年4月25日,我并不认为我在做某种选择。在这样的情况和环境下,我只是自然而然地做到了。如果历史能让我再做一次选择,当真理受到诽谤时,我会再次站起来捍卫真理,努力为每个人赢得做好人的权利。”

Regarding his efforts to tell the premier the facts of Falun Gong, Mr. Shi concluded, “When one genuinely learns the truth, he can tell right from wrong, and his choices will not change due to pressure or temptation. On April 25, 1999, I did not think that I was making some sort of choice. Under such a situation and circumstance, I just did that naturally. If history would let me choose again, when the truth is slandered, I would again stand up to safeguard the truth and try to win the right for everyone to be a good person.”

时任中国科学院博士研究生的石采东

Shi Caidong, then PhD Candidate, the Chinese Academy of Sciences

d) 奥林匹克鲁格尔手枪遭遇古老的东方修炼方法

d) An Olympic Luger Encounters an Ancient Eastern Cultivation Practice

资料来源:拉脱维亚退休鲁格尔人鲁本尼斯先生262

Source: Mārtiņš Rubenis, retired luger, Latvia262

拉脱维亚鲁格尔鲁贝尼斯在2003年世界无舵雪橇锦标赛上获得银牌后,又在2006年都灵冬季奥运会上获得铜牌。这是拉脱维亚脱离苏联独立后获得的第一枚奥运奖牌。鲁本尼斯就这样成为了这个国家家喻户晓的名字。

After Latvian luger Mārtiņš Rubenis won a silver medal at the World Luge Championships in 2003, he won a bronze medal at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Torino. This was Latvia’s first Olympic medal after it gained independence from the Soviet Union. Rubenis thus became a household name in the country.

鲁本尼在2005年春遇到了法轮大法。“当时,我正处于退出体育运动的边缘。这个世界离我的理想越来越远了。竞技运动员的职业生涯给我的印象是我必须像鲨鱼一样。我变得越来越内向和疲惫。我看到体育运动已经陷入了对金钱、名利的争夺之中。对我来说,这一切都变得毫无意义。”

Rubenis encountered Falun Dafa in the spring of 2005. “At the time, I was on the edge of quitting sports. This world was getting farther and farther away from my ideals. The career of a competitive athlete gave me the impression that I had to be like a shark. I was becoming more introverted and exhausted. I saw that sports had sunken into a battle for money, for fame and gain. To me, all of this had become meaningless.”

“在开始修炼法轮大法一年后,2006年春天,我赢得了自己的第一枚奥运奖牌。在日常生活中,我从来没有试图通过修行来获得任何东西,但我真的经历了一个奇迹。”

“A year after starting to cultivate in Falun Dafa, in the spring of 2006, I won my first Olympic medal. While I never sought to gain anything in everyday society through cultivation, I really experienced a miracle.”

他高兴地惊讶于能够找到并遵循真、善、忍的原则。“我改变了自己一直要做到最好的思维模式。

He was happily surprised to be able to find and follow the principles of Truthfulness, Compassion, and Forbearance. “I changed my old mindset of always having to be the best.

我相信,无论我做什么,只要我遵循大法真、善、忍的原则,我就能提高自己,成为一个更好的人。在这条海拔无限高的小路上,我有无限的空间来提升自己!”

I believe that no matter what I do, as long as I follow Dafa’s principles of Truthfulness, Compassion, and Forbearance, I can improve myself and become a better person. On this infinite path of elevation, I have infinite room in which to improve myself!”

“在我的雪橇上,我不再有竞争的心态。竞赛变成了征服自己的伟大旅程,一场与自己的美丽竞争——我可以享受快乐,享受快乐,并向观众展示运动只是一场游戏,这项运动起源于游戏,而现代人通常将其视为一场“残酷的战争” ,但事实并非如此 由于他内心的改变,他看到了周围环境的许多变化。

“On my sled, I no longer have a competitive mentality. Competition became a great journey of conquering myself, a beautiful competition with myself–I can have fun, have joy, and show the audience that sport is only a game, that sport originated from games, while modern people often see it as a “ruthless war,” but that’s not what it is!” He saw a lot of changes in his surroundings as a result of the change in his heart.

鲁本尼斯先生,来自拉脱维亚的奥林匹克鲁格尔手枪

Mārtiņš Rubenis, Olympic luger from Latvia

2008年北京奥运会(2007年8月9日,Syntagma Square)前夕,鲁本尼斯在人权火炬传递的点灯仪式上提高了人们对中国器官摘除的关注。

Mārtiņš Rubenis at the lighting ceremony for the Human Rights Torch Relay to raise awareness of forced organ harvesting in China ahead of the 2008 Beijing Olympics (August 9, 2007 at Syntagma Square in Athens, Greece).

鲁本尼斯变得更加开放和友好,交到了更多的朋友,并且可以和其他运动员谈论很多事情而不需要隐藏任何东西。以前,他会把雪橇藏起来,以便最大限度地发挥自己的竞争优势,但现在,他会在比赛前把自己的宝贝雪橇放在公开场合。任何人都可以过来看看,这里没有秘密。

Rubenis became more open and friendly, made more friends, and could talk about many things with other athletes without needing to hide anything. Before, he would keep his sled hidden to maximize his competitive advantage, but now he would put his prized sled out in the open before races. Anyone could come over to take a look, and there were no secrets.

“以前的我除了工作和比赛什么也不干。我经常有很长一段时间不在家,即使在家里,我也有很多自己的事情要做。我不怎么照顾我的家人,也不怎么关心他们。但是大发让我明白,我应该为别人着想,把别人放在自己之前。在我开始培养后,最大的变化就是花时间和祖父母交谈,并在日常生活中照顾他们。”

“The old me did nothing but work and race. I was often away from my family for long periods of time, and even when I was home, I had a lot of my own things to do. I didn’t take care of my family much or pay much attention to them. But Dafa made me understand that I should be considerate of others and put others before myself. The biggest change after I started cultivating was to spend time talking to my grandparents and take care of them in daily life.”

在修炼大法之前,鲁本尼斯经常受到运动损伤的影响,包括严重的背部问题。但是修炼大法几个星期后,他感到身体发生了奇迹般的变化——所有的疾病和伤痛都没有得到治疗就消失了。“这些年来,我不再需要药物了。我还没接受过按摩治疗呢!法轮功的温和锻炼和冥想绝对是保持身体健康和保持最佳状态的最佳方式!”

Before practicing Dafa, Rubenis was constantly shadowed by athletic injuries, including severe back problems. But after a few weeks of practicing Dafa, he felt a miraculous change in his body–all his illnesses and injuries went away without treatment. “I haven’t needed medicine anymore in these years. I haven’t even gotten massage therapy! Falun Gong’s gentle exercises and meditation is absolutely the best way to maintain fitness and keep my body in peak shape!”

“大法的原则也使我头脑清醒、理智。对于做什么和如何做得更好,我有更多的理性判断。我不再因为个人利益而犹豫不决,重大决策更容易让我做出正确的选择。”

“Dafa’s principles have also made me clearheaded and rational. I have more rational judgment about what to do and how to do it better. I no longer waver because of personal gain, and with big decisions it’s easier to make the right choice.”

2006年3月,鲁本尼斯从都灵冬奥会回来后不久,仍沐浴在余晖之中,他震惊地看到一则关于中国的头条新闻:中国共产党政权大规模杀害法轮功学员换取器官的新闻将彻底改变他的人生道路。

In March 2006, shortly after Rubenis returned from the Winter Olympics in Torino and was still bathed in the afterglow, he was shocked to see a headline about China: the news that the Chinese communist regime was killing Falun Gong practitioners for organs on a large scale would completely change the path of his life.

随着更多来自中国的关于人权危机的新闻在国际上得到报道,尤其是前加拿大国会议员大卫·基尔古尔和人权律师大卫·马塔斯的独立调查报告证实了中国正在犯下的可怕的侵权行为,鲁本尼斯再也不能把注意力集中在培训上了。他意识到是时候为自己的信仰挺身而出了。

As more news about the human rights crisis from China was reported internationally, especially with an independent investigation report by former Canadian MP David Kilgour and human rights lawyer David Matas confirming the horrific abuses being perpetrated, Rubenis could no longer keep his mind focused on training. He realized that it was time for him to stand up for his faith.

2006年6月,数百名政要、医生、记者、律师和其他专业人士成立了中国法轮功受迫害真相联合调查团协会(CIPFG) ,以调查中国共产党在铲除反法轮功运动中犯下的罪行,并停止迫害。2007年,也就是2008年北京奥运会的前一年,中国人权协会发起了人权火炬传递活动,强调中国政府以奥运会的名义迫害宗教团体、侵犯人权和反人类罪。

In June 2006, hundreds of dignitaries, doctors, reporters, lawyers, and other professionals established the Coalition to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (CIPFG) to investigate the crimes committed by the Chinese Communist Party in its eradicative campaign against Falun Gong and to stop the persecution. In 2007, a year before the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, CIPFG started the Human Rights Torch Relay to highlight the Chinese regime’s persecution of religious groups, human rights abuses, and crimes against humanity in the name of the Olympics.

鲁本尼斯决定放弃繁忙的训练日程,以欧洲代表的身份参加火炬传递。在这次活动的集会演讲中,他谈到中国共产党如何造成8000万人非自然死亡,并对法轮功进行种族灭绝。“我们已经到达了人类历史上最重要的时刻。我们每个人说的每一句话,我们采取的每一个行动都会留下永恒的印记。我们都对人类的发展负有重要责任。我们必须对我们希望生活在什么样的未来做出明确的选择:一个充满谎言、仇恨和暴力的未来,还是一个真实、关爱与和平的未来?”

Rubenis decided to pull out of his busy training schedule to join the torch relay as its European representative. In a rally speech for the event, he spoke of how the Chinese Communist Party has caused 80 million non-natural deaths and was committing genocide against Falun Gong. “We’ve arrived at the most important moment in human history. Every sentence each of us speaks, every action we take will leave an eternal mark. We all have an important responsibility for the development of humankind. We must make a clear choice about what kind of future we want to live in: one filled with lies, hatred and violence, or one of truth, caring and peace?”

e) 晚期肝硬化病人获得新生

e) Late-Stage Liver Cirrhosis Patient Gains a New Life

资料来源:毛凤英,加拿大多伦多(2006年7月)263

Source: Mao Fengying, Toronto, Canada (July 2006)263

毛凤英在中国大陆的一家省级医院工作了16年,现在住在多伦多。她说,法轮功改变了她的家庭生活。

Having worked at a provincial hospital in mainland China for 16 years and now living in Toronto, Ms. Mao Fengying said Falun Gong turned her family’s life around.

“那年我38岁,有18年的 C型肝炎,后来发展成为晚期肝硬化。我还患有肾衰竭、高血压、心脏病和萎缩性胃炎。我的腹部像鼓一样肿胀,脸色苍白,满是皱纹,看上去很憔悴。我这个年纪的人都叫我阿姨。” 我遇到了中国似乎所有著名的肝脏专家,尝试了各种药物,但都无济于事。在绝望中,我乞求神的干预,烧香,拜佛,练习密宗气功,但是我的情况继续恶化。我的主要器官在衰竭,医生说我活不过一年。”

“I was 38 that year and had chronic hepatitis C for 18 years that had progressed to late-stage cirrhosis of the liver. I also had kidney failure, high blood pressure, heart disease, and atrophic gastritis. My abdomen was bloated like a drum, my face was ashen and wrinkly, and I looked emaciated. Other people my age called me “auntie.” I met what seemed to be all the well-known liver experts in China and tried various medications, to no avail. In desperation, I begged for divine intervention, burned incense, worshipped Buddha, and practiced tantric qigong, but my condition continued to worsen. My main organs were failing, and doctors said I had no more than a year.”

更糟糕的是,我的女儿从出生就被感染了。她的童年多病,比同龄人矮一个头。我丈夫当时是美国的一名学者,我和女儿因为生病不能出国旅行。当我无法照顾自己的时候,我不得不让我的父亲(他已经八十多岁了)照顾我们两个。我的家庭陷入了绝望,我甚至不能指望奇迹的发生。疾病使生活比死亡更糟糕,我每天都在泪水中度过。

Even worse, my daughter was also infected from birth. She had a sickly childhood and was a head shorter than her peers. My husband was a scholar in the United States at the time, and my daughter and I couldn’t travel abroad because of illness. When I could not take care of myself, I had to ask my father (who was in his eighties) to take care of the two of us. My family had fallen into despair, and I could not even hope for a miracle. The illness made life worse than death, and I spent each day in tears.

一个邻居把我介绍给了法轮功。我认为我没有什么可以失去的,我带着我的女儿去了集体炼功的场地。有经验的修炼者教我们炼功,并借给我一本《转法轮》。我立刻被这本书迷住了,它用简单的语言解释了深奥的原理。它完全解开了我心中的结,甚至解释了我的亲人有过的一些超常的经历。我一夜之间读完了这本书。38年来,我第一次明白了生命的意义和苦难的原因。我心中又燃起了希望。

A neighbor then introduced me to Falun Gong. Thinking I had nothing to lose, I took my daughter and went to the group exercise site. Experienced practitioners taught us the exercises and lent me a copy of Zhuan Falun. I was immediately captivated by the book, which explained deep principles in simple language. It completely untied the knot in my heart and even explained quite a few supernormal experiences my relatives had. I finished reading the book overnight. For the first time in 38 years, I understood the meaning of life and the cause of suffering. I once again had hope in my heart.

当我第二天回到锻炼小组时,我的身体和思想都感到精神焕发和充满希望。持续了18年的严重肝病消失了,腿部的沉重感也消失了。我经历了师父说的关于清理真正修行者的身体,让他们达到没有疾病的状态。在不到两天的时间里,我的女儿也变得面色红润,可以吃饭、睡觉、跳来跳去,充满活力。从那以后,我们没有生过病,也不需要药物。

When I went back to the exercise group the next day, both my body and mind felt refreshed and hopeful. The severe liver disease that lasted 18 years was gone, as was the heaviness in my legs. I experienced what Master said about cleaning out the bodies of true cultivators and having them reach a state free of illness. In less than two days, my daughter also had a rosy complexion and could eat, sleep, and jump around, full of life. Since then, we have not been ill, nor have we needed medicine.

我们旧的世界观和人生观也发生了根本性的变化。我明白“没有损失,没有收获”的原则,我以前的痛苦最终是由我个人利益的自私欲望造成的。相比之下,法轮功则要求修炼者以真、善、忍为基础,不断提升自己的品格,真正成为一个好人。当一个人移除了他们的自私,他们的身体也将得到净化。当我陷入冲突时,我学会了首先考虑他人,帮助他人而不期望回报。师父教导我们为什么要做一个好人,修行者要求自己要有高标准,不做坏事,根据法轮功的原则成为更好的人。

Our old worldview and outlook on life also changed fundamentally. I understood the principle of “no loss, no gain” and that my previous suffering was ultimately caused by my selfish desire for personal gain. In contrast, Falun Gong requires cultivators to continually elevate their character based on Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance and truly become a good person. As one removes their selfishness, their bodies will also be purified. I learned to consider others first when I run into a conflict and to help others without expectation of returns. Master teaches why one should be a good person, and cultivators hold themselves to high standards, don’t do bad things, and become better people based on Falun Gong’s principles.

毛凤英和她的丈夫、女儿和儿子

Ms. Mao Fengying with her husband, daughter and son

有一天,在我从北京回来的路上,我看到一个漂泊的年轻女子癫痫发作,昏迷不醒。没有人帮助她。作为一个修炼者,我不能眼睁睁地看着别人死去,所以我帮她恢复了意识,清理了她的鼻涕和身体的其他部分,用剩下的40元给她买了一张回家的机票和一些食物。有句老话说善有善报:后来我和女儿在旅途中得到了好心人的帮助。

On my way back from Beijing one day, I saw a wandering young woman who was having a seizure and fell unconscious. No one helped her. As a cultivator, I couldn’t stand by and watch someone die, so I helped her regain consciousness, cleaned up her nasal discharge and other parts of her body, and used the last 40 yuan I had to buy her a ticket home and some food. An old saying is that good is rewarded: my daughter and I later received help from kindhearted people on our travels.

我不仅工作出色,而且还帮助远道而来的病人。例如,我邀请他们留在我的家里,帮助他们找到专家,并帮助他们的药物和烹饪。该地区的人们开始传播这样一个消息:省立医院有一位修炼法轮功的伟大人物。在我以前的工作单位,我因为请长假、住院以及将雇主的资金用于医疗保健而出名。现在,我以勤奋工作和服务社会而闻名。我的女儿当时只有八岁。她不仅在学校表现很好,而且体贴他人,喜欢帮助别人。

I not only do my job well but also help patients who come from far away. For example, I invite them to stay at my home, help them find specialists, and help them with their medications and cooking. People in the area started passing around the word that the provincial hospital had a great person who practiced Falun Gong. At my previous workplace, I was known for taking long sick leaves, being hospitalized, and spending my employer’s funding on healthcare. Now, I was known for being hardworking and serving the community. My daughter was only eight years old at the time. Not only did she do well in school but was also considerate of others and liked to help people.

电视连续剧《渴望》在当时很受欢迎。我丈夫的室友叹了口气,问我在现实生活中是否有人能和剧中女主角刘慧芳(音译)一样好。我丈夫回答说:“当然有!我妻子就是其中之一。练法轮功的人比刘慧芳还厉害。” 我的同事、邻居和亲戚看到了我身上的巨大变化,他们中的许多人也开始修炼法轮功。修行者都是从自己成为一个好人开始,他们积极地影响周围的环境,从而提高整个社会的道德水平。当时的全国人民代表大会主席乔石和其他高级干部对法轮功进行了调查,得出结论:“法轮功给国家和公民带来了许多好处,没有一点伤害。”

The TV series Ke Wang (Yearning) was popular at the time. My husband’s dormmate sighed and asked whether there is someone in the real world who’s as good a person as Liu Huifang (the heroine of the play). My husband replied, “Of course there is! My wife is one. Those people who practice Falun Gong are even better than Liu Huifang.” My colleagues, neighbors, and relatives saw the huge changes in me, and many of them also started practicing Falun Gong. Cultivators all start from being a good person themselves, and they positively influence their surroundings, thereby improving morality in the entire society. The chairman of the National People’s Congress at the time, Qiao Shi, along with other senior cadres, investigated Falun Gong and concluded, “Falun Gong brings many benefits for the country and citizens without a single harm.”

完全康复后,我和女儿终于可以在美国与丈夫团聚了。半年后我怀孕了。从医学上讲,肝硬化及肾盂肾炎患者不能怀孕,更不用说晚期肝硬化患者了。根据我当时的健康状况(我已经两年没有月经了) ,如果我不修炼法轮功,我就不可能怀孕。这是一个医学无法解释的奇迹,然而它却发生在我身上!分娩也很顺利,我有了一个健康的儿子。他三岁的时候就开始和我们一起培养。尽管他根本没有上过中文学校,五岁的时候他就能读懂《转法轮》的中英文版本。我在中国的亲戚不相信一个濒临死亡的人能够通过修炼法轮功而完全康复,然后生下一个儿子!

Fully recovered, my daughter and I could finally be reunited with my husband in the United States. I became pregnant half a year later. Medically speaking, patients with cirrhosis and pyelonephritis cannot become pregnant, let alone those with late-stage cirrhosis. If I didn’t practice Falun Gong, based on my health condition at the time (I had not menstruated for two years), I could not have become pregnant. This was a miracle that could not be explained by medical science, yet it happened to me! The delivery was also uneventful, and I had a healthy son. He started cultivating with us at age three. Even though he had not gone to Chinese school at all, by age five he could read through both the Chinese and English versions of Zhuan Falun. My relatives in China could not believe that someone on the verge of death could recover fully through practicing Falun Gong and then have a son!

我们的个人经验表明,做一个好人,会得到金钱买不到的健康和幸福。在当今社会,法轮功对真、善、忍的价值观越来越有价值。如果中国共产党没有迫害法轮功,社会就会转向同情,中国这片神圣的土地将会是另一番景象。

Our personal experience shows that being a good person, one would receive health and happiness that cannot be bought with money. In today’s society, Falun Gong’s values of Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance is ever more valuable. If the Chinese Communist Party did not persecute Falun Gong, society would have turned toward compassion, and the divine land of China would be a different sight.

