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确保关键矿产安全可靠供应的联邦战略

A Federal Strategy to Ensure Secure and Reliable Supplies of Critical Minerals

内容

Contents

行政摘要

Executive Summary

关键矿产的有保障供应及其供应链的弹性对美国的经济繁荣和国防至关重要。美国严重依赖关键矿物的外国来源和外国供应链,这可能导致我国经济和军事的战略脆弱性。减轻这些风险是重要的,符合我国的国家安全战略和国防战略,以促进美国的繁荣和通过实力维护和平。

The assured supply of critical minerals and the resiliency of their supply chains are essential to the economic prosperity and national defense of the United States. The United States is heavily dependent on foreign sources of critical minerals and on foreign supply chains resulting in the potential for strategic vulnerabilities to both our economy and military. Mitigating these risks is important and consistent with our country’s National Security Strategy and National Defense Strategy to promote American prosperity and to preserve peace through strength.

美国进口最重要的矿产品。具体而言,美国对内政部指定为关键的35种矿物中的31种依赖进口(进口量超过年消费量的50%)。美国没有任何国内生产,完全依靠进口来满足其对14种关键矿物的需求。

The United States imports most critical mineral commodities. Specifically, the United States is import-reliant (imports are greater than 50 percent of annual consumption) for 31 of the 35 minerals designated as critical by the Department of the Interior. The United States does not have any domestic production and relies completely on imports to supply its demand for 14 critical minerals.

2017年12月20日,唐纳德·j·特朗普总统发布了第13817号行政命令,《确保关键矿物安全可靠供应的联邦战略》 ,以解决这一问题并降低美国对关键矿物供应中断的脆弱性。行政命令指示商务部长与若干行政部门机构和办公室负责人协调,向总统提交一份报告,其中包括:

To address this problem and reduce the Nation’s vulnerability to disruptions in the supply of critical minerals, President Donald J. Trump issued Executive Order 13817, A Federal Strategy to Ensure Secure and Reliable Supplies of Critical Minerals, on December 20, 2017. The Executive Order directs the Secretary of Commerce, in coordination with heads of selected executive branch agencies and offices, to submit a report to the President that includes:

"减少国家对关键矿物依赖的战略;

“a strategy to reduce the Nation’s reliance on critical minerals;

评估在开发关键矿物回收和后处理技术以及关键矿物的技术替代品方面取得的进展;

an assessment of progress toward developing critical minerals recycling and reprocessing technologies, and technological alternatives to critical minerals;

通过与我们的盟友和伙伴的投资和贸易获取和开发关键矿物的备选方案;

options for accessing and developing critical minerals through investment and trade with our allies and partners;

一项计划,以改进美国的地形、地质和地球物理测绘,并在法律允许的范围内,为保护隐私和安全起见,在适当限制的范围内,以电子方式提供由此产生的数据和元数据,以支持私营部门对关键矿物进行矿物勘探;

a plan to improve the topographic, geologic, and geophysical mapping of the United States and make the resulting data and metadata electronically accessible, to the extent permitted by law and subject to appropriate limitations for purposes of privacy and security, to support private sector mineral exploration of critical minerals; and

建议精简许可和审查与开发租约有关的程序;加强获得关键矿产资源的机会;增加关键矿产的发现、生产和国内提炼。"

recommendations to streamline permitting and review processes related to developing leases; enhancing access to critical mineral resources; and increasing discovery, production, and domestic refining of critical minerals.”

这份题为《确保关键矿物安全可靠供应的联邦战略》的报告提出了6项行动呼吁、24项目标和61项建议,其中说明了联邦政府为实现第13817号行政命令中概述的目标将采取的具体步骤。

This report, A Federal Strategy to Ensure Secure and Reliable Supplies of Critical Minerals, presents 6 Calls to Action, 24 goals, and 61 recommendations that describe specific steps that the Federal Government will take to achieve the objectives outlined in Executive Order 13817.

一旦实施,这一战略将提高先进技术、工业和国防制造部门的能力,这些部门使用关键矿产来适应新出现的矿产重要性问题;减少依赖关键矿产的美国企业的风险;为处于关键矿产供应链不同阶段的生产设施创造有利的美国商业环境;支持美国的经济安全和国防;所有这些都将减少美国对关键矿产供应中断的脆弱性。

When executed, this strategy will improve the ability of the advanced technology, industrial, and defense manufacturing sectors that use critical minerals to adapt to emerging mineral criticality issues; reduce risks for American businesses that rely on critical minerals; create a favorable U.S. business climate for production facilities at different stages of critical mineral supply chains; and support the economic security and national defense of the United States; all of which will reduce the Nation’s vulnerability to critical mineral supply disruptions.

本战略概述的行动呼吁如下。

The Calls to Action outlined in this Strategy are listed below.

跨关键矿物供应链的改造研究、开发和部署:评估在开发关键矿物回收和再加工技术、关键矿物的技术替代品、来源多样化和改进关键矿物提取、分离、提纯和合金化工艺方面的进展。

Advance Transformational Research, Development, and Deployment Across Critical Mineral Supply Chains: Assesses progress toward developing critical minerals recycling and reprocessing technologies, technological alternatives to critical minerals, source diversification, and improving processes for critical mineral extraction, separation, purification, and alloying.

加强美国关键矿产供应链和国防工业基地:讨论如何改善关键矿产供应链,通过增加国内关键矿产资源开发,建立强大的下游制造能力,确保足够的生产能力,这将有助于降低美国供应的风险。

Strengthen America’s Critical Mineral Supply Chains and Defense Industrial Base: Discusses ways to improve critical mineral supply chains, which could help reduce risks to U.S. supply by increasing domestic critical mineral resource development, building robust downstream manufacturing capabilities, and ensuring sufficient productive capacity.

加强与关键矿物有关的国际贸易和合作:确定通过与美国盟友的投资和贸易获取和开发关键矿物的备选方案,讨论国际合作与合作的领域,并确保强有力地执行有助于解决扭曲市场的外贸行为的不利影响的美国贸易法和国际协定。

Enhance International Trade and Cooperation Related to Critical Minerals: Identifies options for accessing and developing critical minerals through investment and trade with America’s allies, discusses areas for international collaboration and cooperation, and ensures robust enforcement of U.S. trade laws and international agreements that help address adverse impacts of market-distorting foreign trade conduct.

提高对国内重要矿产资源的认识:提供一项计划,以改善和公布美国的地形、地质、地球物理和深海测绘;支持矿产信息收集和分析具体商品减缓战略;重点和优先进行机构间努力;进行重要矿产资源评估,以支持国内矿产勘探和开发重要矿物的常规来源(直接通过开采矿石获得的矿物)、二次来源(回收材料、工业后和消费后材料)和非常规来源(从矿山尾矿、煤副产品、海水提取和地热盐水等来源获得的矿物)。

Improve Understanding of Domestic Critical Mineral Resources: Provides a plan to: improve and publicize the topographical, geological, geophysical, and bathymetrical mapping of the United States; support mineral information collection and analysis of commodity-specific mitigation strategies; focus and prioritize interagency efforts; and conduct critical mineral resource assessments to support domestic mineral exploration and development of conventional sources (minerals obtained directly through mining an ore), secondary sources (recycled materials, post-industrial, and post-consumer materials), and unconventional sources (minerals obtained from sources such as mine tailings, coal byproducts, extraction from seawater, and geothermal brines) of critical minerals.

改善获得联邦土地上国内关键矿产资源的机会,缩短联邦许可时限:提出建议,简化许可程序和审查与制定采矿权或租约以及增加获得国内关键矿产资源的机会有关的程序。

Improve Access to Domestic Critical Mineral Resources on Federal Lands and Reduce Federal Permitting Timeframes: Provides recommendations to streamline permitting and review processes related to developing mining claims or leases and enhancing access to domestic critical mineral resources.

发展美国关键矿产劳动力:讨论与关键矿产有关的活动,这些活动需要发展和维持一支强大的国内劳动力队伍,以培养一支强大的国内工业基地。

Grow the American Critical Minerals Workforce: Discusses the activities related to critical minerals needed to develop and maintain a strong domestic workforce to foster a robust domestic industrial base.

引言

Introduction

美国人日常生活中使用的许多产品都需要关键矿物质,如手机、电脑、汽车和飞机。这些矿物还被用来制造许多其他对美国经济和国防很重要的产品,包括先进的电子设备;制造设备;发电、储存和传输系统;运输系统;防御系统和其他军用物资;尖端医疗设备;以及其他关键的基础设施系统。

Critical minerals are needed for many products used by Americans in everyday life, such as cell phones, computers, automobiles, and airplanes. These minerals are also used to make many other products important to the American economy and defense, including advanced electronics; manufacturing equipment; electricity generation, storage, and transmission systems; transportation systems; defense systems and other military supplies; cutting-edge medical devices; and other critical infrastructure systems.

这些关键矿产的有保证的供应,以及供应链的弹性,对美国的经济安全和国防至关重要。如图所示? 1、美国严重依赖国外关键矿产资源。具体而言,在内政部指定的35种关键矿物中,有31种依赖进口(进口量超过年消费量的50%)。美国没有任何国内生产,完全依靠进口来满足其对14种关键矿物的需求。

The assured supply of these critical minerals, and the resiliency of their supply chains, are essential to the United States’ economic security and national defense. As shown in Figure?1, the United States is heavily dependent on foreign sources of critical minerals. Specifically, the United States is import-reliant (imports are greater than 50 percent of annual consumption) for 31 of the 35 minerals designated as critical by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The United States does not have any domestic production and relies completely on imports to supply its demand for 14 critical minerals.

减少外国对关键矿物来源的依赖所带来的风险是重要的,也符合国家安全战略和国防战略,以促进美国的繁荣和通过实力维护和平。美国对关键矿物外国来源的依赖,使我们的经济和军队在面对外国政府的不利行动、自然灾害和其他可能中断供应的事件时都具有战略上的脆弱性。

Mitigating risks associated with foreign dependence on sources of critical minerals is important and consistent with the National Security Strategy and National Defense Strategy to promote American prosperity and to preserve peace through strength. The dependency of the United States on foreign sources of critical minerals creates a strategic vulnerability for both our economy and our military with respect to adverse foreign government actions, natural disasters, and other events that could disrupt supply.

关键矿物供应链的所有阶段都很重要,可以相互影响。例如,在不增加相应的加工和制造能力的情况下提高采矿率,只会使经济和国家安全风险的来源进一步沿供应链下游移动,并造成这些能力对外国来源的依赖。

All stages of the critical mineral supply chain are important and can impact one another. For example, increasing the rate of mining without increasing corresponding processing and manufacturing capabilities will simply move the source of economic and national security risk further down the supply chain and create dependence on foreign sources for these capabilities.

图1:2017年美国对关键矿物的净进口依赖

Figure 1: 2017 U.S. Net Import Reliance for Critical Minerals

目前,美国缺乏某些关键矿物的国内加工和制造能力,导致出口国内生产的矿石和精矿,以便进一步加工成更具附加值的产品。由于缺乏关键材料的国内加工和制造能力,美国很容易受到外国政府可能采取的地缘经济和地缘政治行动的影响,这些行动可能导致特定矿物的价格和需求波动,以及可能造成矿物短缺的供应中断。

Currently, the United States lacks domestic processing and manufacturing capabilities for some critical minerals, which results in the export of domestically produced ores and concentrates for further processing into more value-added products. Lack of domestic processing and manufacturing capabilities for critical materials makes the United States vulnerable to potential geo-economic and geo-political actions from foreign governments that may lead to price and demand volatility for specific minerals, as well as potential supply disruptions causing mineral shortfalls.