十多年来,我克服了许多困难,利用工作以外的空闲时间给中国打电话,向参与对法轮功的迫害的警察和医生澄清事实,劝说他们不要参与迫害,不要在这个过程中伤害他人和自己,并调查器官摘除组织的罪行,停止杀害无辜的人。

For more than a decade, I’ve overcome many difficulties and use my free time outside of work to make phone calls to China to clarify the facts to the police and doctors involved in the persecution of Falun Gong and persuade them not to participate in the persecution, harming both others and themselves in the process, and to investigate the organ harvesting crimes and stop the killing of innocent people.

毛凤英的儿子凯文

Ms. Mao Fengying’s son Kevin

附录二:报告案件摘要和受害者亲属的证词

Appendix II: Summaries of Reported Cases and Testimonies from Relatives of Victims

以下案件的受害者都是法轮功学员。每个案件的全部证词将单独提供。逃离器官摘除的幸存者的证词也可以根据要求提供;出于安全原因,本报告不提供这些证词。

The victims in the cases below were all Falun Gong practitioners. The full testimony for each case will be made available separately. Testimonies of survivors who escaped organ harvesting are also available upon request; they are omitted from this report for security reasons.

1. 贺秀玲:疑似器官摘除患者,52岁,山东省烟台市

1. He Xiuling (贺秀玲): suspected victim of live organ harvesting Female, age 52, Yantai City, Shandong Province

贺秀玲拒绝放弃法轮功,被烟台南郊看守所迫害至死。她于2004年3月8日被带到 Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital。3月11日上午,烟台芝罘区610办公室负责人(姓李)通过电话通知何的丈夫徐承本,他的妻子已经去世。

He Xiuling refused to renounce Falun Gong and was persecuted to the verge of death by Yantai Nanjiao Detention Center as a result. She was taken to Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital on March 8, 2004. On the morning of March 11, the head of the Zhifu District 610 Office in Yantai (surnamed Li) notified He’s husband, Xu Chengben, by phone that his wife had died.

当贺的亲属赶到医院的太平间时,她的手和脚都是温暖的,她的左眼明显地凹陷,呈紫黑色,腰上缠着绷带。当亲戚们大声喊叫时,泪水从她的眼睛里流了出来。看到她还活着,她的家人赶紧去找医生,但医生没有反应。经过不断的请求,医生们才把心电图仪带到太平间。仪器显示他的心脏还在跳动。当心电图打印出来的长度达到十到二十厘米时,一位医生匆忙地将它撕开,离开了。贺的亲属请求医生救治她,但没有人开始抢救。第二天,她的亲属不允许见她,她最终在第三天去世了。

When He’s relatives arrived at the hospital mortuary, her hands and feet were warm, her left eye was visibly sunken and purple-black, and a bandage was wrapped around her waist. When the relatives yelled out, trails of tears flowed from her eyes. Seeing that she was still alive, her family rushed to find doctors, who did not respond. Only after persistent pleas did doctors bring an electrocardiograph to the mortuary. The instrument revealed that He’s heart was still beating. When the electrocardiogram printout reached between ten and twenty centimeters long, a doctor hurriedly tore it up and left. He’s relatives pleaded with doctors to save her, but no one commenced resuscitation. The next day, her relatives were not allowed to see her, and she eventually passed away on the third day.

丈夫怀疑她的肾脏在她还活着的时候就被移到太平间了,因此保存了她的尸体,并将案件上报给了更高的当局。警方出价10万人民币要求许撤诉。他拒绝了。两年后,他在网上发帖,表示怀疑他的妻子是现场器官摘除的受害者。第二天,他和贺的妹妹被捕,贺的尸体很快火化了。当许从洗脑中心被释放时,他瘦得皮包骨头;他的体重从最初的187磅下降到刚刚超过110磅。他常常处于半昏迷状态,无法辨别方向。他已经放弃了信仰,放弃了他妻子死亡的案子。2008年2月,许突然去世;法医报告他死于中毒。

Suspecting that He’s kidney had been taken away before she was moved to the mortuary while still breathing, the husband preserved her body and escalated the case to higher authorities. Police offered Xu 100,000 RMB to drop his case. He refused. Two years later, he made a posting online to voice suspicion that his wife was a victim of live organ harvesting. The next day, he and He’s sister were arrested, and He’s body was soon cremated. When Xu was released from a brainwashing center, he was skin and bones; his weight had dropped from its original 187 pounds to just over 110 pounds. He was often semi-conscious and disoriented. He had given up his faith and dropped the case of his wife’s death. Xu died suddenly in February 2008; the medical examiner reported that he had died of poisoning.

贺秀玲

He Xiuling

完整的案例文档

Full case documentation

2. 张正刚,疑似器官摘除男性受害者,36岁,江苏省淮安市

2. Zhang Zhenggang (张正刚), suspected victim of live organ harvesting Male, age 36, Huai’an City, Jiangsu Province

张正刚是中国工商银行的雇员,也是淮安一个法轮功炼功场地的志愿助理。2000年3月2日至25日,淮安市公安局工作人员对他进行了逮捕和拘留。3月25日上午,他遭到警察的毒打,头部严重受伤。早上8点左右,他被紧急送往 Huai'an First People's Hospital,医生给他进行了开颅手术,并给他输氧和静脉注射。他处于昏迷状态,但有心跳和血压。

Zhang Zhenggang was an employee of the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China and a volunteer assistant of a Falun Gong practice site in Huai’an. Staff from the Huai’an Public Security Bureau arrested and detained him from March 2 to 25, 2000. He was severely beaten by officers on the morning of March 25 and suffered serious head injuries. He was rushed to Huai’an First People’s Hospital at around 8 am, where doctors performed a craniotomy and gave him oxygen and intravenous injections. He was in a coma but had a heartbeat and blood pressure.

他的妻子和母亲赶到医院,陪在他身边。然而,他的治疗计划、病史和药物治疗情况都被警方拒之门外,他们正在监视整个病房。3月30日下午6:30,医生给张医生做了心电图检查,当时张医生仍处于昏迷状态,心跳微弱,还有呼吸。

His wife and mother rushed to the hospital and stayed by his side. However, his treatment plan, medical history, and medication status were withheld by police, who was monitoring the entire ward. Doctors performed an electrocardiogram on March 30 at 6:30pm, at which time Zhang was still in a coma, his heartbeat was weak, and he was breathing.

来自610办公室的特工会见并召集了四十到五十名警察,他们控制了医院走廊和病房。警察告诉他的妻子、母亲和亲属,他们需要讨论一下张某的死亡声明,这样就把他们带出了房间,并强行将他们与张某分开。警察强迫医生移除张某的氧气管和静脉输液管。随后,他被注射了一种药物。警察冲上前,把张的亲属和观众推开,把张带走,声称要带他去火葬场。在没有得到家人同意或亲临现场的情况下,对张的尸体进行了解剖。264

Agents from the 610 Office met and called in forty to fifty police officers, who took control of the hospital corridors and patient ward. Officers told his wife, mother, and relatives that they needed to discuss Zhang’s declaration of death, thereby leading them out of the room and forcibly separating them from Zhang. Officers forced doctors to remove Zhang’s oxygen and IV tube. Zhang was then injected with a drug. The officers rushed forward, pushed Zhang’s relatives and spectators out of the way, and took Zhang away, claiming to be taking him to a crematorium. An autopsy was performed on Zhang’s body without his family’s consent or presence.264

第二天,张的妻子、女儿、母亲和其他亲戚去火葬场看他的遗体。他们在路上受到警察的阻拦,警察推推搡搡。在聚集在现场的观众的压力下,军官们让步了,允许家属到火葬场悼念张。整个过程由淮安市公安局指挥和监督。警方不允许亲属提问,表示哀悼,献花圈,或向上级请愿。265

The next day, Zhang’s wife, daughter, mother, and other relatives went to the crematorium to see his body. They were obstructed en route by police officers, who pushed and shoved them. Under pressure from spectators who had gathered at the scene, the officers relented and allowed the family to mourn Zhang at the crematorium. The entire process was directed and monitored by the Huai’an police department. The police did not allow relatives to ask questions, express condolences, lay a wreath, or petition higher authorities.265

张正刚和他的妻子和女儿

Zhang Zhenggang with his wife and daughter

附录三:完整的证人证词

Appendix III: Complete Witness Testimonies

1. 李百根,男,原北京勘探设计管理部副部长

1. Li Baigen (李百根), male, former deputy director of the Beijing Exploration and Design Management Department

声明

Statement

我的名字是李百根。我在中国人民解放军第二炮兵部队担任团级上校。

My name is Baigen Li (李百根). I served as a regimental-level colonel in the Second Artillery Force of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

1997年,我离开中国人民解放军,加入首都规划委员会,担任北京勘探设计管理部副部长。1999年11月26日,在中共开展打击法轮功运动4个月后,在北京人民大会堂召开了“法轮功形势报告会”。中共中央宣传部、中共中央直属机关工作委员会、中共国家机关工作委员会、驻京部队和中共北京委员会的3000多名高级官员出席了会议。与会者包括师以上的军事指挥官、中共中央官员和北京市局级官员。会议由李岚清、丁关根和罗干主持。时任中共中央政治局常委、中共中央处理法轮功问题领导小组组长李岚清发表了题为“反法轮功斗争中的几个问题”的讲话 我当时在开会。尽管我的级别不够资格参加会议,但我所在单位的主管强迫我参加,以便我能够接受“教育” ,因为我已公开承认我将继续修炼法轮功。

In 1997, I left the PLA and joined the Capital Planning Commission as the deputy director of the Beijing Exploration and Design Management Department. On November 26, 1999, 4 months after the CCP started its campaign against Falun Gong, a “Falun Gong Situation Report Meeting” was held in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. The meeting was attended by over 3,000 high-ranking officials from the Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the CCP, Work Committee for Offices Directly Under the Central Committee of the CCP, State Organs Work Committee of the CCP, military units stationed in Beijing, and the Beijing CCP Committee. Among the attendees were military commanders at or above the division level, central-level CCP officials, and Beijing municipal bureau-level officials. The meeting was hosted by Li Lanqing, Ding Guangen, and Luo Gan. Li Lanqing, then-member of the CCP Politburo Standing Committee and head of the CCP’s Central Leading Group for Handling the Falun Gong Issue, gave a speech titled “Several Problems in the Struggle Against Falun Gong.” I was in the meeting. Even though my rank did not qualify me to attend the meeting, the supervisor of my work unit forced me to attend so that I could be “educated” because I had publicly admitted that I would continue to practice Falun Gong.

在那次会议上,我听李岚清说,自从7月20日对法轮功的迫害开始,法轮功学员一直来北京上诉。李还说,从那时起,迫害必须加剧,必须“在政治上摧毁他们,让他们破产,毁掉他们的名誉” 这些句子没有记录在会议记录中,只是口头传达。

In that meeting, I heard Li Lanqing said that since the start of the persecution of Falun Gong on July 20, Falun Gong practitioners had kept coming to Beijing to appeal. Li also said that from then on, the persecution must be intensified and must “destroy them politically, bankrupt them financially, ruin their reputation.” These sentences were not recorded in the meeting minutes and were communicated only verbally.

以上的描述是基于我的个人经历。

The description above is based on my personal experience.

李百根

Baigen Li

2019年3月27日

March 27, 2019

2. 张亦洁,女,原对外贸易经济合作部官员

2. Zhang Yijie (张亦洁), female, former official of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation

我叫张一杰,我出生在吉林省长春市。我于1977年毕业于吉林大学。我曾在对外经济联络部、对外贸易经济合作部(现为商务部)和中国驻罗马尼亚大使馆工作。从罗马尼亚回到中国后,我继续在外经贸部工作。我从1994年底开始修炼法轮大法。

My name is Zhang Yijie, and I was born in Changchun City, Jilin Province. I graduated from Jilin University in 1977. I worked in the Ministry of Foreign Economic Liaison, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (MOFTEC) (which is now the Ministry of Commerce), and the Chinese Embassy in Romania. After returning to China from Romania, I continued to work at MOFTEC. I began practicing Falun Dafa at the end of 1994.

1999年7月,以江泽民为首的中国政府对法轮大法学员进行了迫害,其政策是让他们在经济上破产,诋毁他们的名誉,并在身体上摧毁他们。这样做是为了迫使所有修炼者停止修炼法轮功。我坚持我对真实、慈悲和忍耐的信仰。我拒绝停止修炼,并告诉人们法轮功给社会带来的好处,以及政府对它的迫害是多么的错误。结果,我遭受了七年的严重迫害,包括遭受了42天的”训鹰”和”解决困难”等酷刑。打我的警察和其他人说:“如果你不转化,我们会让你活得比死还惨!你不会死,但会活下去并受苦!”

In July 1999, the Chinese government, led by Jiang Zemin, launched the persecution of Falun Dafa practitioners based on a policy to bankrupt them financially, defame their reputations, and destroy them physically. It did so to force all the practitioners to stop practicing Falun Gong. I persisted in my belief in Truthfulness, Compassion and Forbearance. I refused to stop the practice and told people of the benefits Falun Gong brings to society and how the government’s persecution of it was wrong. As a result, I was severely persecuted for seven years, including being subjected to the torture methods of “training the eagle” and “tackling hardship” for 42 days. Police officers and others who beat me said, “If you don’t transform, we will make living worse than death for you! You won’t die but will live and suffer!”

自从1999年中共对法轮功的迫害开始以来,政府试图通过威胁终止我的工作,开除我党籍,并判我去劳改所工作来迫使我跟党走,放弃我的行为。后来我被解除了所有政府职务,并被开除党籍。我被非法监禁或拘留了七次。我被迫远离家乡,两次被送到洗脑班。2001年3月,时任中央解决法轮功问题领导小组组长的李岚清,把我关进劳教所,关了一年半。因为我仍然坚持我的信仰,拒绝转化,他们又给我加了十个月的刑期。我在2003年7月被释放。

Since the CCP’s persecution of Falun Gong began in 1999, the government attempted to force me to follow the party and give up my practice by threatening to terminate my job, expel me from the party, and sentence me to work in a labor camp. I was later removed from all government positions and expelled from the party. I was unlawfully imprisoned or detained seven times. I was forced to live away from home and was twice sent to brainwashing classes. In March 2001, Li Lanqing, then-head of the Central Leading Group for Handling the Falun Gong Issue, had me put in a labor camp for one and a half years. Because I still persisted in my belief and refused to transform, they added another ten months to my sentence. I was released in July 2003.

我丈夫和我都是政府官员。曾任中华人民共和国外交部欧洲区司长、参赞。他负责中国和东欧之间的贸易事务。他还致力于政策制定,并担任亚洲太平洋经济合作组织秘书长。只是因为我拒绝放弃我的信仰,他的职责受到限制。外经贸部无数次用我丈夫和孩子的事业威胁我。他们还威胁要离婚,解除关系,解雇和其他行动。长期的监视和监视,切断财源,监禁和分离摧毁了我曾经快乐、和平和富裕的家庭。

My husband and I were both government officials. He worked as the Director-General and Counselor for the European Region of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. He worked on trade affairs between China and Eastern Europe. He also worked on policymaking and was the Secretary of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Only because I refused to give up my faith, he was limited in his duties. MOFTEC threatened me countless times with the careers of my husband and my child. They also threatened divorce, severance of relationships, dismissal, and other actions. The long-time monitoring and surveillance, cutting off of finances, incarceration, and separation destroyed my once happy, peaceful and wealthy family.

以下是我自己2001年3月和2003年7月在劳改营的经历节选。

The following are excerpts of my own experiences in the labor camp from March 2001 and July 2003.

最野蛮的折磨

The Most Savage Torture

我被隔离监禁了很长一段时间。一些罪犯(最多九个)轮流监视我一天24小时。半年来,我一句话也不许说。

I was incarcerated in isolation for a long period of time. A few criminals (nine at the most) took turns to monitor me 24 hours a day. I was not allowed to speak a single sentence for half a year.

两年后,我的头发完全变白了,我的思维慢了下来,我不能流利地说话。由于长时间的殴打,各种折磨和劳动,我失明了一段时间,我的腰和膝盖严重受伤。

After two years, my hair turned completely white, my mind slowed down, and I could not speak fluently. Due to beatings, various torture and labor for excessive lengths of time, I lost my vision for a period of time, and my waist and knees were severely injured.

我被带到外面晒太阳,强行接受军训,直到我倒在地上站不起来。在寒冷的冬天,我被带到外面受冻。我长期处于饥饿状态,但还不至于饿死。每顿饭我都吃一小块玉米面包和一些发霉的泡菜。我有一天甚至几天不能喝水。我也被长时间地拒绝使用洗手间,一次多达几天。监狱工作人员故意做这些事情,让我的思想变得疯狂,直到我大小便失禁。几个月来,我不允许自己洗澡或者换衣服。我去洗手间的时候,他们没有给我卫生纸。他们长期剥夺我的睡眠,强迫我整夜劳作。此外,我还遭到了各种各样的打击。

I was taken outside to be scorched by the sun and forcibly put through military-style training until I fell to the ground and could not get up. In the cold winter, I was taken out to be subjected to freezing conditions. I was chronically hungry but not enough to starve to death. For each meal I had one little piece of corn bread and a few moldy pickles. I was denied water for a day or even a few days at a time. I was also denied restroom use for long periods of time, up to a few days at a time. Prison staff purposely did these things to make my mind go crazy until I became incontinent. I was not allowed to wash myself or change my clothes for few months. When I went to the restroom, they did not provide me with toilet paper. They chronically deprived me of sleep and forced me to do labor through the night. In addition, I was beaten in various ways.

42天的“熬鹰”(Training the Eagle)睡眠剥夺

42 Days of “Training the Eagle” (Sleep Deprivation)

由于我拒绝写“四封信”(保证不修炼法轮功,承认有罪和不当行为,与法轮功分离的文件,以及谴责) ,劳改营首次剥夺了我18天的睡眠。他们开始用一个又一个的人给我洗脑。他们强迫我听诽谤大法的录音。他们用很多方法试图操纵我的思想。与此同时,他们还打我,羞辱我。我怀着对大法的坚定信念经历了这18天的苦难。

Because I refused to write the “four letters” (a guarantee not to practice Falun Gong, an admission of guilt and wrongdoing, a document of separation from Falun Gong, and a denunciation), the labor camp first deprived me of sleep for 18 days. They began brainwashing me using one person after another. They forced me to listen to audio recordings slandering Dafa. They used many ways to try to manipulate my mind. Meanwhile, they also beat andhumiliated me. I went through those 18 days of suffering with a strong faith in Dafa.

为期18天的运动未能取得成果后,我于2001年11月8日至12月20日再次被关进隔离室。九个人,包括警察、瘾君子、妓女和转化者(被称为“犹大”) ,昼夜不停地轮流,以确保我不会碰到墙壁或睡着。在这种严密的监视下,我还受到了各种各样的折磨,被迫站立了42天。我一睡着,他们就会用棍子打我,往我的衬衫领子上泼冷水,或者脱掉我的外衣,在寒冷的天气里把我冻僵。每顿饭只给我一小块玉米面包,不许我喝水。当我去洗手间的时候,我试着洗洗脸,这样我就可以喝点水了。他们发现后,我不允许自己洗澡,也不允许去洗手间。结果我大小便失禁。然后我被推倒在地,变成了尿液。30多天后,我又饿又累。我的意识漂移了,撞到了墙上,倒在了地上。警察拿来一盆又一盆的冷水泼在我身上。冰冷的海水把我弄醒了。我浑身湿透,瑟瑟发抖。当我要求更换衣服时,除非我同意变身,否则警察不会允许。我颤抖着站了起来。从早到晚,从晚到晚,从早到晚,一天又一天,我在淋湿的时候摔倒了,冻僵了。我又困又饿又渴。我用我的体温烘干了几层裤子。在这42天里,我一次又一次地面对死亡。

After the 18-day campaign failed to yield results, I was again thrown into an isolation room from November 8 to December 20, 2001. Nine people, including police officers, drug addicts, prostitutes, and transformed practitioners (called “Judas”) took turns around the clock to ensure that I did not touch the wall or fall asleep. Under this tight monitoring, I was also tortured in many different ways and forced to stand for 42 days. As soon as I fell asleep, they would beat me with a stick, pour cold water down my shirt collar, or strip off my outer clothes and freeze me in the cold weather. I was given only a small piece of corn bread each meal and not allowed to drink water. As I went to the restroom, I tried wash my face so I could drink a little water. After they found out, I was not allowed to wash myself or go to the restroom. I became incontinent as a result. I was then pushed onto the ground into urine. After more than 30 days, I was starved and exhausted. My consciousness drifted, and I hit a wall and fell to the ground. Police officers brought in basin after basin of cold water and poured it on me. The freezing water caused me to awaken. I was completely soaked and shivering. When I asked for a change of clothes, the officers would not allow it unless I agreed to transform. I stood back up while shivering. From morning until night, from night until morning, one day after another, I fell and froze while being soaked. I was sleepy, starving, and thirsty. I dried out several layers of pants using my body temperature. I faced death over and over again during those 42 days.

在生与死之间

Between Life and Death

42天后,他们继续折磨我,因为我坚持我的信念。

After 42 days, they continued to torture me because I persisted in my belief.

四个吸毒成瘾的妓女试图强迫我写“四封信” ,但我拒绝了。黄平就是其中之一。她踢了我一脚,把我撞到了对面的墙上。我花了一段时间才恢复过来站起来。黄平喊道:“你到底写不写?” 我说,“不!” 她又踢我了。我倒车撞到墙上,摔倒了。在痛苦中,我挣扎着蜷缩起来。“起来!起来!你到底写不写?” “不!” 我用微弱但坚定的声音回答,挣扎着站起来。她一次又一次地踢我,让我在地板上打滚。她踢了我的肋骨,胸部,还有整个腹部。我什么也没说。当我摔倒的时候,我挣扎着站起来。然后我会再次被踢倒,然后我会站起来,等等。

Four drug-addict prostitutes tried to force me to write the “four letters,” but I refused. One of them was Huang Ping. She kicked me, sending me crashing into an opposite wall. It took me a while to recover and stand up. Huang Ping yelled, “[Are you going to] write it or not?!” I said, “No!” She kicked me again. I backed up into the wall and fell. In pain, I struggled and curled myself up. “Get up! Get up! Will you write it or not?” “No!” I replied in a weak but firm voice and struggled to stand up. She kicked me again and again, making me roll on the floor. She kicked me in the ribs, chest, and all over my abdomen. I said nothing. When I fell, I struggled to stand up. I would then be kicked down again, and then I would stand up, and so on.

她发疯了,开始喘粗气。她抓住我的头发大喊:“写不写?!写还是不写!不管写不写…… ”她踢了我的下半身。我又一次被撞到墙上摔倒了。然后她把脚集中到我的下半身。当我再也站不起来的时候,他们同时踢我的膝盖、胸部、背部、腹部和私处,就像沙袋一样。我终于忍无可忍,感到一股暖流从胸口涌出。我脸朝上躺在地上,失去了知觉,陷入了休克。

She went crazy and started breathing heavily. She grabbed my hair and yelled, “Write it or not?! Write it or not?! Write it or not…” She kicked me in the lower body. I was again sent flying into the wall and fell. She then focused her kicks toward my lower body. When I could not stand up again, they kicked at my knees, chest, back, stomach, and private parts at the same time, like a sandbag. I finally could bear no more and felt a warm wave surge from my chest. I lay on the ground face-up, lost consciousness, and went into shock.

他们把我拖到一个空房间里。我的胸部、背部、整个腰部、腹部和下半身一直流血到膝盖,流了好几天的血。除了浑身是血、淤青和肿胀之外,我还有从外面看不见的内伤。对我来说,移动起来很困难,我被秘密关押了17天。如果我死了,被拖走,没有人会知道。

They dragged me to an empty room. I had bleeding beneath the skin on my chest, back, entire waist, abdomen, and lower body down to my knees for days. In addition to being bloody, bruised, and swollen all over, I had internal injuries that were not visible from the outside. It was difficult for me to move, and I was secretly detained there for 17 days. If I died and was dragged away, no one would have known.

带着对法轮大法的坚定信念,我再一次从死亡的边缘回来。

With a strong belief in Falun Dafa, I once again came back from the verge of death.

从束缚中解脱出来

Release from Bondage

在一年半的劳改期间,我本应该在2002年9月被释放。然而,警察想让我遭受更多的痛苦,所以他们声称我反对改造,并且非法地将刑期延长了十个月。2003年7月,我终于带着全身的痛苦和折磨走出了劳改营,但我还活着。

With my one-and-a-half-year labor camp term, I was supposed to be released in September 2002. However, the police wanted to make me suffer more, so they claimed that I went against transformation and illegally extended my term by ten months. In July 2003, I finally walked out of the labor camp with pain and suffering all over but alive.

离开劳改营后,我的工作场所和居民委员会都对我进行了监视。当我去上班的时候,楼下的保安会强行阻止我上车。我被秘密跟踪了很长一段时间,并且在中共政治敏感时期被公开跟踪。我工作场所的保安甚至在走廊上放了一张桌子,每天监视我八个小时。我的工作场所没有给我工作做,但我每天都要去上班,接受监督。我的假期被取消了,我不被允许回家乡看望父母。我被命令不得离开北京。北京公安局派人打开我办公桌的抽屉,非法搜查。

After leaving the labor camp, I was monitored by both my workplace and residential committee. When I went to work, the security guard downstairs would forcibly stop me from getting on the bus. I was secretly followed for long periods of time and openly followed during the CCP’s politically sensitive days. Security at my workplace even placed a table in the hallway to monitor me for eight hours a day. My workplace did not give me work to do, but I had to go to work every day to be monitored. My vacation days were revoked, and I was not allowed to visit my parents in my hometown. I was ordered not to travel outside of Beijing. The Beijing Public Security Bureau sent people to open my office desk drawers and illegally search them.

2006年9月,为了揭露和反击迫害行为,并向国际社会发声,我独自前往。在十天的时间里,我穿越了三个国家,在经历了许多艰难险阻之后到达了泰国。2007年10月,在许多好心人的帮助下,我来到了美国。

In September 2006, to expose and counter the persecution and to speak out to the international community, I went out alone. In ten days, I crossed three countries and arrived in Thailand after much hardship and danger. In October 2007, I arrived in the United States with assistance from many kind people.

异常血液采样与检查

Abnormal Blood Sampling and Examinations

1999年迫害开始后,许多法轮功学员被关进拘留中心、劳改营和监狱。他们抽取了血液样本,并经常进行不正常的身体检查。无论我被拘留在哪里,检查和抽血都是如此。

After the persecution began in 1999, many Falun Gong practitioners were put into detention centers, labor camps, and prisons. They had blood samples taken and were put through physical examinations frequently and abnormally. Wherever I was detained, the examinations and blood sampling followed.

2000年5月,我到国务院上诉办公室上访。我被绑架并被带到朝阳区拘留中心。在被拘留的20天里,我接受了血液测试。警察把看守所里所有的法轮功学员都集合起来,沿着这条线走下去,抽了血。在抽血之前,他们强行把我们的指纹和手印拿去存档。

In May 2000, I went to the State Council Appeals Office to petition. I was kidnapped and taken to the Chaoyang District Detention Center. Within those 20 days of detention, I was put through a blood test. The police lined up all the Falun Gong practitioners in the detention center unit and went down the line, drawing blood. Before drawing blood, they forcibly took our fingerprints and the handprints for filing.

2001年5月,在劳改营人员派遣中心,我被迫再次进行血液测试、胸部 x 光检查、眼部检查和妇科检查。因为我拒绝考试,不配合,我被野蛮地殴打,并被关在一间牢房里。在北京妇女劳教所,我们做了几次血液测试。每次抽取的血液量都远远超过医院进行正常身体检查所用的量。2003年的一次,我和一些不认识的从业者被带到附近的一家医院进行体检和胸透,我们被迫低头,甚至被禁止看我们周围的人。

In May 2001, at the dispatch center for labor camp personnel, I was again forcibly blood tested, given chest X-rays, an eye examination, and a gynecological examination. Because I refused the examinations and did not cooperate, I was savagely beaten and locked in a cell. At the Beijing Women’s Forced Labor Camp, we were blood tested a few times. Each time, the amount of blood drawn was far more than that used for a normal physical examination at a hospital. One time in 2003, when some practitioners I didn’t know and I were taken to a nearby hospital for physical examinations and chest X-rays, we were forced to bow our heads and were even forbidden to look at people around us.

在看守所和劳改营,只有法轮功学员接受了血液检查和身体检查。吸毒者、妓女和其他罪犯没有抽过血。我们不明白为什么这些人有很多疾病却没有接受检查。有一个叫黄静的犯人,他每天24小时监视我。她经常肚子痛,但警察从来没有送她去医院。她吃的止痛药是她的家人提供的。她挣扎了九个月。出院后,她在医院接受检查,被诊断为晚期宫颈癌。

In the detention center and the labor camp, only Falun Gong practitioners were given blood tests and physical examinations. The drug addicts, prostitutes, and other criminals did not have blood drawn. We did not understand why those people were not given examinations even though they had a lot of illnesses. There was an inmate named Huang Jing who monitored me 24 hours a day. She always had a stomachache, but the police never took her to the hospital. The painkillers she took were provided by her family. She struggled for nine months. After she was released, she received an examination in a hospital and was diagnosed with late-stage cervical cancer.

2006年,中国政府揭露了器官摘除组织的犯罪行为。我长久以来的许多疑问都得到了回答。在这些监狱和劳改营里隐藏着如此可怕的罪行!

The crime of organ harvesting by the Chinese government was exposed in 2006. Many questions I had had for a long time were answered. There are such horrible crimes hidden in these prisons and labor camps!

张亦洁

Zhang Yijie

2018年11月

November 2018

3. 张忠余,男,期刊副主编

3. Zhang Zhongyu (张忠余), male, vice chief journal editor

1996年5月,我在吉林省漯河市委组织部担任副主任时开始修炼法轮功。我用法轮大法的真、善、忍原则来规范我的言行。我努力工作,晋升为省级二级刊物副主编(相当于省级机构的副主任)。这就是对法轮功铲除迫害的开始。1999年底到2007年间,由于我坚持修炼法轮功,揭露中国共产党的迫害,我被非法绑架了十多次。在经历了惨无人道的折磨和濒临死亡的边缘之后,我设法去了国外。以下是我自己遭受迫害的经历节选。

I began to practice Falun Gong in May 1996 while working as the Vice Director of the Organization Department of the Luohe Municipal Committee in Jilin Province. I used Falun Dafa’s principles of truthfulness, compassion and forbearance to regulate my words and deeds. I worked hard and was promoted to Vice Chief Editor of the Provincial Secondary Journal (equivalent to vice director of a provincially directed agency). This was when the eradicative persecution of Falun Gong began. Between the end of 1999 and 2007, because I persisted in practicing Falun Gong and exposing the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) persecution, I was unlawfully kidnapped more than 10 times. After experiencing inhumane torture and nearing the brink of death, I managed to go overseas. The following are excerpts of my own experiences from the persecution.

我在2001年通过警方接受了江泽民的铲除令

I acknowledged the eradication order from Jiang Zemin through the police in 2001

1999年7月20日,中共开始了对法轮功的迫害。其政策是:“严禁党员修炼法轮功”和“百分之百转化(放弃修炼) ,绝无例外”。几乎所有坚持信仰并敢于揭露迫害事实的法轮功学员都遭受了不人道的酷刑。即使我是一名政府官员,我也不能免责。

On July 20, 1999, the CCP began its persecution of Falun Gong. Its policies were: “Party members are prohibited from practicing Falun Gong” and “100% transformation (renouncing the practice) with absolutely no exceptions.” Almost all Falun Gong practitioners who persisted in their belief and dared to expose the facts of the persecution suffered inhumane torture. I was not exempt even though I was a government official.

虽然人们认为我的官职很有前途,但我不得不做出一个决定:”听党的话,跟党走” ,或者继续我的做法,面临”三解一禁”(被开除党籍,被撤职,被解除职务,被拘留)。因为我选择不放弃我对“真、善、忍”的信仰,去北京为法轮功伸张正义,散发关于对法轮功的迫害的传单,我遭到了“3次终结和1次拘留”。我曾多次被非法拘禁和折磨。

Though I was viewed as having a promising official career, I was forced to make a decision: “listen to and follow the party” or continue with my practice and face the “three terminations and one detention” (being expelled from the party, removed from official posts, terminated from one’s job, and detained). Because I chose not to give up my faith in “truthfulness, compassion, forbearance,” went to Beijing to petition for justice for Falun Gong, and distributed flyers about the persecution of Falun Gong, I was subjected to the “three terminations and one detention.” I was illegally detained and tortured multiple times.

其中之一发生在2001年9月,当时中共警方在长春大规模逮捕了法轮功学员,因为他们印刷和传播法轮功信息。七八个警察闯进了我们租来的印刷厂。领队是当时的市公安局长春市第一分局副局长李世昌。在整个过程中,有警察用手枪指着我们三个被绑架的人。

One of them was in September 2001, when CCP police mass-arrested Falun Gong practitioners in Changchun for printing and distributing Falun Gong information. Seven or eight police officers broke into our rented material printing site. The leader of that team was Li Shichang, then-vice director of the No.1 Division of the Municipal Public Security Bureau in Changchun. Throughout the entire process, there were officers pointing pistols at the three of us who were being kidnapped.

我被罩上黑色的头巾,直接被带到长春市公安局第一分局郊区的一个秘密审讯室。我被关在一把“铁椅子”(一种酷刑工具)里。也许是因为我的背景,但是他们在开始的时候表现出了一些犹豫。当有人在外面打电话的时候,几个警察包围了我,没有开始拷问。一个多小时后,一名警官冲进审讯室,告诉站在我周围的人:“我请求指示。江泽民已经说过,把他们打死算不了什么。如果他们因殴打致残,就算作伤害自己。如果他们死了,那就是自杀!” 他一开口,这些便衣警察就冲过来,疯狂地折磨我。这持续了几天。

I was covered with a black hood and taken directly to a secret interrogation room on the outskirts of the No.1 Division of the Changchun Public Security Bureau. I was confined to an “iron chair” (a type of torture instrument). Maybe it was because of my background, but they showed some hesitation in the beginning. A few police officers surrounded me without starting the torture, while someone was making a phone call outside. After more than an hour, an officer rushed into the interrogation room and told the people standing around me, “I asked for instructions. Jiang Zemin already said, ‘Beating them to death is nothing. If they are disabled from the beating, it counts as their injuring themselves. If they die, it counts as suicide!” As soon as his words fell, these plainclothes officers came at me and tortured me like crazy. This lasted a few days.

警察用高压电棍电击我的全身,尤其是我的敏感部位和生殖器。当他们电击我的生殖器时,我的阴茎立刻变成了胡萝卜状。一个姓蒋的军官不停地电击我的下背部,使我不由自主地发抖。军官甚至冷笑着说:“他很敏感!” 他们用塑料袋一层又一层地盖住我的头,几乎让我窒息。他们把一个金属桶放在我的头上,用棍子敲打它,然后点燃几支香烟,增加我头上的烟雾。他们把我的手反铐在背后,并且不断地试图强行把我的手臂从后面转到前面……

The officers used high-voltage electric batons to shock my entire body, especially my sensitive parts and genitals. When they shocked my genitals, my penis immediately turned into a carrot shape. One officer with the surname Jiang continuously shocked my lower back and made me shake uncontrollably. The officer even sneered and said, “He is very sensitive!” They covered my head with plastic bags one layer after another, almost suffocating me. They put a metal bucket on my head, beat it with a club, and lit a few cigarettes to add smoke to the interior. They cuffed my hands behind my back and repeatedly tried to forcibly rotate my arms from the back to the front of my body...

我的脸和身体都被电棍烧黑了。我的手腕、腰部和其他部位留下的伤疤直到今天依然清晰可见。

My face and body were burned black by the electric batons. The scars left on my wrists, lower back, and other areas are clearly visible even to this day.

中共监狱的杀戮配额

The killing quota in the CCP’s prisons

在我被关押期间,我经常听到党的警察和首席囚犯说,市看守所、监狱和附属医院的非正常死亡配额是每年4人。然而,在对法轮功的迫害开始之后,随着江泽民的铲除指令,他们觉得可以在迫使法轮功学员放弃信仰的时候把他们活活打死。他们只是武断地提供解释,比如突发心脏病等等。通过这样做,这些死亡病例不再包括在配额中。因此,他们可以做任何他们想要强迫从业者放弃他们的信仰。

During my detention, I often heard the CCP’s police and head prisoners saying that the quota for abnormal deaths in municipal detention centers, prisons and affiliated hospitals was four people annually. However, after the persecution of Falun Gong began, with Jiang Zemin’s eradication directive, they felt free to beat Falun Gong practitioners to death when forcing them to renounce their belief. They just provided arbitrarily explanations, such as sudden heart attack, etc. By doing so, these death cases were no longer included in the quota. Therefore, they could do whatever they want to force practitioners to give up their belief.

在2003年底我住进监狱医院的那个月里,三名与我同住一间病房的修炼者去世了,他们的手和腿整天整夜都被铐在床上。他们不被允许上厕所。最后,他们没有得到任何食物或水。他们日渐消瘦,直到死在他们的尿液和粪便中。

During the month when I was in the prison hospital at the end of 2003, three practitioners who shared a room with me passed away while their hands and legs were cuffed to the bed all day and night. They were not allowed to go to the toilet. In the end, they were not given any food or water. They wasted away until death in their urine and feces.

当我被解开手铐,没有人监视的时候,我爬到其中一个人身边,给他喂了几次家人带来的奶粉。我看到他那双朦胧的眼睛恢复了生气。但是我被一个护士抓住了,她没收了我的牛奶。最后,我眼睁睁地看着这位同修饿死。

When I was uncuffed and unmonitored, I crawled over to one of them and fed him powdered milk that had been brought in by family a few times. I saw some life return to his dim eyes. But I was caught by a nurse, who confiscated my milk. In the end, I watched this fellow practitioner starve to death.

对于另一个处在死亡边缘但仍然活着的同修来说,“医生”并没有来医治他。相反,在匆忙地用听诊器听心跳之后,他把听诊器扔到了脖子后面(这是一个信号)。周围的囚犯护士(囚犯担任护士)立即走上前来,把药棉从嘴、鼻子和耳朵塞进去,然后把他抬出了起居室。我再也没有见过他,只听到护士说他死了。

For another fellow practitioner who was on the verge of death but still alive, the “doctor” did not come to heal him. Rather, after hastily using his stethoscope to listen to the heartbeat, he threw his stethoscope behind his neck (this was a signal). The surrounding prisoner-nurses (prisoners acting as nurses) immediately came up and stuffed medical cotton into the practitioner’s mouth, nose, and ears before carrying him out of the wardroom. I never saw him again and only heard the prisoner-nurses say that he died.

医院设有内科、外科、传染科和女科,每个科室有五六个病房。每个病房有八到十张病床。在我认识的从业人员中,王克飞、王玉环、刘成军因迫害在医院去世。一个较大的城市将至少有四个拘留中心,以及庇护所、戒毒中心、监狱医院、公安医院、精神健康医院、青少年管教机构、妇女劳动营、女子监狱、法律教育班(洗脑班)和其他几个劳动营。从1999年到2009年,仅在我认识的人中,就有20多名法轮功学员被迫害致死。

There were medical, surgical, infectious and female departments in the hospital, and each department had five or six wards. Each ward had eight to ten beds. Among the practitioners that I knew, Wang Kefei, Wang Yuhuan, and Liu Chengjun passed away in the hospital because of the persecution. A larger city would have at least four detention centers, as well as shelters, drug rehabilitation centers, prison hospitals, public security hospitals, mental health hospitals, juvenile correctional institutions, women's labor camps, women's prisons, and legal education classes (brainwashing classes) and several other labor camps. From 1999 to 2009, just among those I knew, there were more than 20 Falun Gong practitioners who were persecuted to death.

器官摘除的证据

The evidence for organ harvesting

每次我差点死掉的时候,我都被送到吉林省监狱管理局的中心医院进行“抢救” 在这期间,我接受了脑部 CT 和 x 光检查。我的血液在未经我同意的情况下每隔几天抽样检测一次。我听到几个囚犯和护士的谈话,他们说囚犯的血被护士长用来浇花了。

Each time I almost died, I was sent to the central hospital of the Provincial Prison Administration in Jilin for “rescue.” During those periods, I was examined using brain CT and x-ray. My blood was sampled and tested every few days without my consent. I heard a few prisoner-nurses talking, and they said that the blood from the prisoners were used to water the flowers by the head nurse.