通过增加国内勘探、生产、回收、再加工、产业激励和研发投资来解决关键矿物供应链中的脆弱性,将有助于减少我国对进口的依赖,保持我们在技术创新方面的领导地位,支持创造就业,并改善我们的国家安全和贸易平衡。执行这些投资和政策也提高了我国武装部队的技术优势和战备能力,我国武装部队是美国最大和最重要的关键矿物消费国。

Addressing vulnerabilities in the critical minerals supply chain through an increase in domestic exploration, production, recycling, reprocessing, industry incentives, and research and development (R&D) investments would help reduce our Nation’s reliance on imports, preserve our leadership in technological innovation, support job creation, and improve our national security and balance of trade. Implementing these investments and policies also enhances the technological superiority and readiness of our Armed Forces, which are among the United States' largest and most important consumers of critical minerals.

为了应对关键矿产供应链的风险,唐纳德·j·特朗普总统发布了第13817号行政命令,《确保关键矿产安全可靠供应的联邦战略》。该命令指出,"联邦政府的政策是减少国家对关键矿物供应中断的脆弱性,这种中断构成了美国安全与繁荣的战略脆弱性。为了美国人民的利益,美国将以安全和生态智慧的方式推进这一政策:

To address the risk to critical mineral supply chains, President Donald J. Trump issued Executive Order 13817, A Federal Strategy to Ensure Secure and Reliable Supplies of Critical Minerals. The order states, “It shall be the policy of the Federal Government to reduce the Nation’s vulnerability to disruptions in the supply of critical minerals, which constitutes a strategic vulnerability for the security and prosperity of the United States. The United States will further this policy for the benefit of the American people and in a safe and environmentally responsible manner, by:

确定关键矿物的新来源;

identifying new sources of critical minerals;

增加供应链各个层面的活动,包括勘探、采矿、浓缩、分离、合金化、回收和重新处理关键矿物;

increasing activity at all levels of the supply chain, including exploration, mining, concentration, separation, alloying, recycling, and reprocessing critical minerals;

确保我们的采矿者和生产者能够在法律允许的范围内以电子方式获取美国境内最先进的地形、地质和地球物理数据,并为了隐私和安全的目的受到适当的限制,包括受到适当的限制,以保护关键的基础设施数据,例如与国家安全领域有关的

ensuring that our miners and producers have electronic access to the most advanced topographic, geologic, and geophysical data within U.S. territory to the extent permitted by law and subject to appropriate limitations for purposes of privacy and security, including appropriate limitations to protect critical infrastructure data such as those related to national security areas; and

简化租赁和许可程序,以加快关键矿物的勘探、生产、加工、后处理、再循环和国内提炼。"

streamlining leasing and permitting processes to expedite exploration, production, processing, reprocessing, recycling, and domestic refining of critical minerals.”

行政命令指示内政部长与国防部长和美国政府有关行政机构的其他负责人协调,拟订一份关键矿物清单。2018年5月18日,DOI 与其他联邦机构协商,并在审查了公众意见后,公布了一份包含35种关键矿物的清单。

The Executive Order directed the Secretary of the Interior, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense and other heads of relevant U.S. Government executive branch agencies, to develop a list of critical minerals. On May 18, 2018, DOI, in consultation with other Federal agencies and after review of public comments, published a list of 35 critical minerals.

行政命令还指示商务部长与若干行政部门机构负责人协调,提交一份报告,其中载有以下内容:

The Executive Order also directed the Secretary of Commerce, in coordination with heads of selected executive branch agencies, to submit a report containing the following:

"减少国家对关键矿物依赖的战略;

“a strategy to reduce the Nation’s reliance on critical minerals;

评估在开发关键矿物回收和后处理技术以及关键矿物的技术替代品方面取得的进展;

an assessment of progress toward developing critical minerals recycling and reprocessing technologies, and technological alternatives to critical minerals;

通过与我们的盟友和伙伴的投资和贸易获取和开发关键矿物的备选方案;

options for accessing and developing critical minerals through investment and trade with our allies and partners;

一项计划,以改进美国的地形、地质和地球物理测绘,并在法律允许的范围内,为保护隐私和安全起见,在适当限制的范围内,以电子方式提供由此产生的数据和元数据,以支持私营部门对关键矿物进行矿物勘探;

a plan to improve the topographic, geologic, and geophysical mapping of the United States and make the resulting data and metadata electronically accessible, to the extent permitted by law and subject to appropriate limitations for purposes of privacy and security, to support private sector mineral exploration of critical minerals; and

建议精简许可和审查与开发租约有关的程序;加强获得关键矿产资源的机会;增加关键矿产的发现、生产和国内提炼。"

recommendations to streamline permitting and review processes related to developing leases; enhancing access to critical mineral resources; and increasing discovery, production, and domestic refining of critical minerals.”

这份文件,《确保关键矿产安全可靠供应的联邦战略》 ,是行政命令要求的报告。本报告概述的战略补充了国家安全和国防战略,并列出了联邦机构应该完成的具体行动,以确保国家获得可靠和强有力的关键矿物来源,以支持国家的经济繁荣和国防。

This document, A Federal Strategy to Ensure Secure and Reliable Supplies of Critical Minerals, is the report called for by the Executive Order. The strategy outlined in this report complements the National Security and Defense Strategies and lists specific actions Federal agencies should complete in order to ensure the Nation has access to a reliable and robust source of critical minerals to support the Nation’s economic prosperity and national defense.