在中共从法轮功学员身上摘取器官的消息被曝光之后,我终于明白了为什么一些已故的修炼者胸前有缝合线,为什么他们的亲属不能看到亲人的遗体,只能收到一个骨灰盒,为什么一些人干脆就消失了。我也知道为什么我的血液在折磨中被频繁测试。据我所知,中共的警察不仅检测被监禁的从业人员的血液样本,而且还去从业人员的家里做这样的检测。自2014年4月以来,有多起报道称,来自贵州、辽宁等地的警察闯入法轮大法修炼者的家中,对他们的血液样本进行 DNA 检测。就在辽宁省的丹东地区,9月份当地警方强行采集了16名从业者的血液样本。

After it was exposed that the CCP was harvesting organs from Falun Gong practitioners, I finally realized why some deceased practitioners had sutures on their chests, why their relatives were not allowed to see the remains of their loved ones and only received a cinerary casket, and why some simply disappeared instead. I also knew why my blood was tested so frequently during the torture. As far as I know, the CCP’s police are not only testing blood samples from imprisoned practitioners but also going to practitioners’ homes and doing such tests. Since April 2014, there have been several reports that police from many places, such as Guizhou and Liaoning, broke into Falun Dafa practitioners’ homes and took their blood samples to test their DNA. Just in the Dandong area of Liaoning province, 16 practitioners had blood samples forcibly collected by local police in September.

我和一些从业者进行了相关的调查。我们发现长春几乎所有的大医院都在做器官移植。吉林大学第一医院的器官移植部门甚至在网上发布了一则器官移植广告。他们声称,他们的主任傅耀文在1999年到2006年间,做了超过2600例器官移植手术。在我们曝光这件事之后,器官移植部门从其网站上删除了这则广告。

Some practitioners and I went on and did a related investigation. We discovered that almost all large hospitals in Changchun were doing organ transplants. The organ transplant department in the First Hospital of Jilin University even posted an organ transplant advertisement online. They claimed that their director, Fu Yaowen, managed to do more than 2,600 organ transplant operations between 1999 and 2006. After we exposed this, that organ transplant department removed the advertisement from its website.

上述证词是基于我自己在迫害中的部分经历。这只是中共侵犯人权的冰山一角。我保证我说的一切都是真的。

The above testimony is based on part of my own experience in the persecution. It is just the tip of the iceberg of how the CCP violates human rights. I promise that everything that I said is true.

张忠余

Zhang Zhongyu

2018年11月

November 2018

4. 江莉,器官摘除疑似受害者江锡清的二女儿

4. Jiang Li (江莉), second daughter of suspected organ harvesting victim Jiang Xiqing (江锡清)

我的父亲,江锡清,65岁,曾是重庆江津区的干部,因为拒绝放弃法轮功,在洗脑过程中被非法拘留,并多次受到迫害。他于2008年5月14日再次被捕,被送到重庆西山坪劳动教养管理中心进行为期一年的强制劳动。

My father, Jiang Xiqing (江锡清), 65, a former cadre at the Chongqing Jiangjin District Tax Service, was illegally detained in brainwashing sessions and persecuted numerous times for refusing to renounce Falun Gong. He was arrested again on May 14, 2008 and sent to forced labor for one year at Chongqing Xishanping Labor Education Management Center.

2009年1月27日下午,我的四个家庭成员去劳改营看望我的父亲(第七单位,第二亚单位)。当我们与他交谈时,他的身心健康是完全正常的。

On the afternoon of January 27, 2009, four of my family members went to see my father at the labor camp (7th unit, 2nd subunit). When we talked with him, his mental and physical health was completely normal.

第二天下午3点40分,劳教所用一个未知号码给江平打了电话。这位人士说,“江锡清下午两点四十分去世” ,随即挂断了电话。

At 3:40pm the next day, the labor camp called Jiang Ping from an unidentified phone number. The person said, “Jiang Xiqing died at 2:40 in the afternoon” and immediately hung up.

我的七个家庭成员在警察的指导下,在经历了一些挫折后,于晚上10:30左右到达了重庆石家梁殡仪馆。太平间周围停着许多警车,我的家人看到武装警察包围着围墙。

Seven of my family members arrived at the Shijialiang Mortuary House in Chongqing at about 10:30 pm with the guidance of police officers and after some setbacks. Many police cars were parked around the mortuary, and my family members saw armed police surrounding the perimeter wall.

他们把我们带到太平间,宣读了规定:1)我们只能看到尸体5分钟,2)不允许使用摄像头、摄像机或通讯设备,3)我们只能去冷藏室看到江锡清的头部(身体的其他部分)。

They took us into the mortuary and read out the regulations: 1) we could see the body for only 5 minutes, 2) no cameras, camcorders, or communications devices were allowed, and 3) we could only go to the freezer room and see Jiang Xiqing’s head (not the rest of his body).

我的父亲被放在第二个冰箱架子的中间。当我姐姐看到我父亲的尸体时,她喊道:“爸爸!爸爸!” 没有声音,所以她摸了摸他的脸。她发现他的人中仍然是温暖的,看到他的上牙紧紧地咬着他的下唇。她大声喊道:“我爸爸还活着!”

My father was placed in a middle slot on the second freezer shelf. When my older sister saw my father’s body, she yelled, “Dad! Dad!” There was no sound, so she touched his face. She found that his philtrum was still warm and saw that his upper teeth were biting his lower lip tightly. She yelled out, “My dad is still alive!”

当我们从房间外面听到她的声音时,我们冲向冰箱,半路上把父亲的尸体拖了出来。我们摸了摸他的胸部,发现里面很暖和。他在冰箱里穿着一件羽绒服,他的体温比我们的手还高。我的亲戚们走了进来,都摸了摸他的身体,确认那是温暖的。我跑出房间,拨打110报了警。在现场的一名便衣警察说:“报警是没有用的。警官已经到了。他们不会来的。” 我哥哥在现场问一个人,为什么一个死后被放在冰箱里七个小时的人还活着。一个女人回答说:“不管怎样,我们有医院的死亡证明。” 我的一个亲戚,李佳,用数码相机给我父亲拍了三张照片。我的姐姐准备给我父亲做心肺复苏术,而我的亲戚们则大声呼救我的父亲。

When we heard her from outside the room, we rushed to the freezer and pulled out my father’s body halfway. We touched his chest and found that it was warm. He was wearing a down jacket in the freezer, and his body temperature was higher than that of our hands. My relatives came in, all touched his body, and confirmed that it was warm. I ran out of the room and dialed 110 to call the police. A plainclothes officer at the scene said, “It’s no use calling the police. Officers are here already. They won’t come.” My brother asked someone on site why someone who was put in a freezer for seven hours after death was still alive. A woman answered, “Regardless, we have the death certificate from the hospital.” One of my relatives, Li Jia (李嘉), took three photos of my father using a digital camera. My older sister prepared to perform CPR on my father while my relatives yelled out for help to save my father.

现场有很多人。就在我们准备检查父亲尸体的时候,我们每个人都被四个人强行拖出了冷藏室。他们还强行抢走了李佳的相机,删除了我们在地板上拍摄的父亲尸体的三张照片。穿制服的便衣警察把我父亲的尸体推回了冰箱!

There were many people on site. Right when we were about to inspect my father’s body, we were each forcibly dragged out of the freezer room by four people. They also forcibly grabbed Li Jia’s camera and deleted the three photos we took of my father’s body on the floor. Uniformed and plainclothes officers pushed my father’s body back into the freezer!

他们要求我们尽快签署火葬协议,并支付1000元人民币的火葬费。我们拒绝了。他们说:“就算你不签,我们也要火化他!”

They demanded that we quickly sign for cremation and pay 1,000 RMB in cremation fees. We refused. They said, “We’ll cremate him even if you don’t sign!”

我们(亲戚)要求再见我父亲,但他们不允许。我们再也没见过我父亲。

We (relatives) demanded to see my father again, but they did not allow it. We never saw my father again.

2009年2月8日,他们打电话来说我父亲已经被解剖并火化了。

On February 8, 2009, they called and said that my father was autopsied and cremated.

2009年3月26日,我们接到重庆检察院第一分院监察办公室主任周柏林的电话,他让我们3月27日去 Beibei District 玉勋饭店听取尸检报告的解释。

On March 26, 2009, we received a phone call from Zhou Bailin (周柏林), the director of the Supervision Office of the First Branch of the Chongqing Procuratorate, who told us to go to the Yuxun Hotel in Beibei District in Chongqing on March 27 to hear an explanation of the autopsy report.

在2009年3月27日的会议上,我们用手机录制了音频,并保存了会议的原始录音。录音的长度是1:57:59。

At the meeting on March 27, 2009, we recorded audio using a cell phone and preserved an original recording of the meeting. The recording length is 1:57:59.

在1:56:57的录音中,周柏林说:“能够保存的就是他的器官,就是他所有的器官。也就是说,我们保存它们是为了制作标本。” 这意味着他们从我父亲身上取走了所有的器官——我们见到他时,他的尸体还是热的——然后在没有得到家人同意的情况下火化了他!

In the recording at 1:56:57, Zhou Bailin said, “What could be preserved are his organs, that is, all of his organs. That is to say, we preserved them to make specimens.” This meant that they took out all the organs from my father–whose body was still warm when we saw him–and then cremated him without our family members’ consent!

根据完整的记录,参加会议的八名劳改营官员分别是周柏林、伍晓畅、两名姓金和胡的劳改营管理人员、刘华、田晓海、胡跃进和会议记录员懂忆。隔壁一个小房间里还有更多的人在听。蒋氏家族的七位参与者分别是江宏、江宏斌、江莉、江平、夏步初、江德华和罗科祥。

As evidenced in the complete recording, the eight labor camp officials who participated in the meeting were Zhou Bailin, Wu Xiaochang (伍晓畅), two labor camp managers surnamed Jin (金) and Hu (胡), Liu Hua (刘华), unit commander Tian Xiaohai (田晓海), Hu Yuejin (胡跃进), and meeting recorder Dong Yi (懂忆). There were more people listening in a small neighboring room. The seven participants from the Jiang family were Jiang Hong (江宏), Jiang Hongbin (江宏斌), Jiang Li (江莉), Jiang Ping (江平), Xia Buchu (夏步初), and Jiang Dehua (江德华), and Luo Kexiang (罗科祥).

随后,我们邀请了两位来自中华全国律师协会的律师为我的父亲伸张正义,他们是北京益嘉律师事务所的张凯和 Beijing Gaobo Longhua 律师事务所的李春富。2009年5月13日,两位律师来到我父亲在重庆江津区的家中调查收集证据。江津区、政法委、610办公室、国内治安警察和几江派出所的一百多名工作人员包围了他的家,破门而入,殴打律师和我的亲属。当时家里有六个人。唯一幸免于难的人是我76岁的叔叔,他患有心脏病;他亲眼目睹了整个过程。晚上7点左右,两名律师和我的哥哥江宏斌被反铐在背后,穿过街道来到派出所。

We subsequently invited two lawyers from the All China Lawyers Association to seek justice for my father: Zhang Kai (张凯) from Beijing Yijia Law Firm and Li Chunfu (李春富) from Beijing Gaobo Longhua Law Firm. On May 13, 2009, the two lawyers went to my father’s home in Jiangjin District of Chongqing to investigate and collect evidence. More than a hundred personnel from the Jiangjin District Public Security Bureau, Political and Legal Affairs Committee, 610 Office, domestic security police, and Jijiang Police Station surrounded the home, broke in, and beat the lawyers and my relatives. There were six people in the home at the time. The only person spared was my 76-year-old uncle who had heart disease; he personally witnessed the entire sequence of events. At around 7 o’clock in the evening, the two lawyers and my brother Jiang Hongbin were handcuffed behind their backs and marched through the streets to the police station.

张凯律师被关在铁笼子里,遭到殴打。李春富律师也被反铐在警察局门口的一个石头建筑物上。第二天凌晨1点左右,在我们引起对这一事件的关注之后,他们三个才被释放,二十名来自北京的律师为张和李说话,拍摄了我叔叔对事件的证词,并向联合国提交了一个案件。李的律师执照随后被吊销。然后我们邀请了另外四名律师,他们也受到当局的监视和威胁。

Lawyer Zhang Kai was hung up in a metal cage and beaten. Lawyer Li Chunfu was also handcuffed behind his back to a stone structure at the entrance of the police station. The three were released at around 1 o’clock the next morning only after we brought attention to the incident and more than twenty lawyers from Beijing came and spoke up for Zhang and Li, filmed my uncle’s testimony of events, and submitted a case to the United Nations. Li’s law license was subsequently revoked. We then invited four other lawyers, who were also monitored and threatened by the authorities.

我们没有停止追查这个案子。2009年6月,一个来自 Chongqing Procuratorate 的人(他没有告诉我们他的身份和角色)来到上海,提出给我们30万元人民币,私下解决我父亲的问题(要求我们放弃这件事)。我们拒绝了。然后他们让上海市公安局副局长程九龙派人到我的工作单位,向我的雇主施压,要求终止我的工作,企图切断我的经济来源,阻止我提起诉讼。我在上海航空公司工作,当时是一名模范员工。我的经理试图保护我,但没有成功,因为我父亲的案子是一个“政治问题”(一位同事告诉我这一点)。2013年,江津区的当地警察再次找到了我,让我开个价,私下解决这件事,但我们拒绝了。

We did not stop pursuing this case. In June 2009, a person from the Chongqing Procuratorate (who did not tell us his identity or role) came to Shanghai and offered to give us 300,000 RMB to resolve my father’s matter privately (requiring us to drop the matter). We refused. They then had Deputy Chief of the Shanghai Public Security Bureau Cheng Jiulong send people to my workplace and pressure my employer to terminate my job, intending to cut off my financial resources to stop me from filing a lawsuit. I worked at Shanghai Airlines and was a model employee at the time. My manager tried to protect me but was unsuccessful because my father’s case was a “political issue” (a coworker told me this). In 2013, the local police in Jiangjin District found me again and told me to name a price to resolve the matter privately, but we refused.

2010年,我因为为父亲伸张正义而被雇主解雇。在接下来的五年里,我去北京上访,多次被关进黑监狱,还被拘留过一次。我避免了更严重的迫害,因为当时我只是因为不正当的终止合同而上诉,因为我知道那些因为寻求正义而被迫离开器官摘除的受害者的家庭成员。2015年6月,我去北京向最高人民法院和最高人民检察院提交了一份针对江泽民的法律申诉,但他们没有受理。因为在中国对他们提起诉讼不会有任何结果,我想向国际法庭提起诉讼,所以我来到了美国。

I was terminated by my employer in 2010 only for seeking justice for my father. In the five years that followed, I went to petition in Beijing and was put in black jails numerous times and detained once. I avoided more severe persecution because I was petitioning only for my improper termination at the time, as I knew family members of victims of forced organ harvesting who were killed for seeking justice. In June 2015, I went to Beijing to submit a legal complaint against Jiang Zemin to the Supreme People’s Court and Supreme People’s Procuratorate, but they did not accept the case. Because filing lawsuits against them in China would not yield any results, I wanted to file suit in an international court, so I came to the United States.

江莉,代表江家

Jiang Li, on behalf of the Jiang family

2018年10月31日

October 31, 2018

5. 黄万青,失踪人士黄雄的兄弟

5. Huang Wanqing (黄万青), brother of missing person Huang Xiong (黄雄)

黄雄,男,1978年2月6日生,大学本科毕业,江西省万安县居民。1996年夏天,黄在家乡修炼法轮功。

Huang Xiong, male, born February 6, 1978, was a college graduate and a resident of Wan’an County, Jiangxi Province. In the summer of 1996, Huang started practicing Falun Gong in his hometown.

1999年7月20日午夜刚过,警方在中国各地逮捕了数千名法轮功学员。在时任中国共产党总书记江泽民的命令下,中共在全国范围内禁止了法轮功。

Just after midnight on July 20, 1999, police seized thousands of Falun Gong practitioners from their homes across China. The CCP banned Falun Gong nationwide under orders from Jiang Zemin, then General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.

第二天,黄前往北京,为被非法逮捕的法轮功学员上诉,并请愿反对全国性的禁令。黄还通过互联网向海外媒体发送了有关迫害的信息,并帮助将明慧网站上的文章分发给中国的从业者。因此,他受到当地政府的监视。

The next day, Huang went to Beijing to the appeal for Falun Gong practitioners who had been illegally arrested and to petition against the nationwide ban. Huang also sent information about the persecution to overseas media through the Internet and helped to distribute articles from Minghui.org to practitioners in China. As a result, he was monitored by local authorities.

2000年2月11日,黄在北京拜访了另一位修炼者梁朝晖先生。他们都被北京警方逮捕和殴打。随后,黄被护送回江西省,在吉安县劳教所服刑两年。他在拘留期间受到酷刑。他被释放后,他的妹妹看到他脚上有伤。他很少谈论他在劳改营里的经历,但是他说日常的殴打是家常便饭,最痛苦的部分是他受到的心理虐待和有辱人格的待遇,包括被迫参加洗脑。

On February 11, 2000, Huang visited another practitioner, Mr. Liang Chaohui, in Beijing. They were both arrested and beaten by Beijing police. Huang was then escorted back to Jiangxi Province, where he was sent to two years in Ji’an County Labor Camp. He was tortured during his detention. After his release, his sister saw injuries on his foot. He didn’t talk much about what he had experienced in the labor camp, but he did say that routine beatings were the norm and that the most painful part was the psychological abuse and degrading treatment he received, including being forced to attend brainwashing sessions.

2001年夏天,黄被提前保释。在保释期间,他被迫参加当地警察局的洗脑会议,他的个人自由受到限制。为了避免进一步的迫害,他离开了家,在街上游荡了近两年,从一个城市到另一个城市,变得无家可归。

In the summer of 2001, Huang was released early on bail. While out on bail, he was forced to attend brainwashing sessions at the local police station, and his personal freedom was restricted. To avoid further persecution, he left home and became homeless as he travelled from city to city, wandering the streets for almost two years.

得知黄离家出走后,他在家乡的兄弟姐妹被拘留了一夜,并被问及黄的下落。他的妹夫被停职,当地警方强迫他到很多地方去寻找和抓捕黄。有一次,当地政府和派出所派出了13组警察去搜捕他。江西省的共产党当局和集安地方政府官员经常去他家骚扰和威胁他的家人。他们洗劫了他的家,企图找到他。

Upon learning that Huang had left home, his brother and sister in his hometown were detained overnight and questioned about his whereabouts. His brother-in-law was suspended from his work, and the local police forced him to go to many different places in order to find and capture Huang. On one occasion, the local government and police station dispatched 13 teams of officers to search for him. Communist authorities in Jiangxi Province and local Ji’an government officials frequently went to his home to harass and threaten his family members. They ransacked his home in an attempt to locate him.

搜索和监视也延伸到了中国以外。中国当局还将目标对准了黄的哥哥黄博士,他是一名法轮功修炼者,居住在美国的乔治亚州。他们调查了万青三代人的家庭和他们的活动。他们还就黄雄到美国前后的情况采访了他的大学同学。中国的地方警察和国家安全人员也开始拜访黄雄的家人,包括他的姐姐和母亲,大约每三个月一次。熊不敢联系他的家人,所以他从一个城市走到另一个城市。他去了四川、广州、上海,最后去了云南,发行了包含对法轮功的迫害信息的 DVD。为了避免被逮捕,他不能在任何地方停留太久。

The search and surveillance were extended outside China aswell. Chinese authorities also targeted Huang’s older brother, Dr. Huang Wanqing, a Falun Gong practitioner living in the U.S. state of Georgia. They investigated three generations of Wanqing’s family and their activities. They also interviewed his university classmates about his situation before and after his arrival in the U.S. Local police and national security personnel in China also started visiting Huang Xiong’s family members, including his sister and his mother, about once every three months. Xiong dared not contact his family members, so he travelled from city to city. He went to Sichuan, Guangzhou, Shanghai and finally Yunnan to distribute DVDs containing information about the persecution of Falun Gong. To avoid being arrested, he could not stay long in each place.

2002年冬天,熊开始把一些私人物品寄给他在美国的哥哥。他告诉他的兄弟,他计划截取电视信号,播放有关法轮功和迫害的视频,作为一种手段,反击共产党通过完全控制中国媒体传播仇恨宣传。

In the winter of 2002, Xiong started to send some of his personal items to his brother in the U.S. He told his brother that he was planning to intercept TV signals to broadcast videos about Falun Gong and the persecution as a means of countering the Communist Party’s spread of hate propaganda through its total control of media in China.

2003年4月,雄回到上海,向一位海外从业者收集必要的设备。他收到了设备,并计划返回云南。

In April 2003, Xiong returned to Shanghai to collect the necessary equipment from an overseas practitioner. He received the equipment and was planning to return to Yunnan.

2003年4月19日,雄从上海的一个公用电话亭打电话给万青。他告诉哥哥,他怀疑自己被上海警方监视和跟踪,第二天就要去云南。他说他会再打电话给他报告他的下落。

On April 19, 2003, Xiong called Wanqing from a public phone booth in Shanghai. He told his brother that he suspected he was being monitored and trailed by Shanghai police and that he was going to Yunnan the next day. He said he would call him again to report his whereabouts.

雄先生的家人和朋友从此与他失去了一切联系。几个月后,万青公布了他兄弟的失踪,并开始呼吁公众关注和援助。他的家人通过互联网、报纸和电视寻找他。他们到处张贴寻找他的文章和信息。他的家人还多次给公安局和上海、江西、四川的所有派出所打电话。然而,这些机构都没有对熊的失踪负责。

Xiong’s family and friends have since lost all contact with him. Several months later, Wanqing made his brother’s disappearance public and started calling for public attention and assistance. His family members searched for him through the Internet, newspapers, and TV. They posted articles and messages everywhere looking for him. His family also repeatedly called the public security office and all the police stations in Shanghai, Jiangxi Province, and Sichuan Province. However, none of these authorities took responsibility for Xiong’s disappearance.

2004年7月,Yangpu District Police Station 首席胡告诉《大纪元时报》记者,当局非常了解雄的情况,但他拒绝透露任何有关他下落的信息。(记者目前在新西兰,她同意与我们联系。)

In July 2004, Chief Hu of the Yangpu District Police Station in Shanghai told an Epoch Times reporter that the authorities knew Xiong’s situation very well, but he refused to release any information regarding his whereabouts. (This reporter is in New Zealand and she agrees to be contacted.)

2004年8月9日,美国国会议员 John Linder 写信给万青,表示他已经就雄失踪一事给美国驻北京领事馆写了一封信。美国驻北京领事馆也向中国外交部发出了一封正式信函,要求提供有关熊先生案件的信息,但没有收到回复。

On August 9, 2004, U.S. Congressman John Linder wrote to Wanqing, indicating that he had sent a letter to the U.S. Consulate in Beijing about Xiong’s disappearance. The U.S. Consulate in Beijing also sent an official letter to the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to request information regarding Xiong’s case but did not receive a response.

2004年8月和9月,美国参议员泽尔·米勒向美国驻北京大使馆询问,大使馆联系了中国外交部,要求至少两次提供有关黄雄案件的信息。调查没有成功。

In August and September 2004, U.S. Senator Zell Miller made inquiries with the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, which contacted the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to request information regarding Huang Xiong's case at least twice. The inquiry was unsuccessful.

2004年8月,黄家聘请了律师郭国汀先生协助调查此案。郭后来谈到他试图找到黄雄时说:“为了调查,我去了几个(政府)单位,花了半年时间。我去调查的有关部门对我都很客气,但都推卸责任。最后,我找到了上海市杨浦区派出所国家安全局局长。他们都找了各种借口拒绝承认我是他的律师。他们不让我参与。然后,我每周给他们打几次电话,他们拖延了四五个月,拒绝见我。因为我们从一个新闻来源得知这个导演知道黄雄的下落,我后来去了上海市提篮桥监狱找他的下落。这是因为如果你消失在上海,你将会处于两种情况之一:要么被强迫劳动,要么被判入狱。如果你被判刑,你的信息绝对可以在上海市提篮桥监狱找到。你的基本信息都可以在那里找到。经过电脑搜索,发现有三个人有他的名字,但没有一个是他。在调查结束之前,我被迫停业一年,并被骗取了律师资格证书。因此,这个案子仍未解决。”

In August 2004, the Huang family hired a lawyer, Mr. Guo Guoting, for assistance in the case. Guo later said of his attempts to find Huang Xiong, “For my investigation, I went to visit several [government] units, and that took half a year. The relevant departments I went for investigation all treated me very politely, but they all passed the buck. Finally, I found the director of the National Security Department of the Yangpu District Police Station in Shanghai. They all found various excuses to refuse to recognize me as his lawyer. They didn’t allow me to get involved. Then, I called them several times per week, and they stalled for four or five months and refused to see me. Since we knew from a news source that this director knew the whereabouts of Huang Xiong, I later went to Tilanqiao Prison to find out his whereabouts. This is because if you disappear in Shanghai, you would be in one of two situations: you would either be doing forced labor or sentenced to prison. If you are sentenced, your information can definitely be found in Tilanqiao Prison. Your basic information can all be found there. A computer search turned out three people with his name, but none of them was him. Before my investigation was over, I was forced to suspend my business for one year and was defrauded of my lawyer’s qualification certificate. So, the case remained unsettled.”

万青的一位律师朋友也通过这位在上海公安局工作的律师朋友证实,雄先生确实是在2003年被绑架的,但他无法找到他的下落和命运。

A lawyer friend of Wanqing has also confirmed through a friend of this lawyer who works in the Shanghai Public Security Department that Xiong was indeed abducted in 2003, but he wasn’t able to find out his whereabouts or his fate.

2005年4月4日,法轮功人权工作组向联合国任意拘留问题工作组提交报告。2005年11月,在美国总统乔治·W·布什访华之前,万青给总统写了一封信,请求他在会见中国国家主席胡锦涛时帮助寻找他失踪的弟弟,并要求中国当局停止迫害法轮功。世界对法轮功的迫害调查组织(WOIPFG)也发出了一份关于其对黄雄案件调查的通知。

On April 4, 2005, The Falun Gong Human Rights Working Group submitted a report to the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention. In November 2005, before U.S. President George W. Bush’s visit to China, Wanqing sent a letter to the President, asking for his help to find his missing brother when he met with Chinese President Hu Jintao and to demand that the Chinese authorities stop persecuting Falun Gong. The World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG) has also sent a circular about its investigation into Huang Xiong’s case.

2011年8月,中国公安部发起了一项为期一年的全国性运动,称为“净化行动” ,在各省各县市实施。他们的计划是动员中国所有的警力来逮捕所有被通缉的人。江西省万安县公安局发出通知,悬赏一千元捉拿黄雄。(公告图片: http://imgs.ntdtv.com/pic/2011/8-22/p1976771a529011172.jpg ——提供翻译)

In August 2011, the Chinese Ministry of Public Security launched a one-year national campaign called the “Net Cleaning Operation,” which was implemented in various counties and cities in all provinces. The plan was to arrest all wanted people by mobilizing the entire police force in China. The Wan’an County Public Security Bureau in Jiangxi Province issued a notice and offered a reward of 1,000 RMB to find and arrest Huang Xiong. (photo of the notice: http://imgs.ntdtv.com/pic/2011/8-22/p1976771a529011172.jpg - a translation is available)

2016年8月,黄万青博士向中国最高检察院和最高法院提起刑事诉讼,指控江泽民命令对法轮功的迫害。

In August 2016, Dr. Huang Wanqing submitted a criminal complaint to China’s Supreme Procuratorate and Supreme Court against Jiang Zemin for ordering the persecution of Falun Gong.

黄万青博士

Dr. Huang Wanqing

签名:日期:

Signature:Date:

2018年9月9日

September 9, 2018

参考资料

References

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Epoch Times. Witnesses Testify on Live Organ Harvesting at Sujiatun Concentration Camp. March 17, 2006. http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/3/17/n1257362.htm 证人现身指证苏家屯集中营摘活体器官. 大纪元时报. 2006-03-17

Shannon J. UK Parliament Debate: Forced Organ Removal: China. 2016. Volume 615. https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2016-10-11/debates/415E2EC0-F4D8-4E94-AD76-D980010ACD69/ForcedOrganRemovalChina

2 Kilgour D, Matas D. Bloody Harvest. F.C 31) A confession. http://organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131.htm#_Toc160145143 Kilgour D, Gutmann E, Matas D. Bloody Harvest/The Slaughter: An Update. June 22, 2016. http://endorganpillaging.org/an-update/

3 China Organ Harvest Research Center. Transplant abuse in China continues despite claims of reform. July 2018. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

4 National Key Basic Research and Development Program (973 Program). http://baike.baidu.com/view/4785810.htm?fromtitle=973%E8%AE%A1%E5%88%92&fromid=3055993&type=syn https://archive.is/PPzqi 国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)

5 National High Technology Research and Development Program (863 Program). http://baike.baidu.com/view/4785616.htm?fromtitle=863%E8%AE%A1%E5%88%92&fromid=114257&type=syn https://archive.is/T0ds4 国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划) 6 National Five-Year Plan - China Internet Information Center china.com.cn http://www.china.com.cn/chinese/zhuanti/wngh/1163433.htm https://archive.is/KUZrb 国家五年规划

7 Five-year plans of China https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-year_plans_of_China

8 Ministry of Health Notice on Issuing Outline for Tenth Five-Year Plan for Health Source: 110.com, The Ministry of Health, Dated: 2001-07-23,Status: valid http://www.110.com/fagui/law_148410.html https://archive.is/4v3uG 卫生部关于印发卫生事业第十个五年计划纲要的通知. 法律法规网. 来源: 卫生部. 状态:有效. 发布日期:2001-07-23

9 The Tenth Five-Year Plan on Chinese Health Technology Development and 2010 Vision Plan The National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China 2004-06-03 http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/zwgkzt/pzcqgh/200804/20487.shtml https://archive.is/Gj3uO 中国卫生科技发展第十个五年计划及2010年远景规划纲要. 中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会. 2004-06-03

10 Ministry of Health Issues Application Guidelines for Four Projects of the National Key Technology Research and Development Program http://news.sciencenet.cn/htmlnews/2008228163031735202339.html https://archive.is/SxgyM#selection-303.3-303.6 卫生部发布“十一五”科技支撑计划四项目课题申请指南 2008-02-28

11 Meeting Minutes on the 12th Five-Year Plan Strategy Study Workshop - National High-Tech R&D Program of China (863 Program) on Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering http://www.gzbio.net/web/gsrc/info/201202168700.html https://archive.is/buGh0 863计划干细胞与组织工程 - “十二五”战略研讨会会议纪要

12 Kickoff Meeting of 863 Program in Biology and Modern Medicine Held in Beijing. July 31, 2012. http://www.cncbd.org.cn/News/Detail/3001 https://archive.is/2GU4s “十二五”863计划生物和医药技术领域现代医学技术主题项目启动会在京召开, 2012-07-31

13 National Key Basic Research and Development Program (973 Program). http://baike.baidu.com/view/4785810.htm?fromtitle=973%E8%AE%A1%E5%88%92&fromid=3055993&type=syn https://archive.is/PPzqi 国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划) 14 National High Technology Research and Development Program (863 Program). http://baike.baidu.com/view/4785616.htm?fromtitle=863%E8%AE%A1%E5%88%92&fromid=114257&type=syn

https://archive.is/T0ds4 国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划)

15 National Natural Science Foundation. Major projects. Major research project http://www.nsfc.gov.cn/publish/portal0/jgsz/08/default.htm#03 国家自然科学基金. 重大项目. 重大研究计划项目

16 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 36-37, 40-41. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

17 Liu Y. Sharing System Moves Chinese Organ Transplantation into the Public Welfare Era. China Economic Weekly. 2013(34). http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20160116163206/http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm 共享系统推动中国器官移植进入公益化时代. 中国经济周刊. 刘砚青

18 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 38, 47-52. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

19 Organ Transplant Center at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University Source: Official web site of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Sun Yat-sen University , September, 2013 http://www.gzsums.net/zhuanke_6448.aspx Its 2013 archive is available at: http://web.archive.org/web/20130923130450/http://www.gzsums.net/zhuanke_6448.aspx 中山大学第一附属医院器官移植科, 来源:中山大学第一附属医院官网档案, 2013年9月

20 Expert Introduction: He Xiaoshun Source: Official web site of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Sun Yat-sen University , April, 2018 http://www.gzsums.net/zhuanjia_219.aspx https://archive.is/cO9Ud 专家介绍:何晓顺, 来源:中山大学第一附属医院官网, 2018年4月

21 Doctor Profile: He Xiaoshun. Source: Good Doctors Online http://hexiaoshun.haodf.com/api/index/ajaxdoctorintro?uname=hexiaoshun https://archive.is/YxGWV 医生介绍:何晓顺 来源:好大夫在线

22 Expert Introduction: He Xiaoshun Source: Official web site of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Sun Yat-sen University , April, 2018 http://www.gzsums.net/zhuanjia_219.aspx https://archive.is/cO9Ud 专家介绍:何晓顺, 来源:中山大学第一附属医院官网, 2018年4月

23 Expert Introduction: He Xiaoshun Source: Official web site of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Sun Yat-sen University . April, 2018 http://www.gzsums.net/zhuanjia_219.aspx https://archive.is/cO9Ud 专家介绍:何晓顺, 来源:中山大学第一附属医院官网, 2018年4月

24 The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University Celebrates Its 100th Anniversary. Xinkuai Paper. October 9, 2010 http://www.ycwb.com/ePaper/xkb/html/2010-10/09/content_940841.htm The original page is no longer accessible. Refer to the archived version: https://web.archive.org/web/20161110104634/http://www.ycwb.com/ePaper/xkb/html/2010-10/09/content_940841.htm 中山一院今庆百岁华诞. 新快报. 2010年十月9日

25 Australian Organ and Tissue Donation and Transplantation Authority Amendment (New Governance Arrangements) Senate debates. Derryn Hinch Speech. 24 November 2016 http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/display/display.w3p;db=CHAMBER;id=chamber%2Fhansards%2Fe7337364-8906-4997-8e24-5b67db7968a7%2F0185;query=Id%3A%22chamber%2Fhansards%2Fe7337364-8906-4997-8e24-5b67db7968a7%2F0189%22

26 The ‘living dead’: prisoners executed for their organs then sold to foreigners for transplants, news.com.au, Megan Palin http://www.news.com.au/world/asia/the-living-dead-prisoners-executed-for-their-organs-then-sold-to-foreigners-for-transplants/news-story/4048895e300f415a0a078e229d697bf7

27 Lavee J. The impact of the use of organs from executed prisoners in China on the new Organ Transplantation Law in Israel. In: Matas D, Trey T. eds. State Organs—Transplant abuse in China Seraphim Editions. 2012:108. 28 China Organ Harvest Research Center. Medical Genocide: Hidden Mass Murder in China’s Organ Transplant Industry. 2017. Available at: https://vimeo.com/207039399.

29 A liver for 130,000 euros. El País. March 14, 2010. https://elpais.com/diario/2010/03/14/domingo/1268542353_850215.html 30 Bung Moktar recovering after surgery, say relatives. Malay Mail. February 19, 2016. https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2016/02/19/bung-mokhtar-recovering-after-surgery-say-relatives/1063533

31 Merchant N. Does China still harvest organs of executed?Doctors divided. Associated Press. August 26, 2016. https://www.apnews.com/52c840af614b48d988244a316ff0d660.

32 Evidence 1: Pre-Scheduled Surgeries (Videos) https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/evidence/group-1-pre-scheduled-surgeries/

33 China Organ Harvest Research Center. Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. Chapter I: China’s On-Demand Organ Transplant Industry. Page 29-30. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

34 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 30. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

35 China Organ Harvest Research Center. Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. Chapter III: Continued Growth Despite Exposure. Page 26. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

36 Evidence 2: On-Demand Transplants (Videos) https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/evidence/group-2-on-demand-transplants/

37 Evidence 3: Living Organ Sources (Videos)https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/evidence/group-3-living-organ-sources/

38 China International Transplantation Network Assistance Center (CITNAC) Online Answers http://zoukiishoku.com/cn/wenda/index.htm Refer to its archive: http://web.archive.org/web/20040905175057/http://zoukiishoku.com/cn/wenda/index.htm 《国际移植(中国)网络支援中心》在线回答 39 China International Transplantation Network Assistance Center (CITNAC) Online Answers http://en.zoukiishoku.com:80/list/qa.htm Refer to its archive: http://web.archive.org/web/20070829032057/http://en.zoukiishoku.com:80/list/qa.htm 《国际移植(中国)网络支援中心》在线回答

40 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 32. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

41 68-year-old mother donates kidney to save son, brings up topic of encouraging living donation from relatives http://xh.xhby.net/mp1/html/2006-04/12/content_235744.htm https://archive.is/eVC0W 68岁老母割肾救儿引出的话题:提倡亲属间活体器官捐赠

42 Academician Zheng Shusen: Current Status and Prospects of Liver Transplantation in China. Source: meeting.dxy.cn. June 8th , 2014. http://meeting.dxy.cn/article/4519?trace=related https://archive.is/eOsc9 郑树森院士:我国肝移植现状与展望

43 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July 2018. p33-34. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

44 Halazun KJ, Al-Mukhtar A, Aldouri A, Willis S, Ahmad N. Warm ischemia in transplantation: search for a consensus definition. Transplantation proceedings. 2007(39)(5), p1329-1331. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2007.02.061.

45 Clinical Application of Lungs From Brain Death Donor Harvested By International Standardized Methods Source:Organ Transplantation July 2010 Issue 4, P. 230-233 Authors: Weidong, Chen Jingyu http://www.xueshu.com/qgyz/201004/12879122.html http://web.archive.org/web/20170112000324/http://www.xueshu.com/qgyz/201004/12879122.html 国际标准化脑死亡供肺的临床应用3例报告 《器官移植》2010年第4期 230-233 作者:卫栋, 陈静瑜

46 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 119-122. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

47 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 32. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

48 Speech of Professor Wang Lijun at the Award Ceremony of "China Guanghua Science and Technology Development Foundation Special Innovation Contribution Award" http://www.360doc.com/content/12/0211/11/7915662_185743859.shtml https://archive.is/obsrD 现场心理研究中心主任王立军教授在“光华创新特别贡献奖”颁奖典礼上谈话

49 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 28. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

50 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 24-25. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

51 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 165-166. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

52 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 28. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

53 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 165-166. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

54 Evidence 4: Short Wait Times (videos) https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/evidence/group-4-short-wait-times/

55 Father in Severe Hepatic Failure and Faces Huge Costs for Liver Transplant, Brother Studying in School http://www.qschou.com/project/index/93b3edb8-b633-42e9-910f-33ae404557b3 https://archive.is/s6IND

56 14 Large Organ Transplants Completed in 48 Hours. March 22,2017. Source: Zhejiang Daily https://news.ifeng.com/a/20170322/50811708_0.shtml https://web.archive.org/web/20181013080822/http://news.ifeng.com/a/20170322/50811708_0.shtml 48小时,完成14台大器官移植手术. 2017年03月22日. 来源:《浙江日报》

57 5 Organ Transplants Completed In 48 Hours. 1st Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University. September 6, 2017 www.ayfy.com/menhuweb/show.php?itemid=11063 https://web.archive.org/web/20181013080621/http://www.ayfy.com/menhuweb/show.php?itemid=11063 医院48小时完成5例器官移植. 医院网站. 2017-09-06

58 Founder of Liver Surgery Wu Mengchao Shares Liver Disease Prevention and Secret to Long Life Source: Sina Health. May 11, 2011. Reporter: Song Ruliang, etc. http://health.sina.com.cn/d/2011-05-11/145222445449.shtml https://web.archive.org/web/20120327035615/http://health.sina.com.cn/d/2011-05-11/145222445449.shtml 《新浪健康》肝脏外科创始人吴孟超分享肝病防治与长寿秘诀2011年05月11日

59 Beyond the Dark Veil of China’s Organ Trade. Phoenix Weekly. September 24, 2013. The original page has been removed from: http://www.51fenghuang.com/news/shehui/2412.html Refer to its archive: https://archive.is/B36qx 中国人体器官买卖的黑幕 《凤凰周刊》2013-9-24

60 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 32. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

61 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 66-79. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

62 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 74-77. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

63 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 165-166. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

64 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 94-95. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

65 People’s Republic of China Executed “According to Law”? - The Death Penalty in China, Amnesty International, AI Index: ASA 17/003/2004

66 The Next Frontier National Development, Political Change, and the Death Penalty in Asia Studies in Crime and Public Policy, David T Johnson, Franklin E Zimring

67 The death penalty - Strike less hard - Most of the world’s sharp decline in executions can be credited to China The Economist. August 3, 2013. https://www.economist.com/news/china/21582557-most-worlds-sharp-decline-executions-can-be-credited-china-strike-less-hard68 Nine of Ten Doctors Don’t Know About Brain-Death. Southern Metropolis Daily. March 7, 2013. http://archive.is/PTFtZ. Accessed January 23, 2018.