方法

Approach

增加美国的关键矿产勘探、采矿、加工和制造业基地需要一个综合的、政府范围的战略。美国商务部(DOC)与美国国家科学技术委员会关键矿物小组委员会(CMS)的联邦部门和机构合作制定了这一战略。

Increasing America’s critical minerals exploration, mining, processing, and manufacturing base requires an integrated, government-wide strategy. The Department of Commerce (DOC) developed this Strategy in coordination with the Federal departments and agencies of the National Science and Technology Council’s Subcommittee on Critical Minerals (CMS).

该战略中的《行动呼吁》载有目标,并附有建议,说明联邦政府为实现这些目标应采取的具体行动。在一些建议中,用粗体字标明了牵头机构。没有确定牵头机构的建议将在名单所列机构之间合作完成。每项建议还列出了预计的执行时间框架。

The Calls to Action in this Strategy contain goals, with accompanying recommendations that describe specific actions that the Federal Government should take to meet these goals. In some recommendations, a lead agency is identified in bold font. Recommendations without an identified lead agency will be completed cooperatively between the listed agencies. Each recommendation also lists the anticipated timeframes for implementation.

该战略概述了联邦政府为响应第13817号行政命令采取的协调一致的办法,以减少国家对关键矿物供应中断的脆弱性。这一战略的组织原则是解决关键矿物的整个供应链,其中包括从原材料的保障到民用和国防用途的最终用途。联邦政府在这一战略中概述的一些行动可以在短期内采取,例如储存和改进可靠的贸易选择。其它行动,例如催化勘探、设计和建造新矿,以及重建国内下游制造业供应链,则需要更长时间才能实施。此外,今天实施的应用研发努力的结果可能需要许多年才能完全融入私营部门。总的来说,联邦机构已经在为实现本报告中确定的许多目标而努力。

This Strategy outlines a coordinated approach by the Federal Government in response to Executive Order 13817 to reduce the Nation’s vulnerability to disruptions in the supply of critical minerals. An organizing principle of this strategy is to address the full supply chain of critical minerals, which spans from securement of raw materials to end-uses in both civilian and defense applications. Some Federal Government actions outlined in this strategy can be taken in the short-term, such as stockpiling and improving reliable trade options. Other actions, such as catalyzing exploration, designing and constructing new mines, and re-establishing domestic downstream manufacturing supply chains take longer to implement. In addition, the results of applied R&D efforts implemented today may take many years to fully integrate into the private sector. Overall, Federal agencies are already working towards completing many of the goals identified in this report.

本报告所列的行动呼吁支持政府加强美国制造业基础和提高美国工业竞争力的目标。该战略一旦实施,将提高先进技术、工业和国防制造部门的能力,这些部门使用关键矿产来适应新出现的矿产重要性问题;降低依赖关键矿产的美国企业的风险;为处于关键矿产供应链不同阶段的生产设施创造有利的美国商业环境;支持美国的经济安全和国防;所有这些都将减少美国在关键矿产供应中断面前的脆弱性。

The Calls to Action listed in this report support the Administration’s objectives to strengthen the United States’ manufacturing base and enhance U.S. industrial competitiveness. When executed, this Strategy will improve the ability of the advanced technology, industrial, and defense manufacturing sectors that use critical minerals to adapt to emerging mineral criticality issues; reduce risks for American businesses that rely on critical minerals; create a favorable U.S. business climate for production facilities at different stages of critical minerals supply chains; and support the economic security and national defense of the United States; all of which will reduce the Nation’s vulnerability to critical mineral supply disruptions.

行动号召

Calls to Action

行动呼吁1:推进关键矿产供应链的转型研究、开发和部署

Call to Action 1: Advance Transformational Research, Development, and Deployment Across Critical Mineral Supply Chains

在过去的十年里,美国在科学和技术方面进行了投资,以减少国家对关键矿物的外国来源和外国制造供应链的依赖。这些投资主要支持三个原则:资源多样化、提高效率和开发替代品。这些原则促进了关键矿产供应链中的适应性、弹性和竞争力。虽然取得了相当大的进展,但美国需要更新联邦研发战略,需要更有力地支持私营部门采用早期研究,以实现关键矿物的安全可靠供应。

Over the past ten years, the United States has invested in science and technology to reduce the Nation’s growing dependency on foreign sources of critical minerals and foreign manufacturing supply chains. These investments primarily support three principles: diversifying sources, improving efficiency, and developing substitutes. These principles promote adaptability, resilience, and competitiveness within critical mineral supply chains. While considerable progress has been made, the United States needs an updated Federal R&D strategy and stronger support for private sector adoption of early-stage research to achieve secure and reliable supplies of critical minerals.

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长期以来,美国的独创性和企业家精神一直是全球领导力、经济增长和国防力量的源泉。在某种程度上,美国在科学和技术方面的卓越,使得美国在19世纪和20世纪在矿产和矿产品方面占据了主导地位。利用和培养这些能力有助于国家在减少关键矿物供应中断方面取得进展。因此,美国一直在寻求适用于整个供应链的多种研发投资,包括:

American ingenuity and entrepreneurship have long been a source of global leadership, economic growth, and strength in national defense. U.S. excellence in science and technology, in part, enabled U.S. dominance in minerals and mineral products in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Drawing upon and fostering these capabilities helps the Nation advance towards reducing disruptions in the supply of critical minerals. Accordingly, the United States has been pursuing multiple R&D investments that apply across the supply chain, including:

使国内重要矿产资源多样化;

diversifying domestic critical mineral sources;

更有效地加工、制造和回收关键矿物,以减少浪费和增加供应;以及

more efficiently processing, manufacturing, and recycling critical minerals to minimize waste and increase supply; and

开发关键矿物的替代品。

developing alternatives to critical minerals.

这些领域的创新使企业和市场能够减轻供应链中断造成的更广泛的潜在经济和战略损害。此外,这些努力还可以帮助创建新的国内企业,如回收公司和永磁体初创企业;通过利用副产品和废物流的价值振兴境况不佳的产业及其社区;通过联邦研发的技术溢出提高现有企业的竞争力,新技术或创新适用于其他行业或流程。

Innovations in these areas allow firms and markets to mitigate the wider potential economic and strategic harm of supply chain disruptions. Furthermore, these efforts can also help create new domestic businesses, such as recycling firms and permanent magnet start-ups; revitalize ailing industries and their communities by harnessing the value of by-products and waste streams; and increase the competitiveness of existing firms via technological spillover developed from Federal R&D, where new technologies or innovations are adapted to other industries or processes.

从多种来源开采关键矿物的研发可大大提高国内能力。例如,许多矿物传统上是从常规来源(直接通过开采矿石获得的矿物)获得的,但也有一些可以从次生(再循环材料、后工业和后消费材料)和非常规来源(从矿山尾矿、煤副产品、海水提取和地热水中获得的矿物)获得。优化常规、次生和非常规关键矿物资源的提取、浓缩、分离和提纯方法的研发工作可以提高产量,建立供应冗余和弹性。

R&D into extracting critical minerals from a diversified set of sources could greatly increase domestic capacity. For example, many minerals are traditionally obtained from conventional sources (minerals obtained directly through mining an ore), but some can be obtained from secondary (recycled materials, post-industrial, and post-consumer materials) and unconventional sources (minerals obtained from sources such as mine tailings, coal byproducts, extraction from seawater, and geothermal brines) as well. R&D efforts to optimize methods for extraction, concentration, separation and purification of conventional, secondary, and unconventional sources of critical minerals could increase yields and build in supply redundancy and resiliency.

所有35种关键矿物都是从常规采矿来源生产的;然而,一些矿物也可以从未充分利用的次级和非常规来源获得。开发多样化的国内关键矿产储备将提高国内产能,抵消日益增长的消费需求,并减少对外国的依赖。次级和非常规资源的持续开发将需要优化分离和提纯方法,同时也提供了一个应用变革性的新方法的机会。提纯和分离方法的改进将提高产量,并在整个供应链中建立冗余。

All 35 critical minerals are produced from conventional mining sources; however, some minerals can also be obtained from underutilized secondary and unconventional sources. Developing a diverse set of domestic critical mineral reserves will improve domestic capacity, offset growing consumer demands, and mitigate foreign dependencies. The continual development of secondary and unconventional sources will require optimization of separation and purification methods, while also providing an opportunity to apply transformative, novel approaches. Improvements in purification and separation methods would increase yields and build in redundancy across supply chains.

美国国家科学和技术委员会先进制造小组委员会发布了一项战略,《美国在先进制造业中的领导地位战略》 ,其中强调需要开发具有成本效益的关键矿物加工和分离技术,并通过调查替代材料和发展关键矿物回收来减少国家对关键材料的依赖。本战略中列出的建议和目标应利用正在完成的工作来响应本国科技委员会的报告。

The National Science and Technology Council’s (NSTC) Subcommittee on Advanced Manufacturing released a strategy, Strategy for American Leadership in Advanced Manufacturing, that highlights the need for developing cost-effective critical minerals processing and separation technologies as well as reducing the Nation’s reliance on critical materials by investigating alternative materials and developing critical mineral recycling. The recommendations and goals listed in this strategy should leverage the work being accomplished to respond to this NSTC report.

使关键矿物来源的范围多样化

Diversifying the range of sources of critical minerals

联邦政府采取了许多举措,鼓励从次级和非常规来源进行关键矿物开发。通过美国能源部化石能源办公室和国家能源技术实验室管理的研究已经从煤矸石中提取出稀土元素,并证明从酸性矿山废水中提取出的稀土元素几乎完全可以去除。该方案支持与各学术机构、工业伙伴和其他国家实验室的30多个相关校外和校内项目。同样,由美国能源部先进制造办公室资助的研发公营部门与私营机构合作—— 临界材料研究所的研究已经产生了几项与稀土有关的发明,包括一项从磷酸流中提取稀土的发明和多项从盐水中提取锂的发明。

The Federal Government has many initiatives to incentivize critical mineral development from secondary and unconventional sources. Research managed through DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy and the National Energy Technology Laboratory has produced rare earth elements (REEs) from coal refuse materials and demonstrated nearly complete removal from acid mine drainage. This program supports over 30 related extramural and intramural projects with various academic institutions, industrial partners, and other national laboratories. Similarly, research by the Critical Materials Institute (CMI)—an R&D public-private partnership funded by DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office—has produced several inventions related to REEs including one for the extraction of REEs from phosphoric acid streams and multiple inventions for lithium extraction from brines.

关键矿物的另一个来源可以在我们的海洋和我国的专属经济区找到。虽然美国目前还没有近海矿产回收活动,但太平洋西北和橡树岭国家实验室正在开发从海水中提取矿物质的技术,包括稀土、锂和铀。为了使近海采矿获得成功,需要更多的研发来开发适用于寒冷、盐碱和高压深海的勘探和采矿工具。在许多情况下,具有独特化学特性的海洋衍生矿物还需要新的提炼和提取高价值矿物的工艺。日本、加拿大和英国等国一直在积极开发和投资本国的近海采矿业和海水开采技术。截至2018年10月,美国国际海底管理局已经向29家承包商发放了许可证,其中没有一家是美国公司。

Another source of critical minerals can be found in our oceans and in our Nation’s Exclusive Economic Zone. Though the U.S. currently has no offshore mineral recovery activity, Pacific Northwest and Oak Ridge National Laboratories are currently developing technologies to extract minerals from seawater, including REEs, lithium, and uranium. In order for offshore mining to be successful, more R&D is needed to develop exploration and mining tools suitable for the cold, saline, and pressurized deep sea. In many cases, ocean-derived minerals with unique chemical properties will also require novel processes for refining and extracting high-value minerals. Countries such as Japan, Canada, and the United Kingdom have been aggressively developing and investing in their own domestic offshore mining industry and seawater extraction technologies. As of October 2018, the International Seabed Authority has issued permits for 29 contractors, none of which are U.S. companies.