69 Huang J. The History and Outlook of Organ Donation in China. Medical Journal of Wuhan University. 2016:37(4):517-522. http://www.xml-data.org/WHDXXBYXB/html/376dc553-65cf-4291-99af-7b4465c286fa.htm http://archive.is/TdpZl 中国器官捐献的发展历程与展望

70 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 96-100. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

71 Liu Y. Sharing System Moves Chinese Organ Transplantation into the Public Welfare Era. China Economic Weekly. 2013(34). http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20160116163206/http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm 共享系统推动中国器官移植进入公益化时代. 中国经济周刊. 刘砚青

72 Organ Donation Pilot Program Did Not Solve Dilemma of Supply and Demand Disparity After Two-Year Trial. The Beijing News. March 26, 2012. http://news.sciencenet.cn/htmlnews/2012/3/261753.shtm https://archive.is/fL2bJ 我国器官捐献试点两年未破供求悬殊困局. 新京报. 2012-3-26. 吴鹏 底东娜 .

73 China’s Transplantation: don’t let the poor become the organ database for the rich. Prosecution Daily. 2017-01-11 http://www.Xinhua.com/2017-11/01/c_1121890176.htm http://web.archive.org/web/20180331074939/http://www.Xinhua.com/2017-11/01/c_1121890176.htm 中国器官移植事业:不让穷人成为富人的器官库. 检察日报. 2017年11月1日

74 Many Challenges in Organ Donation. Guangming Daily. September 3, 2013. Author: Chen Haibo http://guancha.gmw.cn/2013-09/03/content_8778961.htm The original page is no longer accessible. Refer to the archived version: https://archive.is/4XrRr 器官捐献尚存多种阻力. 光明日报. 2013年9月3日. 陈海波

75 Changes in China’s Transplant Industry in Last 20 Years. Tencent Net: News.qq.com. March 2016. http://news.qq.com/zt2016/qgyz/home.htm http://archive.is/cQqJu . Accessed January 30, 2018 生死契约:中国器官移植二十年之变. 腾讯新闻. 2016

76 China to Scrap Organ Harvesting from Executed Prisoners. Source: chinadaily.com.cn. 2014-12-04. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2014-12/04/content_19025683.htm https://archive.is/Cywei

77 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 98-100. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.

78 China Organ Donation Administrative Center http://www.china-organdonation.org/ http://archive.is/FPDbD

79 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 113-119. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

80 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 96-100. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

81 “Huang Jiefu: ‘Can death-row prisoners donate organs?' is a pseudo-proposition” Beijing Youth Daily. November 23, 2015 http://epaper.ynet.com/html/2015-11/23/content_167300.htm?div=-1 The original page is no longer accessible. Refer to the archived version: https://archive.is/hSlEd 黄洁夫:死囚可否捐器官是伪命题 《北京青年报》, 2015年11月23日

82 Huang Jiefu: The Five Systems in Organ Donation Are Open and Transparent, Allowing the Public to Enjoy the Resources. Phoenix TV. March 25, 2017. http://phtv.ifeng.com/a/20170325/44561772_0.shtml. http://archive.is/qpWDy 黄洁夫:器官捐献五大体系公开透明 让百姓也能享受资源. 2017年03月25日 . 来源:凤凰卫视

83 Issuing Notice on Management Regulations for Human Organ Procurement and Distribution (Trial) National Health and Family Planning Commission August 21, 2013 http://www.moh.gov.cn/zhuzhan/zcjd/201308/c18f349814984f44a71361426f3eec0d.shtml https://archive.is/zz8Hn 国家卫生计生委关于印发《人体捐献器官获取与分配管理规定(试行)》的通知. 2013年8月21日

84 Huang Jiefu: The Five Systems in Organ Donation Are Open and Transparent, Allowing the Public to Enjoy the Resources. Phoenix TV. March 25, 2017. http://phtv.ifeng.com/a/20170325/44561772_0.shtml. http://archive.is/qpWDy 黄洁夫:器官捐献五大体系公开透明 让百姓也能享受资源. 2017年03月25日 . 来源:凤凰卫视

85 WOIPFG Report on the Status of the Chinese Communist Party’s Live Organ Harvesting from Falun Gong Practitioners. July 19, 2017. https://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/72524 http://web.archive.org/web/20180331065941/https://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/72524 追查國際對中共活摘法輪功學員器官現狀調查報告 2017年7月19日

86 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 100-103. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

87 Issuing Notice on Management Regulations for Human Organ procurements and Distribution (Trial) Issued by National Health and Family Planning Commission August 21, 2013 http://www.moh.gov.cn/zhuzhan/zcjd/201308/c18f349814984f44a71361426f3eec0d.shtml https://archive.is/zz8Hn 国家卫生计生委关于印发《人体捐献器官获取与分配管理规定(试行)》的通知 2013年8月21日

88 CCTV One on One – Huang Jiefu: Confusion Surrounding Organ Donation (July 14, 2013) http://news.cntv.cn/2013/07/14/VIDE1373813040106135.shtml http://web.archive.org/web/20180303073808/http://news.cntv.cn/2013/07/14/VIDE1373813040106135.shtml 央视《面对面》 20130714 黄洁夫:器官捐赠之惑

89 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July 2018 page 110-112. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

90 Huang Jiefu Discusses Doctor Shortage: Seven of Ten Lung Transplants Depend on One Doctor. China News. 2017-03-09 http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2017/03-09/8169145.shtml http://archive.is/tFOLx 黄洁夫谈医生短缺:七成肺移植手术靠一个医生做. 中国新闻网. 2017-03-09

91 No brain death legislation in China, 90% of Doctors Are Not Clear About the Specifications Either. qq.net. Aug 22, 2014 http://news.qq.com/a/20140822/056799.htm https://archive.is/FB61S “我国脑死亡立法空白 90%医生不清楚鉴定标准” 来源:腾讯网新闻 2014年8月22日

92 Huang Jiefu: China Will Add 20 Organ Transplant Hospitals This Year, Increasing to 300 Within 5 Years http://www.yicai.com/news/5244331.html http://archive.is/V9ggt 黄洁夫:今年将增加20家器官移植医院 五年内增加到300家 第一财经 马晓华 2017-03-12

93 Allison KC, Caplan A, Shapiro ME, Els C, Paul NW, Li H. Historical development and current status of organ procurement from death-row prisoners in China. BMC Medical Ethics. 2015;16(85). doi: 10.1186/s12910-015-0074-0. Available at: https://bmcmedethics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12910-015-0074-0.

94 Allison KC, Paul NW, Shapiro ME, Els C, Li H. China’s semantic trick with prisoner organs. BMJ Blog 2015. Available at: http://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2015/10/08/chinas-semantic-trick-with-prisoner-organs/

95 Huang Jiefu: Stopping Use of Organs from Death-Row Inmates. CCTV 2015-01-11. Available at: http://news.cntv.cn/2015/01/11/VIDE1420988398831635.shtml https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kk2q5JkE8dY http://web.archive.org/web/20180331071758/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kk2q5JkE8dY

96 Huang Jiefu Report Consultation Meeting on Transplantation with National Health Authorities in The Western Pacific Region. p21-22. Manila, Philippines. November 7-9, 2005. http://www.moh.gov.my/images/gallery/orga/Consultation-Meeting.pd http://web.archive.org/web/20180130032249/http://www.moh.gov.my/images/gallery/orga/Consultation-Meeting.pdf

97 China to be world’s top organ transplant country by 2020, source: CGTN, author: Ge Yunfei, updated on 2017-12-18 https://news.cgtn.com/news/774d7a4e32637a6333566d54/share_p.html

98 China, Once an Organ Transplant Pariah, Is Now Accepted as Global Leader After Reform, Papal Recognition Li Ruohan. Global Times. 2017/9/6 http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1065115.shtml http://web.archive.org/web/20180224203045/http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1065115.shtml

99 China International Transplantation Network Assistance Center (CITNAC) - Actual situation https://web.archive.org/web/20041023185232/http://zoukiishoku.com/cn/shixiang/index.htm 《国际移植(中国)网络支援中心》中国脏器移植实际情况

100 Memoirs of Shi Zhe (interpreter for Mao Zedong). https://www.bannedbook.org/forum4/topic2477.html 师哲回忆录《风与谷》揭秘中共早期解剖活人细节

101 Insider Testimony of Senior Military Doctor in Shenyang Military Command Regarding Sujiatun Concentration Camp Source: The Epoch Times March 31, 2006 http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/3/31/n1271996.htm http://web.archive.org/web/20170113065810/http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/3/31/n1271996.htm 沈阳军区老军医指证苏家屯集中营内幕. 大纪元时报

102 Kidney Transplantation - Medical Encyclopedia 肾移植- 医学百科 http://www.a-hospital.com/w/%E8%82%BE%E7%A7%BB%E6%A4%8D https://archive.is/PmA5d

103 China Organ Procurement and Judicial Execution in China https://www.hrw.org/reports/1994/china1/china_948.htm http://web.archive.org/web/20180331033938/https://www.hrw.org/reports/1994/china1/china_948.htm

104 Supreme People's Court, Supreme People's Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Civil Affairs Interim Provisions on the Use of Organs from Executed Prisoners Source: 110.com October 9, 1984 http://www.110.com/fagui/law_21137.html https://archive.is/FjDaf 最高人民法院, 最高人民检察院, 公安部, 司法部, 卫生部, 民政部关于利用死刑罪犯尸体或尸体器官的暂行规定

105 Surgeon Testifies – Houses of Orieachtas, Ireland http://endorganpillaging.org/surgeon-testifies-houses-of-orieachtas-ireland/

106 Damon Noto. Testimony at "Organ Harvesting of Religious and Political Dissidents by the Chinese Communist Party" hearing before the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives. September 12, 2012. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg75859/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg75859.pdf http://web.archive.org/web/20180225091054/https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg75859/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg75859.pdf

107 Huang J. Report Consultation Meeting on Transplantation with National Health Authorities in The Western Pacific Region. p21-22. Manila, Philippines. November 7-9, 2005. http://www.moh.gov.my/images/gallery/orga/Consultation-Meeting.pdf http://web.archive.org/web/20180130032249/http://www.moh.gov.my/images/gallery/orga/Consultation-Meeting.pdf

108 Climbing the Peak of Transplantation, Extending the Wonders of Life. Source: Dongfeng General Hospital Nov. 18, 2009 http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/xingyedongtai/2010/1222/3020.html The original page is no longer accessible. Refer to the archived version: https://archive.is/DATK4 攀登移植之巅 延续生命精彩. 东风医院. 2009-11-18

109 Wuhan University Research Institute of Hepatobiliary Diseases: A Race Against Time www.people.com.cn - Hubei Channel May 21, 2015 Zhang Pei http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyienizhonghe/2015-05/7432.htm https://archive.is/SzewF 武大肝胆疾病研究院:器官移植与时间赛跑 [日期:2015-05-21] 来源:人民网-湖北频道 作者:张沛 110 The Maze of Organ Donation. infzm.com / Southern Weekend. March 26, 2010 http://news.163.com/10/0326/10/62MP5K0G00011SM9.html https://archive.is/hsCZG 器官捐献迷宫. 南方周末. 2010-03-26 111 Bloody Harvest 20) A policy of persecution David Matas, David Kilgour http://organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131.htm#_Toc160145132

112 Falun Dafa. http://en.falundafa.org/

113 Ebook Versions of Two Clearwisdom Books – “Hearts and Minds Uplifted” and “Life and Hope Renewed”. Minghui.org. http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2011/3/23/123975.html Sharing Water. Minghui.org. June 27, 1999. [Brief] This is a story happed in a mountainous region in Hunan Province in China. The two villages of Nanbian and Shuizhuang shared the same canal for their water supply. Nanbian was situated upstream and for 20 years had monopolized the water supply to irrigate their rice fields, particularly during dry summer seasons. In July 1995, 176 Nanbian villagers started practicing Falun Gong. Following its teachings, they learned to be considerate of others and to put others before themselves. Instead of fighting over the water, they decided to share the limited supply with Shuizhuang Village. The two villages have since eliminated their decades-long rivalry. http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/1999/6/27/%E8%AE%A9%E6%B0%B4-143912.html 让水. 湖南省郴州辅导站供稿. 明慧网. 一九九九年六月二十七日

114 An observational cohort study on terminal cancer survivors practicing falun gong (FLG) in China. 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting. Authors: Yuhong Dong, Chian-Feng Huang, Jim Liao, Alex Chih-Yu Chen, Jason G. Liu, Kai-Hsiung Hsu; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland; Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Gillings School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; Mind-Body Science Institute, South Pasadena, CA; National Ilan University, Ilan, Taiwan https://meetinglibrary.asco.org/record/127317/abstract Research Finds Falun Gong Practice Improves Cancer Survival Rate. Minghui.org. June 16, 2016 http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2016/6/16/157437.html 115 The Story of an ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) Survivor. Minghui.org. August 31, 2014. http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2014/8/31/2776.html

116 Falun Gong and Health Benefits – Part I. Minghui.org. March 05, 2011 | By He Mai [Brief] Research in mainland China, North America, and Taiwan has shown significant healing effects in people who started practicing Falun Gong. A 1998 survey by medical experts in Beijing, Wuhan, Dalian, Guangdong Province, and other places received nearly 35,000 responses from those in various strata of society and with various levels of education. Results from the 28,571 respondents in Guangdong, Beijing, and Dalian showed that 82.7% of people who practiced Falun Gong were fully cured of illnesses or nearly completely recovered, and 16.2% saw improvements in their conditions. Thus, 98.9% of respondents reported health improvements after starting to practice Falun Gong. On average, each practitioner saved more than 2,600 RMB in medical costs. Additionally, 88.4% reported an improvement in their mental health and well-being, and 99.5% quit smoking, drinking, and/or gambling. Furthermore, 86.5% reported that their morality and ethics improved after starting the practice. http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2011/3/5/123614.html Falun Gong and Health Benefits – Part II. Minghui.org. March 05, 2011 | By He Mai http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2011/3/8/123681.html 117 Number of Falun Gong practitioners in China in 1999: at least 70 million. Falun Dafa Information Center. http://faluninfo.net/article/517/Number-of-Falun-Gong-practitioners-in-China-in-1999-at-least-70-million/ 4/27/99, New York Times. In Beijing: A Roar of Silent Protestors, by Seth Faison “…the Government’s estimate of 70 million adherents represents a large group in a nation of 1.2 billion” 4/27/99, The New York Times. Notoriety Now for Movement's Leader, by Joseph Kahn 4/26/99, The Associated Press. Growing group poses a dilemma for China, by Renee Schoof

118 Timeline of Persecution. Falun Dafa Information Center https://faluninfo.net/persecution-timeline/

119 Beijing Spring 2001(6): A speech at the meeting of the CCP Politburo on how to swiftly handle and solve the “Falun Gong issue.” by Jiang Zemin. (June 7, 1999)

120 The U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China and some experts of think tanks consider the 610 Office an illegal secret security agency in the People's Republic of China: Cook, Sarah; Lemish, Leeshai (November 2011). "The 610 Office:Policing the Chinese Spirit". China Brief. 11 (17). Retrieved 24 November 2012. Ong, Larry (8 July 2016). "Inspection of 'Chinese Gestapo' Begins With Unusual Announcement". Epoch Times. Spiegel, Mickey (2002). Dangerous Meditation: China's Campaign Against Falungong. New York: Human Rights Watch. Congressional Executive Commission on China. ‘Communist Party Calls for Increased Efforts To "Transform" Falun Gong Practitioners as Part of Three-Year Campaign’. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2012. Congressional Executive Commission on China. Annual Report 2008. 31 October 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2013. Congressional Executive Commission on China. Annual Report 2009. 10 October 2009 [24 December 2013]. Tong, James (2009). Revenge of the Forbidden City: The Suppression of Falungong in China, 1999-2005. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195377281.

121 The existence of the 610 Office can be verified through documents of the State Council and ministries of P.R. China, as well as media reports: 2002 Work Status of the Health Qigong Management Center of the General Administration of Sport in China 《国家体育总局健身气功管理中心2002年工作情况》 Work Report of Hua Fuzhou at the Seventh Meeting of the Coordination Group of the Founding of the Five-Good Civilized Families (January 21, 2003) 《 华福周在全国五好文明家庭创建活动协调小组第七次会议上的工作汇报(2003年1月21日)》 Internal Communication of the Central Communist Youth League (2001) 《共青团中央2001年团内要讯》 Report on the “Opposing Cults, Promoting Civilization” Exhibition Held in the Ningxia Autonomous Region; 宁夏自治区举办“反对邪教 崇尚文明”展览的报道; Report on the “Opposing Cults, Promoting Civilization” Large-Scale Photo Exhibition Held in Chengdu 《成都举办“反对邪教 崇尚文明”大型图片展的报道

122 Inhuman Violence and State Terrorism under the Chinese Communist Party. Part 1. Minghui.org. April 16, 2006. Comprehensive report by He Yu http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2006/4/16/72024.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/3/22/123262.html 中共灭绝人性的国家恐怖主义暴行(上). 明慧网. 荷雨. 2006年3月8日 123 The existence of the central 610 Office can be verified by various documents of the State Council, ministries, and regional government agencies of P.R. China, as well as media reports. Refer to citation 101 and more as listed below: Jinan Women’s Federation Communication Issue #40 济南妇联妇工通讯第40期 Weekly News of the Organizational Structure of Shandong University Administrative Departments, Lanzhou University Party Committee (President’s Office) Issue #304 山东大学校部机关机构设置,兰州大学党委校长办公室每周信息(总第304期) Political Department (Office of the Party Committee, 610 Office and Joint Agencies) 政治部(机关党委办公室、610办公室与其合署办公) Administrative Functions of the Political Department of the Guangzhou Justice Bureau 广州司法局政治部行政职能 Organizational Structure of the 615 Office of the Daqing Petroleum Administration Bureau 大庆石油管理局615办公室机构设置 124 State Council Notice Regarding Organization of Agencies (2003, No.8). March 21, 2003. 国务院2003年3月21日发布的关于机构设置的通知(国发〔2003〕8号)

125 The existence of the central 610 Office can be verified by various documents of the State Council, ministries, and regional government agencies of PR China, as well as media reports. Refer to citations 101 and 103.