关键矿物的有效利用和再利用

Efficient use and reuse of critical minerals

确保关键矿物的安全和可持续供应还需要有效的使用和再利用。效率可以通过多种方式实现,包括:

Ensuring a secure and sustainable supply of critical minerals also requires efficient use and reuse. Efficiency can be achieved in a variety of ways, including:

产品内容的减少;

content reductions in products;

在生产过程中尽量减少材料浪费;

minimizing material waste during manufacturing;

回收利用后期制作的废物;以及

reusing postproduction waste; and

在产品寿命结束时进行循环利用。

recycling at the end of a product’s life.

这些改进和创新也可以提高产品的成本竞争力。此外,美国的技术领先地位还得益于国内加工、制造或回收方面创新的发展。

Such improvements and innovations can also increase product cost-competitiveness. In addition, U.S. technological leadership benefits from the domestic development of innovations related to processing, manufacturing, or recycling.

联邦政府支持的努力已经产生了许多新的技术、产品和流程。例如,美国一家小型初创企业获得了橡树岭国家实验室的许可专利,可以回收硬盘中的稀土元素,并从回收材料中生产3 d 打印的稀土磁铁。同样,CMI 开发了一种新的铝铈合金,正在走向商业化。这种新型合金优于现有技术,可增加开发国内稀土矿床的动力。

Federally-supported efforts have yielded many new technologies, products, and processes. For example, a small U.S. startup licensed patents from Oak Ridge National Laboratory to recycle REEs from hard drives and to produce 3D-printed REE magnets from recycled materials. Similarly, CMI developed a new aluminum-cerium alloy that is moving towards commercialization. This new alloy is superior to existing technologies and could increase incentives to develop domestic REE deposits.

美国能源部,通过汽车技术办公室,已经增加了对锂离子电池回收的重视,以支持环境,经济和供应链的可靠性目标。锂离子电池的战略包括研究如何减少下一代电池所需的钴,并通过 ReCell 中心从锂离子电池中经济地回收部件和材料。美国能源部还在2019年2月宣布设立锂离子电池废旧电池回收奖,重点关注国内废旧电池回收物流的优化。同样,美国先进电池联盟宣布了几项与锂离子电池回收相关的合同,其中包括一项将协助一家公司实施直接阴极到阴极的回收工艺的合同,这将降低成本,减少工业对原材料的依赖。

DOE, through the Vehicles Technology Office, has increased its focus on lithium-ion battery recycling to support environmental, economic, and supply chain reliability objectives. The lithium-ion battery strategy includes research to reduce the amount of cobalt needed for next-generation batteries and to economically recover components and materials from lithium-ion batteries through the ReCell Center. DOE also announced in February 2019 the Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Prize – focused on optimized logistics for the domestic collection of spent batteries. Similarly, the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium announced several contracts related to lithium-ion battery recycling, including an award that will assist a firm to implement a direct cathode-to-cathode recycling process that will decrease costs and decrease industry reliance on virgin material.

联邦政府支持的其他努力包括增加各种关键矿物的再利用和再循环。例如,国防部国防后勤局战略物资司与工业界合作,从涡轮发动机中回收镍基超级合金,从红外和夜视设备中回收锗,这抵消了为库存购买原始锗的要求。环保署的可持续材料管理项目也致力于完善美国废弃物和回收流的数据,这些数据可以显示在哪里可以找到关键矿物的潜在新来源。

Other federally-supported efforts are increasing the reuse and recycling of various critical minerals. For example, the DOD Defense Logistics Agency Strategic Materials Division has worked with industry to reclaim nickel-based super alloys from turbine engines and germanium from infrared and night vision equipment, which has offset the requirement to purchase virgin germanium for the stockpile. The EPA’s Sustainable Materials Management program is also working to refine data on U.S. waste and recycling streams, which can show where potential new sources of critical minerals can be found.

虽然含有关键矿物的产品正在进行某些再利用和回收,但现有产品或废物流中的矿物基本上是未开发的潜在供应库,因为从报废产品中提取关键矿物非常复杂。因此,进一步的研究可以使工业充分利用这些资源。

While some reuse and recycling of products containing critical minerals is occurring, minerals embedded in existing products or waste streams represent a largely untapped reservoir of potential supply due to the complexity of extracting critical minerals from an end-of-life product. Accordingly, additional research could allow industry to make full use of these resources.

开发替代品

Developing alternatives

尽量减少国家对外国关键矿物来源和外国制造供应链的依赖的另一个方法是使用替代矿物和部件。在可能的情况下,用丰富的、价格较低的替代品取代关键矿物,可以保存关键矿物,减少对破坏的脆弱性,并降低产品成本。Cmi 支持的工作产生了几个永久磁铁(从发动机到硬盘驱动器的各种应用)和荧光粉(照明)适合取代目前的商业产品。这些组分含稀土元素很少或根本不含稀土元素,只使用国内采购的矿石和工艺。在高级研究计划署-能源关键技术中的稀土替代品项目下,东北大学的研究人员开发了铁镍合金来代替钕和镝。同样,洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室、橡树岭国家实验室和明尼苏达大学的研究人员在2016年发明了一种由铁和氮制成的永磁体。最后,美国能源部汽车技术办公室资助了阿贡国家实验室的一项研究,这项研究有助于电动汽车电池的商业化,这种电动汽车电池使用的阴极化学物质钴含量较低。

Another way to minimize the Nation’s growing dependency on foreign sources of critical minerals and foreign manufacturing supply chains is to use alternative minerals and components. When possible, substituting critical minerals with abundant, less-expensive replacements can conserve critical minerals, reduce vulnerability to disruptions, and lower product costs. Work supported by CMI yielded several permanent magnets (for various applications from motors to hard drives) and phosphors (for lighting) suitable for replacing current commercial products. These components contain few or no REEs and use only domestically-sourced ores and processes. Under the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy’s Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies program, researchers at Northeastern University developed iron-nickel alloys to replace neodymium and dysprosium. Similarly, researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Minnesota invented a permanent magnet made of iron and nitrogen in 2016. Finally, the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office funded research at Argonne National Laboratory that has contributed to commercialization of electric vehicle batteries that use cathode chemistries with less cobalt.

基础研发与交叉研发

Fundamental and crosscutting R&D

基础和横切研究为应用研究提供了基础。基础研究有助于提高我们对关键矿物在确定矿物性质方面所起作用的认识,这些矿物的长度尺度从电子相互作用距离到原子和微结构尺度不等。这项研究包括发展新的合成技术,控制在原子水平的性能,以发展独特的能力,制备,提纯,加工和制造良好的特点的材料。潜在的基础研究需要包括模型的开发、验证和应用,以从理论和计算上识别那些有希望成为关键材料替代品的化合物。

Fundamental and crosscutting research provides a foundation for applied research. Fundamental research is helping to advance our understanding of the role that critical minerals play in the determination of the properties of minerals at length scales ranging from electronic interaction distances to atomic and microstructural scales. This research includes the development of novel synthesis techniques that control properties at the atomic level to develop unique capabilities for the preparation, purification, processing, and fabrication of well-characterized materials. Potential fundamental research needs to include the development, validation, and application of models to theoretically and computationally identify compounds that are promising critical material substitutes.

计算机科学和程序设计的最新进展扩大了矿物替代品的范围,并有助于加速从发现到部署的转变。目前的计算努力集中在理解基本材料性质。将这些努力扩大到模拟稀缺性、毒性和可持续性,将有助于提高确定新替代品的能力。先进的建模技术可以通过将传统的地球科学方法与数据科学技术如机器学习、3 d 可视化和先进的数据计算方法相结合来改善地下资源角色塑造。

Recent advances in computer science and programming have expanded the universe of mineral substitutes and can help accelerate movement from discovery to deployment. Current computational efforts have focused on understanding fundamental material properties. Expanding these efforts to model scarcity, toxicity, and sustainability would help improve the ability to identify new substitutes. Advanced modeling techniques can improve subsurface resource characterization by blending conventional geoscience methods with data science techniques such as machine learning, 3D visualization, and advanced data computing approaches.

在整个关键矿物供应链中,还需要提高对环境健康和安全问题的认识。保护环境和确保矿工及周围社区的健康是可持续重要矿产业的关键组成部分。

Across the critical minerals supply chain, there is also a need to improve understanding of environmental health and safety issues. Protecting the environment and ensuring the health of miners and surrounding communities are crucial components of a sustainable critical minerals industry.

目标:制定研发战略,提高关键矿物供应链的科学和技术能力

Goal: Develop an R&D strategy to enhance scientific and technical capabilities across critical mineral supply chains

在关键的矿物供应链中存在着重大的研发需求。在有关联邦机构之间协调这些努力,应确保资源得到高效率和有效的使用。美国需要一项战略来确定关键的研发需求,以实现来源多样化;更有效地利用和替代关键矿物;以及采矿、基础材料科学、制造业和环境卫生与安全。联邦政府应该与 CMI、美国能源部应用能源研究办公室、美国国家海洋和大气管理局海洋勘探与研究办公室、美国国家标准与技术研究所、美国国防部、美国环保局以及美国国家实验室的现有努力相协调,设计这一研发战略。此外,像小企业创新研究项目和小企业技术转让项目这样的项目可以创造机会,利用正在进行的研发投资。

Significant R&D needs exist across critical mineral supply chains. Coordinating these efforts among the relevant Federal agencies should ensure that resources are used efficiently and effectively. The United States needs a strategy to identify key R&D needs for source diversification; more efficient use and substitution of critical minerals; and mining, fundamental materials science, manufacturing, and environmental health and safety. The Federal Government should design this R&D strategy in coordination with existing efforts by the CMI, the various DOE applied energy research offices, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), DOD, EPA, and the Nation’s National Laboratories. In addition, programs like the Small Business Innovation Research program and the Small Business Technology Transfer program can create opportunities to leverage ongoing investments in R&D.

由于新材料是通过研究开发的,联邦政府应该为私营部门提供支持,以展示、评估、测试和验证这些民用和国防应用的新材料。

As new materials are developed through research, the Federal Government should provide support for the private sector to demonstrate, evaluate, test, and qualify these new materials for civilian and defense applications.

为实现这一目标,建议采取以下行动:

To achieve this goal, the following actions are recommended:

制定一个路线图,确定关键的研发需求并协调正在进行的活动,以实现来源多样化、更有效地使用、回收和替代关键矿物;以及贯穿各领域的采矿科学、数据科学技术、材料科学、制造科学和工程、计算机建模、环境卫生和安全研发。(能源部,美国国家标准局,国防部和美国环境保护局;2-4年)

Develop a roadmap that identifies key R&D needs and coordinates on-going activities for source diversification, more efficient use, recycling, and substitution for critical minerals; as well as cross-cutting mining science, data science techniques, materials science, manufacturing science and engineering, computational modeling, and environmental health and safety R&D. (DOE, DOC [NIST, NOAA], DOD, and EPA; 2-4 years)