126 Leadership List of the State Council and Various Ministries 国务院及各部委行署暨直属机构领导名单 Agencies Directly Subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee 中共中央直属机构

127 Central Organization Department: The Central Committee has decided to remove Li Dongsheng from official posts Xinhua. December 25, 2013 The report has since been deleted from its original website: http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2013-12/25/c_118709712.htm The archived web page: https://archive.is/xH2FE 中组部:中央已决定免去李东生领导职务. 新华网. 2013年12月25日

128 Liu Jing’s Answer to a Reporter at the Press Conference of the State Council Information Office (February 27, 2001) 国务院新闻办公室新闻发布会刘京答记者(2001年2月27日)

129 Important Relevant Documents Received by the Hubei Suizhou Economic and Trade Commission in 2001. Website of Suizhou Economic and Trade Commission 湖北随州2001年经贸委所收有关重要文件. 随州经贸网

130 The illegality of China's Falun Gong crackdown—and today's rule of law repercussions. Testifying at the European Parliament. by Yiyang Xia. March 28, 2011 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2009_2014/documents/droi/dv/506_yiyangxia_/506_yiyangxia_en.pdf 131 Notice by the CCP Central Committee Prohibiting Party Members from Practicing Falun Dafa. July 19, 1999 http://www.people.com.cn/GB/channel1/10/20000706/132286.html 中共中央关于共产党员不准修炼“法轮大法”的通知. 1999年7月19日. 中国共产党新闻资料中心

132 The Ministry of Civil Affairs of the PRC, “Decision to Ban the Research Society of Falun Dafa by the Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People's Republic of China,” July 22, 1999 http://www.people.com.cn/GB/channel1/10/20000706/132286.html 中华人民共和国民政部关于取缔法轮大法研究会的决定. 1999年7月22日

133 The Ministry of Public Security of the PRC. “Notice of Six Prohibitions from the Ministry of Public Security.” July22, 1999 http://www.people.com.cn/GB/channel1/10/20000706/132280.html 中华人民共和国公安部通告(1999年7月22日)

134 Notice by the General Administration of Press and Publication of the People’s Republic of China Regarding the Reaffirmation of Opinion for Handling Falun Gong Publications. July22, 1999 http://www.people.com.cn/GB/channel1/10/20000706/132280.html 中华人民共和国新闻出版署关于重申有关法轮功出版物处理意见的通知(1999年7月22日)

135 In 2007, six prominent Chinese lawyers defended Falun Gong practitioner Wang Bo and her family under the title: “The Supremacy of the Constitution, and Freedom of Religion.” Following extensive analysis, the attorneys concluded: “it is clear that the punitive actions carried out at present against Falun Gong practitioners have no constitutional legal basis, and they should be suspended forthwith.” This defend statement is regarded as a historical document in Chinese legal field. The Supremacy of the Constitution, and Freedom of Religion. Li Heping, Li Xiongbing, Zhang Lihui, Li Shunzhang, Fujisaki, Geng Hongwei. April 2007. http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/7/8/21/n1808573.htm Let China become a country with human rights, democracy and the rule of law. China Human Righ. Jiao Guobiao. August 12, 2010. http://biweeklyarchive.hrichina.org/article/588.html 让中国成为人权、民主、法治的国家(上). 中国人权. 焦国标. 2010年8月12日

136 Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, Articles 36 and 5, law 89 http://www.usconstitution.net/china.html 137 Legislative Resolution on Banning Heretic Cults. www.china-embassy.org. October 30, 1999. http://www.china-embassy.org/eng/zt/ppflg/t36567.htm https://archive.is/V8lbr 138 Order No. 50 of the State Press and Publication Administration: Decision of the General Administration of Press and Publication to abolish the fifth batch of normative documents. March 1, 2011 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/2011/content_1960695.htm https://archive.is/EgAsc 国家新闻出版总署第50号令: 新闻出版总署废止第五批规范性文件的决定. 二〇一一年三月一日

139 Former 610 Office Head Li Dongsheng Indicted. Minghui.org. August 24,2015. http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2015/8/29/152297.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2015/8/24/-314629.html 李东生被公诉 明慧网 2015年8月24日

140 Written Interview of Chinese President Jiang Zemin by French Newspaper Le Figaro Editorial Chair Alain Peyrefitte. Xinhua. October 25, 1999. 国家主席江泽民在对法国进行国事访问前夕接受法国《费加罗报》社论委员会主席佩雷菲特的书面采访 新华社. 北京. 1999年10月25日

141 Li Hongzhi and His Falun Gong: Deceiving the Public and Ruining Lives. The Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the CCP. 1999.

142 CBS 60 Minutes September 3, 2000: China's Leader Talks To 60 Minutes http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000/08/31/60minutes/main229619.shtml

143 Breaking through Internet Censorship for the People of China. Minghui.org. July 18, 2013 http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2013/7/18/141114.html 144 Cisco Leak: 'Great Firewall' of China Was a Chance to Sell More Routers. Wired. May 20, 2008 https://www.wired.com/2008/05/leaked-cisco-do/ 145 Internet Filtering in China in 2004-2005: A Country Study. U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. April 14, 2005. Page 24-25: Test conclusions; Page 51: The conclusion https://www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/4.14.05oni_wrts.pdf

146 Chinese Gov't Plan to "Eradicate Falun Gong in 3 Months" August 30, 2000 (Falun Dafa Information Center) http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2000/8/31/7247.htm 147 Make the Battle Against Falun Gong an Important Political Task for News Propaganda. News Front. 2001 Issue 3. People’s Daily. http://www.people.com.cn/GB/paper79/3058/409499.html https://archive.is/9a7gv 把与法轮功的斗争作为新闻宣传工作的一项重要政治任务. 新闻战线. 2001年第三期. 人民网.

148 Human Fire Ignites Chinese Mystery Motive for Public Burning Intensifies Fight Over Falun Gong. Washington Post. February 5, 2001.https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2001/02/04/human-fire-ignites-chinese-mystery/e27303e3-6117-4ec3-b6cf-58f03cdb4773/

149 "610 Office" and Its Head, Luo Gan, Issues Secret Order for "Lifetime Incarceration" to Block the Release of Falun Gong Practitioners. Minghui.org. September 20, 2001 http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2001/9/20/14033.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2001/9/18/-16728.html 罗干610办执意迫害法轮功 传密令阻挠释放学员. 明慧网. 2001年9月18日 150 Urgent Call for Rescue: Jiang Regime Issues Orders to Kill Without Mercy, Each Province Given Lists of Practitioners to Execute. Minghui.org. March 07, 2002. http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2002/3/7/19564.html 紧急救援:江泽民下令杀无赦 各省都有死刑名单

151 Intercepting TV Signals in China: A Look Back at Falun Gong Practitioners’ Peaceful Resistance to the Persecution Minghui.org. April 01, 2017 https://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2017/3/9/-344031.html 插播勇士遭中共江泽民集团迫害综述. 明慧网. 二零一七年三月九日 Charges Announced for Liu Jing, Key Perpetrator of the Persecution of Falun Gong: International Organization for Bringing to Justice the Persecutors of Falun Dafa. Epoch Times. October 28, 2014. http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/14/10/28/n4282943.htm 迫害法轮功主犯刘京罪状公告. 清算江泽民迫害法轮大法国际组织. 2014-10-28

152 Eyewitness Account of the Killing of Liu Haibo by a Police Officer at the Scene https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/11/Liu-Haibo-Eyewitness-Account.pdf http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2004/1/7/-64297.html 目击者披露刘海波因长春电视插播被虐死的事实经过. 明慧网. 2004年1月7日 Hao Fengjun: Why did I escape from China (2). The Epoch Times. 2005-06-08 http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/5/6/8/n948560.htm 郝凤军:我为什么逃离中国(2) . 大纪元时报. 2005-06-08

153 The history and evolution of the Political and Legal Commission. Zhou Yongkun. Issue No.9, 2012. Liberal Magazine. http://www.yhcqw.com/html/cqb/2012/96/23KG.html https://archive.is/hQm6X 政法委的历史与演变. 周永坤. 炎黄春秋杂志. 2012年第9期 Leadership and Organizations . ChinaPeace.gov.cn (run by the Central Political and Legal Commission) http://www.chinapeace.gov.cn/node_54226.htm https://archive.is/FzU9t 中国长安网 (中共中央政法委员会主办) 领导·机构

154 “My Conscience Forbids Me to Keep Silent Any Longer”. AFAR Association for Asian Research. 12/5/2003 http://www.asianresearch.org/articles/1739.html http://web.archive.org/web/20170113064319/http://www.asianresearch.org/articles/1739.html

155 Investigation Report Regarding CCP’s “2010-2012 War for Educational Transformation and Unity.” World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong. March 30, 2012. http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/19779 关于中共进行“2010~2012年教育转化攻坚与巩固整体仗”的调查报告. 《追查国际网站》,2012年3月30日

156 Xiyangjiangzhen plan for the 2013-2015 decisive battle in educational transformation. Longhui County Website. June 20, 20 西洋江镇2013-2015年教育转化决战实施方案. 隆回县政府网. 2013年6月20日

157 CCP Central Committee decision regarding comprehensively deepening reforms of some major issues (declaration abolishing the reeducation-through-labor system). CCTV. November 15, 2013. 中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定. 央视网. 2013年11月15日 宣布废止劳动教养制度158 Five Laws Need to be Changed After Abolishing Forced Labor. Legal Evening reprinted by Phoenix New Media. November 16, 2013. http://news.ifeng.com/mainland/special/sbjszqh/content-3/detail_2013_11/16/31311904_0.shtml https://archive.is/lu2E0 废止劳教后5部法律要修. 凤凰网转载法制晚报. 2013年11月16日

159 China targets lawyers in new human rights crackdown. The Guardian. Jennifer Duggan. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/13/china-targets-lawyers-in-new-human-rights-crackdown China Arrested More Than 100 Human-Rights Lawyers and Activists Over the Weekend. Time. 2015-07-12. http://time.com/3954935/china-arrests-lawyers-human-rights/ Scores of rights lawyers arrested after nationwide swoop in China. CNN. Ivan Watson and Steven Jiang. 2015-07-13. http://edition.cnn.com/2015/07/13/china/china-activists-arrests/ China Targets Human-Rights Lawyers in Crackdown. Wall Street Journal. Josh Chin and Te-Ping Chen. 2015-07-12. http://www.wsj.com/articles/china-targets-human-rights-lawyers-in-crackdown-1436715268 How support for a Chinese rights lawyer could have led to crackdown. Reuters. Sui-Lee Wee. 2015-07-13. http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/07/13/us-china-rights-idUSKCN0PN1FE20150713 Rule of law in China, a country which locks up its lawyers. BBC. Carrie Gracie. 2015-07-13. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-33502955 Chinese Authorities Appear to Detain 4 Human Rights Lawyers. New York Times. Chris Buckley. 2015-07-11. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/11/world/asia/china-detains-rights-lawyers-prompting-talk-of-a-crackdown.html?_r=0 China detains dozens of human rights lawyers in crackdown. Financial Times. 2015-07-12. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e39a987c-27d6-11e5-8db8-c033edba8a6e.html#axzz3fuzXNPjm Latest Developments in 709 Mass Arrest. May 17, 2018. China Human Rights Lawyers Concern Group. https://archive.is/jqTuI

160 Remarks by Meng Jianzhu, Party Secretary of the Central Political and Legislative Affairs Committee and head of the Central Leading Group for the Prevention and Handling of Cult-Related Issues, at an all-cadre meeting of the Central Office for the Prevention and Handling of Cult-Related Issues. December 25, 2015. https://www.adhrrf.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/20160124.pdf 中央政法委书记、中央防范和处理邪教问题领导小组组长孟建柱在中央防范办全体干部会议上的讲话. 2015年12 月 25 日

161 Lawyer Openly Meets with Wang Quanzhang, Nervous and Needs Blood Pressure Medication. Radio Free Asia. July 20, 2018. https://www.rfa.org/cantonese/news/lawyer-07192018090834.html https://web.archive.org/web/20180721133726/https://www.rfa.org/cantonese/news/lawyer-07192018090834.html 律师公开与王全璋会面经过 神情紧张需服血压药物. 自由亚洲电台. 2018-07-20 162 Verdict Announced Publicly in Trial of Wang Quanzhang for Subverting State Power. The Second Intermediate People’s Court of Tianjin. January 28, 2019. http://tj2zy.chinacourt.org/article/detail/2019/01/id/3716862.shtml https://archive.is/QZOl4 王全璋颠覆国家政权案一审公开宣判. 天津市第二中级人民法院网站

163 709 Mass Arrest / Lawyer Wang Quanzhang’s Wife Li Wenzu. December 25, 2015. https://www.huaglad.com/topimagenews/20170125/292643.html 709大抓捕/王全璋律师妻李文足:离开梳妆打流氓. 2015年12 月 25 日

164 Mental Torture and Murder in the CCP's Persecution of Falun Gong - Part 1 & 2. Minghui.org. May 18, 2006 | By He Yu http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2006/5/10/73069.html http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2006/5/16/73319.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/3/8/-122251.html 中共迫害法轮功的精神酷刑与虐杀(上). 明慧网. 2006年3月8日

165 Notice by the CCP Central Committee Prohibiting Party Members from Practicing Falun Dafa. July 19, 1999 http://www.people.com.cn/GB/channel1/10/20000706/132286.html 中共中央关于共产党员不准修炼“法轮大法”的通知. 1999年7月19日. 中国共产党新闻资料中心

166 Office of the CCP Central Committee and Office of the State Council issues a notice to further improve the educational transformation and relief work of Falun Gong practitioners: Strictly grasp the policy boundaries, educate, transform and relieve the vast majority. Xinhua News Agency. Source: People Daily. August 24, 1999 http://www.people.com.cn/rmrb/199908/25/newfiles/wzb_19990825001026_4.html http://web.archive.org/web/20190325161933/http://www.people.com.cn/rmrb/199908/25/newfiles/wzb_19990825001026_4.html 中办国办就进一步做好“法轮功”练习者教育转化和解脱工作发出通知: 严格掌握政策界限教育转化解脱绝大多数 1999年8月24日. 新华社. 来源:人民日报

167 Notice by the Municipal Party Committee of the Gaocheng District of Hebei Province Sent to Various Villages, Towns, and Directly Subordinate Units Regarding the Comprehensive Deployment to Attack Falun Gong During the 2005 Chinese New Year Period (February 1, 2005) 中共河北藁城市委防范办给各乡镇(区)、市直有关单位关于在2005年春节期间打击法轮功的全面工作部署通知. 2005年2月1日

168 Wang Maolin's speech at the Education and Transformation Work Experience Sharing and Commendation Meeting Held by The Ministry of Justice. August 29, 2000. 王茂林在司法部教育转化工作经验交流暨表彰会上的讲话. 2000年8月29日 Investigation Report on Masanjia Labor Camp. World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong. April 14, 2013. https://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/record/2013/04/31195-woipfg-masanjia_report-publish-v2_report.pdf 追查国际关于马三家劳动教养院的调查报告. 2013年4月15日

169 Opinions of the Office of the Central Leadership team on Handling the Falun Gong Issue on Instigating Reeducation Transformation Crackdown Campaign. The Office of the Central Leading Group for Handling the Falun Gong Issue. September 22, 2000 《关于开展教育转化攻坚战的实施意见》. 中央处理法轮功问题领导小组办公室. 二零零零年九月二十二日

170 Mental Torture and Murder in the CCP's Persecution of Falun Gong - Part 1 & 2. Minghui.org. May 18, 2006 | By He Yu http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2006/5/10/73069.html http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2006/5/16/73319.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/3/8/-122251.html 中共迫害法轮功的精神酷刑与虐杀(上). 明慧网. 2006年3月8日

171 Han Guangsheng Exposes the Shenyang 610 Office and Correctional Home (1). Epoch Times. July 7, 2005. http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/5/7/7/n977778.htm 韩广生曝沈阳610和教养院黑幕(1). 大纪元时报. 2005-07-07

172 Inhuman Violence and State Terrorism under the Chinese Communist Party. Part 1. Minghui.org. April 16, 2006. He Yu http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2006/4/16/72024.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/3/22/123262.html 中共灭绝人性的国家恐怖主义暴行(上). 明慧网. 荷雨. 2006年3月8日

173 Unprecedented Evil Persecution. Page 76-88. Yiyang Xia. www.unprecedentedevilpersecution.com 174 Inhuman Violence and State Terrorism under the Chinese Communist Party. Part 1. Minghui.org. April 16, 2006. Comprehensive report by He Yu http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2006/4/16/72024.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/3/22/123262.html 中共灭绝人性的国家恐怖主义暴行(上). 明慧网. 荷雨. 2006年3月8日 175 A Human Tragedy: Prominent Scholar Suffers Mental Collapse from Torture in the Tuanhe Forced Labor Camp; His Wife Succumbs to Brainwashing, Recommends Torture for her Husband. January 11, 2003. Minghui.org. http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2003/1/11/30757.html

176 Inhuman Violence and State Terrorism Under the Chinese Communist Party, Part 1 (Photos). Minghui.org. http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2006/4/16/72024.html

177 China has started ranking citizens with a creepy 'social credit' system — here's what you can do wrong, and the embarrassing, demeaning ways they can punish you. Business Insider. Alexandra Ma. Oct. 29, 2018 https://www.businessinsider.com/china-social-credit-system-punishments-and-rewards-explained-2018-4

178 Inside China's Dystopian Dreams. The New York Times. Jul 8, 2018 https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/08/business/china-surveillance-technology.html China Public Video Surveillance Guide: From Skynet to Sharp Eyes. IPVM. Charles Rollet. Jun 14, 2018 https://ipvm.com/reports/sharpeyes

179 131 Falun Dafa Practitioners Have Died as a Direct Result of Persecution in Heilongjiang Province November 25, 2003. Minghui.org. http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2003/11/10/-60341.html 被迫害致死的黑龙江省大法弟子达131人. 明慧网. 2003年11月10日

180 Human Rights Lawyer Wang Yonghang: From Bystander to Victim to Witness in the Persecution of Falun Gong (Part II) September 20, 2018 | By Wang Yonghang in China. Minghui.org http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2018/9/20/171971.html Part I https://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2018/7/10/-370826.html l 从旁观到亲历和见证 (下). 王永航. 明慧网. 二零一八年七月十日

181 Kidnapped by Gangsters at Night with a Dark Hood (Gao Zhisheng) https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/gao-02082009211313.html 黑夜、黑头套、黑帮绑架. 高智晟. 自由亚洲电台. 2009-02-08 86 182 Sleep. John Allan Hobson, page 4. 183 Mental Torture and Murder in the CCP's Persecution of Falun Gong - Part 1. Minghui.org. May 18, 2006 | By He Yu http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2006/5/16/73319.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/3/8/-122251.html 中共迫害法轮功的精神酷刑与虐杀(上). 明慧网. 2006年3月8日

184 Inhuman Violence and State Terrorism under the Chinese Communist Party, Part II. Minghui.org. April 22, 2006 http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/4/22/72293.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/3/23/123373.html 中共灭绝人性的国家恐怖主义暴行(中). 明慧网. 2006年3月23日

185 Eyewitness Account of the Killing of Liu Haibo by a Police Officer at the Scene https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/11/Liu-Haibo-Eyewitness-Account.pdf Witnesses Disclose Events Surrounding the Killing of Liu Haibo’s for Changchun TV Interception. Minghui.org. January 7, 2004. http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2004/1/7/-64297.html 目击者披露刘海波因长春电视插播被虐死的事实经过. 明慧网. 2004年1月7日

186 A Chinese Business Owner's Recollections of July 20, 1999 (Part 2). Minghui.org. He Yu. August 15, 2012 http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2012/8/15/134961.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2012/7/22-260484.html 一位女私营业主亲历的“七二零”(下). 明慧网. 荷雨. 2012年7月22日 187 Murder Without Seeing Blood: The Political Task of More Than a Hundred Psychiatric Hospitals. Epoch Times. August 17, 2015. http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/15/8/17/n4505861.htm 不见血的谋杀 上百精神病院的政治任务. 大纪元. 2015年08月17日. 章洪综合报导 An investigation report on the spiritual persecution of Falun Gong practitioners. World Organization of Investigation of Persecution of Falun Gong. April 30, 2004 https://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/record/2004/05/105-jing_shen_po_hai_diao_cha_bao_gao_.pdf 对法轮功学员的精神迫害调查报告. 国际追查迫害法轮功组织. 2004年4月30日

188 On the Chinese Communist Party's Mass Murders in Recent Years, Part 1. Minghui.org. He Yu. May 20, 2006 http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2006/5/20/73525.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/5/5/-126892.html 看近年来中共的杀人产业(上). 明慧网. 2060年5月5日 200 Citizens from Hebei Province Sign Petition Protesting the Criminal Actions of Jiang Zemin. Minghui.org. 05/12/2015 http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2015/12/5/153966.html http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/15/12/5/n4588797.htm 张家口市百人联名举报江泽民. 明慧网. 2015年12月4日.

189 Kilgour D, Gutmann E, Matas D. Bloody Harvest/The Slaughter: An Update. June 22, 2016. http://endorganpillaging.org/an-update/ 190 Matas D, Kilgour D. Bloody Harvest - Revised Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China. 2007. http://organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131.htm#_Toc160145147.

191 Gutmann E. Congressional Testimony: Organ Harvesting of Religious and Political Dissidents by the Chinese Communist Party (Hearing before House Committee on Foreign Affairs). 2012. http://archives-republicans-foreignaffairs.house.gov/112/75859.pdf

192 U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China. 2008 Annual Report. https://www.cecc.gov/publications/annual-reports/2008-annual-report/

193 The Battle for China’s Spirit: Religious Revival, Repression, and Resistance under Xi Jinping. Freedom House Special Report. February 2017. Author: Sarah Cook https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/FH_ChinasSprit2017_Abridged_FINAL_compressed.pdf

194 Gutmann E. How many harvested? In: Matas D, Trey T, eds. State Organs: Transplant Abuse in China. Woodstock, Ont.: Seraphim Editions; 2012:145 p.

195 Matas D, Kilgour D. Bloody Harvest : The Killing Of Falun Gong For Their Organs. ON: Seraphim Editions; 2009.

196 Falun Gong Practitioners Forced to Submit to Blood Tests http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2014/7/19/2101.html 《明慧网》多地警察上门逼迫法轮功学员验血 http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2014/7/5/多地警察上门逼迫法轮功学员验血-294315.html

197 Experts from Overseas and Abroad Gathered in Changsha Organ Transplant Act Is Coming. Public Health News. Sep. 24, 2003 http://hunan.voc.com.cn/gb/content/2003-09/24/content_2146397.htm https://archive.is/xJIk7 国内外专家汇聚长沙 器官移植法呼之欲出. 大众卫生报. 2003-09-24

198 Human Rights Watch. China: Minority Region Collects DNA from Millions. https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/12/13/china-minority-region-collects-dna-millions.

199 Human Rights Watch. China: Minority Region Collects DNA from Millions. https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/12/13/china-minority-region-collects-dna-millions.

200 Congressional-Executive Commission on China Annual Report 2018. https://www.cecc.gov/sites/chinacommission.house.gov/files/documents/Annual%20Report%202018_2.pdf

201 China Snares Innocent and Guilty Alike to Build World’s Biggest DNA Database. Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/china-snares-innocent-and-guilty-alike-to-build-worlds-biggest-dna-database-1514310353 https://archive.is/yqPZo

202 WOIPFG Obtained New Evidence: Jiang Zemin Ordered the Harvesting of Organs from Falun Gong Practitioners for Transplantation. Phone recording. September 30, 2014 http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/260 http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/investigation_report/2014/09/44818_baishuzhong10sep-2-final-mp3.mp3

203 Recording of Bo Xilai's Voice Confirms CCP Brutality Against Falun Gong http://media4.minghui.org/media/audio/2013/8/30/mh-audio-evidence-huozhai-boxilai.mp3 http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2013/9/17/142061.html

204 Constitution of The Communist Party of China - China.org. 中国共产党党章 www.china.org.cn/20171105-001.pdf https://web.archive.org/web/20180321061858/http://www.china.org.cn/20171105-001.pdf

205 Yin G, Li D, Huang T. Medical Genocide: Hidden Mass Murder in China’s Organ Transplant Industry. China Organ Harvest Research Center. 2017. Available at: https://vimeo.com/207039399.

206 Conversation with Dr. Tan Yunshan, investigation report by WOIPFG 2015-11-27 http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/50795 Excerpt of phone recording: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/50795#_Toc16 Phone Recording: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/report/2015/50795_4-1-2015nian_2yue_8ri_shang_hai_fu_dan_da_xue_fu_shu_zhong_shan_yi_yuan_gan_cang_bing_li_ke_zhu_ren_tan_yun_shan_yuan_tou_na_qi_guan_bu_guan_shi_bu_shi_fa_lun_gong_du_yong_-pub.-ms.mp3 Breaking: Chinese Doctor Disclosed That Organ Harvesting Still Going On, With Its Source Controlled by The Military NTDTV. March 21, 2015: http://ca.ntdtv.com/xtr/gb/2015/03/21/a1184409.html 重磅:陆医证实活摘仍在进行 “源头”受军队控制. 新唐人. 2015年03月21 日 207 China’s Organ Transplant Problem. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2017/03/chinas-organ-transplant-problem/

208 Scholars from Universities in Guangdong Uncovered Falun Gong Self-Immolation Incident, Cultural Anti-Science Teaching Materials, Yangcheng Evening News, February 2, 2001 https://web.archive.org/web/20140503214410/http:/ycwb.com.cn/gb/content/2001-02/02/content_128063.htm 羊城晚报 2001年2月2日 广东高校学者揭批“法轮功”自焚事件 ——邪教反科学的活教材

209 Organ Transplant Center at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University http://www.gzsums.net/zhuanke_6448.aspx http://web.archive.org/web/20170729225825/http://gzsums.net/zhuanke_6448.aspx 中山大学第一附属医院器官移植科 来源:中山大学第一附属医院官网档案, 2017年7月

210 Huang Jiefu, Former Vice Minister of Health: I want to take the lead in bowing to donors. Guangzhou Daily. March 13, 2013. http://news.dayoo.com/guangzhou/201303/13/73437_29475945.htm https://archive.is/cNGOl 卫生部原副部长黄洁夫: 我要带头向捐献者鞠躬. 广州日报. 2013年3月13日

211 Hangzhou Popular Writers Association: Institute Introduction http://www.hkx.org.cn/xhjj/index.asp?id=39 https://archive.is/5j1MJ 杭州市科普作家协会:学会介绍

212 Research on Cult Control in The New Era - Selection of Academic Papers http://www.timepress.cn/6561-465/11973_179894.html http://web.archive.org/web/20180507055239/http://www.timepress.cn/6561-465/11973_179894.html 《新时期邪教防治研究——学术论文精选》

213 The 2010 Summer Anti-Cult Education Social Practice Team Won the Provincial Award, Zhejiang Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, 2010-10-26 http://www.zjweu.edu.cn/news/37/d5/c455a14293/page.htm http://web.archive.org/web/20180507055414/http://www.zjweu.edu.cn/news/37/d5/c455a14293/page.htm 我校2010年反邪教暑期社会实践团荣获省级表彰, 浙江水利水电学院, 2010-10-26

214 Division of Hepatopancreatobiliary at First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University. 浙大一院肝胆胰外科http://www.zy91.com/wkxt/518.jhtml?131?518 https://web.archive.org/web/20150630024407/http://www.zy91.com/wkxt/518.jhtml?131?518

215 Academician Zheng Shusen Completes Five Consecutive Liver Transplants in Same Day. http://www.transplantation.org.cn/show.aspx?id=161&cid=276 https://web.archive.org/web/20180113074952/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/show.aspx?id=161&cid=276 郑树森院士同日连续完成5例肝移植手术

216 Zheng Shusen Leads Team to Complete Rare, Difficult Liver Transplant Surgery cn-healthcare.com. October 16, 2017. http://tech.gmw.cn/scientist/2016-03/10/content_19242303.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20180119021913/http://www.cn-healthcare.com/article/20171016/content-496388.html 郑树森带领团队完成全球罕见超难肝移植手术 健康界Oct 16, 2017

217 Former 610 Office Head Li Dongsheng Indicted. Minghui.org. August 24, 2015. http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2015/8/29/152297.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2015/8/24/-314629.html 李东生被公诉. 明慧网. 2015年8月24日

218 China Human Organ Donation and Transplantation Commission was set up National Health and Family Planning Commission People's Republic of China 2014-03-07 http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/yzygj/s3586q/201403/89105886fc9b4d3991c034364f52878c.shtml https://archive.is/tb0UM 《中国人体器官捐献与移植委员会成立》 中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会 2014-03-07

219 Forced Live Organ Harvesting Program in China is State-Orchestrated and Militarized Minghui.org http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2015/1/15/147973.html http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2015/1/10/-302972.html 江泽民军事化活摘器官的罪恶产业. 明慧网. 2015年1月15日. 荷雨,穆文清

220 Zhang P. Wuhan University Research Institute of Hepatobiliary Diseases: A Race Against Time. People.com.cn - Hubei Channel. May 21, 2015. http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyienizhonghe/2015-05/7432.htm https://archive.is/SzewF 武大肝胆疾病研究院:器官移植与时间赛跑. 人民网-湖北频道. 2015-05-2. 张沛

221 Climbing the Peak of Transplantation, Extending the Wonders of Life. http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/xingyedongtai/2010/1222/3020.html The original page is no longer accessible. Refer to the archived version: https://archive.is/DATK4 攀登移植之巅 延续生命精彩

222 BBC China 3/10/2013 (in Chinese): China State Council announced organizational reform plans http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/china/2013/03/130310_china_ministries.shtml?c https://archive.is/0o8pl BBC中文网 —中国宣布国务院机构改革方案. 2013年3月10日

223 China Human Organ Donation and Transplantation Commission was set up National Health and Family Planning Commission People's Republic of China 2014-03-07 http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/yzygj/s3586q/201403/89105886fc9b4d3991c034364f52878c.shtml https://archive.is/tb0UM 《中国人体器官捐献与移植委员会成立》. 中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会. 2014-03-07

224 Huang Jiefu. China Leaders Library / CCP News http://gbzl.people.com.cn/grzy.php?id=121001565 The original page is no longer accessible. Refer to the archived version: https://archive.is/4tD1F 黄洁夫. 中国领导干部资料库 / 中国共产党新闻网

225 Human Organ Transplant Ordinance. The Central Government Portal. State Council. April 6, 2007 http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2007-04/06/content_574120.htm http://web.archive.org/web/20180409143909/http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2007-04/06/content_574120.htm 《人体器官移植条例》 中央政府门户网站 /来源:国务院办公厅 2007年04月06日

226 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 41-47. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

227 The Maze of Organ Donation. Source: infzm.com / Southern Weekend March 26, 2010 http://news.163.com/10/0326/10/62MP5K0G00011SM9.html https://archive.is/hsCZG 器官捐献迷宫 《南方周末》 2010年3月26日

228 Prevention and treatment of hepatitis B and liver cancer - Interview with Dong Jiahong. October 15, 2014. Reprint of Xinhua. The original page is no longer accessible. Refer to the archived version: http://www.btch.edu.cn/ksdh/wkb/gdywk/jkjy_gdwk/7499.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20160218174251/http://www.btch.edu.cn/ksdh/wkb/gdywk/jkjy_gdwk/7499.htm 乙肝和肝癌的防治-董家鸿访谈( 转自新华网). 2014年10月15日. 清华长庚医院肝胆胰外科网页

229 Introduction of China International Transplantation Network Assistance Center (archived web page) https://web.archive.org/web/20041023003404/http://www.zoukiishoku.com/EN/index.htm 《国际移植(中国)网络支援中心》

230 Cost of Transplantation - China International Transplantation Network Assistance Center The original page is no longer accessible. Refer to the archived version: https://web.archive.org/web/20070519194307/http://en.zoukiishoku.com:80/list/cost.htm

231 Kim H, Shin D. TV Chosun Documentary on Transplant Tourism to China. Translation by COHRC: https://vimeo.com/250087127/37c9aedd40 Original full documentary in Korean: https://youtu.be/dDsDfgQSgdg

232 Vice Minister of Health Interviewed Regarding Human Organ Transplant Regulation Chinese Government Website. May 8, 2007 http://www.gov.cn/gzdt/2007-05/08/content_607932.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20180222171105/http://www.gov.cn/gzdt/2007-05/08/content_607932.htm 卫生部副部长就人体器官移植条例实施接受采访. 中国政府网. 2007-5-8

233 Exclusive: Revealing the Shocking Secrets Hidden in Medical University Affiliated Hospitals Epoch Times. March 16, 2006. http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/14/2/28/n4094048.htm 曝隐藏在医科大学附属医院里惊天秘密. 大纪元时报. 2014年03月16日

234 Organ Transplant Center of People’s Liberation Army Hospital No.309. The original page was available before July 2006: http://www.309yizhi.com/webapp/Center/intro.jsp Archived version from March 9, 2006: https://web.archive.org/web/20060309140932/http://www.309yizhi.com:80/webapp/center/intro.jsp 解放军第309医院器官移植中心

235 Profile of the Organ Transplantation Center of No. 309 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army. November 17, 2010. http://www.309yy.com/_Dept/View.aspx?id=3323 The original page is no longer accessible. Refer to the archived version: http://web.archive.org/web/20140417235354/http://www.309yy.com/_Dept/View.aspx?id=3323 解放军第309医院器官移植中心简介. 2010-11-17

236 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 170-176. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

237 Huang Jiefu Recalls First Time Participating in Transplanting Organs from Death-Row Prisoners, Discloses the Truth, Supported by CCP Central Committee. Source: Phoenix TV January 12th, 2015 http://phtv.ifeng.com/a/20150112/40940402_0.shtml https://archive.is/qKzmB 黄洁夫回忆首次参与死囚器官移植披露真相, 获中央支持 来源:凤凰卫视 2015年1月12日

238 Huang Jiefu: The Number of Registered Donors in China Does Not Fit the Large Image of a Large Country. Caixin.com. December 22, 2016. Author: Yuan Suwen Archived at: https://web.archive.org/web/20161223180511/http://china.caixin.com:80/2016-12-22/101029851.html 黄洁夫:中国器官捐赠志愿者数量不符合大国形象. 2016-12-22 Author: 苑苏文 Source: 财新

239 Which hurdles does organ donation in China need to overcome? People’s Daily. January 2, 2017. http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrbhwb/html/2017-01/02/content_1740227.htm https://archive.is/DHnWJ 中国器官捐献尚需跨越哪些坎 人民日报 2017年01月02日

240 “Chinese Mode” of Organ Donation and Transplantation Wins Praise. Health Paper. August 9, 2017. http://www.Xinhua.com/health/2017-08/09/c_1121452862.htm Its archive: http://archive.is/0jZUz 器官捐献移植“中国模式”获点赞 . 2017-08-09. 健康报

241 Promoting a Rebound in Cross-Strait Physician Teams on the Organ Transplantation Platform. Newtalk. December 22, 2014. Qiu Yuwen, Lin Yuyou http://newtalk.tw/news/view/2014-12-22/55049 https://archive.is/18BX3 中促兩岸器官移植平台醫師團體反彈. 新頭殼. 邱珮文,林雨佑. 2014.12.22

242 Chinese Organ Transplant Fees to be Standardized, Named “Cheapest in the World” by Former Deputy Health Minister ThePaper.cn. August 23, 2015. Yan Pengfei http://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1367467 http://web.archive.org/web/20180222015155/http://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1367467 中国器官移植费用将定标准,原卫生部副部长称“全球最便宜” . 澎湃新闻. 2015-08-23

243 “Chinese Model Plus Guangzhou Contribution” Praised by International Organ Donation and Transplantation Community. Guangzhou Reference. China Organ Transplantation Foundation. December 25, 2017. Available at: http://www.cotdf.org/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=50&id=532. Archived at: http://archive.is/Lnly5. Accessed January 30, 2018. “中国模式+广州贡献”获国际器官捐献与移植学界点赞. 广州参考. 2017-12-25

244 Huang Jiefu: Realizing the “One Belt, One Road Initiative”, Contributing to Transplantation in the World Global Network. July 27, 2017 http://world.huanqiu.com/exclusive/2017-07/11044367.html http://archive.is/DvA8s 黄洁夫:实现“一带一路”倡议,为世界移植事业作贡献. 环球网. 2017-07-27

245 Tahoe Expands in Medicine, Signs Memorandum of Strategic Cooperation with UPMC. November 30, 2017 http://news.winshang.com/html/063/0383.html http://archive.is/3ONPn 泰禾频频发力医疗 与UPMC签署战略合作谅解备忘录 . 2017年11月30日

246 International experts urge China to share its organ reform experience with the world Li Ruohan. Global Times. 2017/8/24 http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1063001.shtml http://web.archive.org/web/20180224203657/http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1063001.shtml

247 “Chinese Mode” of Organ Donation and Transplantation Wins Praise. Xinhua, Health Paper. August 9, 2017. http://www.Xinhuaxinhua.com/health/2017-08/09/c_1121452862.htm http://archive.is/0jZUz 器官捐献移植“中国模式”获点赞 . 2017-08-09 07:35:11 来源: 健康报

248 Huang Jiefu:Stopping Use Organs from Death-Row Inmates. CCTV 2015-01-11 http://news.cntv.cn/2015/01/11/VIDE1420988398831635.shtml https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kk2q5JkE8dY http://web.archive.org/web/20180331071758/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kk2q5JkE8dY CCTV 《面对面》黄洁夫:停用死囚器官. 2015/01/11

249 Huang J. Report Consultation Meeting on Transplantation with National Health Authorities in The Western Pacific Region. p21-22. Manila, Philippines. November 7-9, 2005. http://www.moh.gov.my/images/gallery/orga/Consultation-Meeting.pdf http://web.archive.org/web/20180130032249/http://www.moh.gov.my/images/gallery/orga/Consultation-Meeting.pdf

250 Founder of Liver Surgery Wu Mengchao Shares Liver Disease Prevention and Secret to Long Life Sina Health. May 11, 2011. Song Ruliang. http://health.sina.com.cn/d/2011-05-11/145222445449.shtml https://web.archive.org/web/20120327035615/http://health.sina.com.cn/d/2011-05-11/145222445449.shtml 《新浪健康》肝脏外科创始人吴孟超分享肝病防治与长寿秘诀2011年05月11日

251 Transplant Abuse in China Continues Despite Claims of Reform. China Organ Harvest Research Center. July, 2018 page 41-47, 132-140. https://www.chinaorganharvest.org/app/uploads/2018/06/COHRC-2018-Report.pdf

252 United Nations. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. http://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.1_Convention%20on%20the%20Prevention%20and%20Punishment%20of%20the%20Crime%20of%20Genocide.pdf

253 Cases of Falun Gong practitioners persecuted to death. Minghui.org. http://library.minghui.org/category/32,94,,1.htm 254 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Article 7(1). http://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/crimes-against-humanity.html

255 Updated Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Article 5. http://www.icty.org/x/file/Legal%20Library/Statute/statute_sept09_en.pdf

256 Statute of the International Tribunal for Rwanda. Article 3. http://legal.un.org/avl/pdf/ha/ictr_EF.pdf

257 A Scholar’s Perspective on Falun Gong (Part 1). Minghui.org. June 2, 2013. http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2013/6/2/140236.html A Scholar’s Perspective on Falun Gong (Part 2). Minghui.org. June 4, 2013. http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2013/6/4/140294.html A Scholar’s Perspective on Falun Gong (Part 3). Minghui.org. June 6, 2013. http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2013/6/6/140323.html

258 Timeline of Persecution. Falun Dafa Information Center. https://faluninfo.net/persecution-timeline/

259 I've Made the Best Choice (Photos). Minghui.org. July 29, 2013. http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2013/7/29/141289.html

260 What a Former Official from the Ministry of Commerce Witnessed on April 25, 1999. Minghui.org. June 4, 2013. http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2013/6/4/140289.html

261 Chinese Academy of Science PhD Candidate Recalls Entering the Zhongnanhai Compound with Premier Zhu on April 25. Minghui.org. May 18, 2010. http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2010/5/18/117156.html

262 When an Olympic Luger Encounters an Ancient Eastern Cultivation Practice. Minghui.org. May 28, 2013. http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2013/5/28/当奥运滑雪选手与古老东方修炼相遇(图)-274558.html

263 Darkness Cannot Block the Light (Part 1). Minghui.org. July 20, 2006. http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/7/20/133470.html

264 Exposing Forced Labor Camps, Detention Centers, Prisons, and Hospitals in Various Regions. Minghui.org. May 3, 2006. http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/5/3/126634.html#2006-5-1-clue-3 曝光各地劳教所、看守所、监狱、医院. 明慧网. 2006年5月3日

265 Injustice: Zhang Zhenggang brutally beaten to death. Minghui.org. April 20, 2000. https://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2000/4/20/ -3833.html 冤哉!张正刚惨遭非法毒打致死. 明慧网. 2000年4月20日

记录群体灭绝:机译:机译中文  2019-07-22 07:44   加密线路   快速线路 

(2019年4月,中国器官摘取研究中心)中国的器官交易不是黑市操作,而是国家主导、产业化规模,由政府和军队共同实施,按需杀害良心犯以获取器官的系统。探究中共大规模强摘器官背后的驱动因素,是对法轮功学员的群体灭绝性迫害。

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