建立新的公私伙伴关系(例如设在国家实验室和大学的财团) ,利用现有的公私伙伴关系,更有效地应对潜在的科学和早期应用研究挑战,并能够在关键矿物供应链的关键技术领域验证和核查新材料和新工艺。(美国国家标准局,国防部和能源部;2-4年)

Establish new public-private partnerships (e.g. consortia based in National Laboratories and universities) and leverage existing public-private partnerships to more efficiently address the underlying scientific and early-stage applied research challenges and enable the validation and verification of new materials and processes in key technical areas across the supply chains of critical minerals. (DOC [NIST], DOD, and DOE; 2-4 years)

完成从次级和非常规来源(包括煤基资源、矿山尾矿、冶炼炉渣、废水、报废产品和海水沉积物)生产关键矿物和有关制造材料的技术和经济可行性研究。(DOE,DOC(NOAA) ,DOD,DOI [美国地质调查局(USGS)] ,和 EPA;1-2年)

Complete technical and economic feasibility studies of the production of critical minerals and related manufactured materials from secondary and unconventional sources (including coal-based resources, mine tailings, smelter slag, waste streams, end-of-life products, and seawater deposits). (DOE, DOC (NOAA), DOD, DOI [United States Geological Survey (USGS)], and EPA; 1-2 years)

通过降低与政府和学术实验室、机构和组织合作的障碍,为私营企业和其他外部利益相关者提供计算能力、测试和验证支持设施。(DOE,DOC [ NOAA ] ,DOD,和 DOI [ USGS ] ;2-4年)

Provide private industry and other external stakeholders access to computing capabilities, testing, and validation support facilities by lowering barriers to engage with government and academic laboratories, institutes, and organizations. (DOE, DOC [NOAA], DOD, and DOI [USGS]; 2-4 years)

目标:增加美国私营企业在创新方面的投资,改善由联邦政府资助的科学技术的技术转让

Goal: Increase U.S. private industry investment in innovation and improve technology transfer from federally funded science and technology

联邦政府和私营部门对科学和技术进行了大量投资,重点是发展和扩大关键矿物资源开采、下游加工和整个关键矿物供应链制造的国内能力。此外,美国有法定权力和项目,可以促进和激励这种科学和技术向全面生产和融入美国工业基地的过渡。对于类似领域的非军事相关要求,能源部、 DOI 和其他机构已经支持了可以进一步利用的研发项目。

There has been significant investment from the Federal Government and in the private sector in science and technology focused towards developing and expanding domestic capabilities for key critical mineral resource extraction, downstream processing, and manufacturing across critical mineral supply chains. Further, the U.S. has statutory authorities and programs that can facilitate and incentivize the transition of this science and technology to full scale production and integration into the U.S. industrial base. For non-military related requirements in similar areas, DOE, DOI, and other agencies have supported R&D programs that could be further leveraged.

应利用现有的联邦政府举措,如2018年总统管理议程,来支持这一目标。具体而言,跨机构优先目标侧重于改善联邦资助的研究与发展向私营部门的转移。

Existing Federal Government initiatives such as the 2018 President’s Management Agenda should be leveraged to support this goal. Specifically, the cross-agency priority goal?focused on improving the transfer of federally funded R&D to the private sector.

评价和提供建议,以激励私营工业发展和利用科学和技术进步。可以考虑的备选方案包括:(1)对新技术投资的税收优惠;(2)基于使用国内矿石生产采购商品的新技术的政府采购计划;(3)利用现有能源部和国防部授权,鼓励私营部门在关键选矿工程、制造研发和商业化方面的投资。(CMS,DOD,DOE,和 DOI;2-4年)

Evaluate and provide recommendations to incentivize the development and use of advances in science and technology in the private industry. Options that could be considered include: (1) tax incentives for investment in new technologies, (2) government purchase programs based on the use of new technologies using domestic ores in the production of goods purchased and (3) leveraging existing DOE and DOD authorities to incentivize private sector investment in critical mineral processing and manufacturing R&D and commercialization. (CMS, DOD, DOE, and DOI; 2-4 years)

通过利用和扩大美国能源部 CMI、 NIST 制造业推广伙伴关系、美国相关制造研究所、国家实验室和大学之间现有的协调,为中小型企业提供关于关键矿物问题的支持。定期向 CMS 提供状态更新。(美国国家标准局,国防部和能源部;正在进行)

Provide support for small and medium business regarding critical mineral issues by leveraging and expanding the existing coordination between DOE's CMI, NIST’s Manufacturing Extension Partnership, relevant Manufacturing USA institutes, national laboratories, and universities. Provide periodic status updates to the CMS. (DOC [NIST], DOD, and DOE; ongoing)

行动2:加强美国关键矿产供应链和国防工业基地

Call to Action 2: Strengthen America’s Critical Mineral Supply Chains and Defense Industrial Base

发展强有力的国内供应链和关键矿物的弹性国防工业基地,可以帮助维持国内关键矿物资源的开发,减少供应链各个阶段的供应风险,包括材料加工和制造中间产品和最终产品。美国需要进一步鼓励和激励美国私营工业投资和创新,发展、扩大、现代化和维持整个供应链的能力和工业规模的能力。

Developing robust domestic supply chains and a resilient defense industrial base for critical minerals can help sustain domestic critical mineral resource development and reduce supply risk at all stages of the supply chain, including materials processing, and manufacturing intermediate and final products. The United States needs to further encourage and incentivize U.S. private industry investment and innovation in developing, expanding, modernizing, and sustaining capabilities and industrial-scale capacity throughout the supply chain.

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第13817号行政命令确定需要增加关键矿物供应链各级的活动。这包括开发、采矿、选矿、分离、精炼、还原和合金化等活动,以及中间产品和最终产品的加工和制造。发展强有力的国内供应链和关键矿产的弹性国防工业基地应该有助于维持国内关键矿产资源的开发和降低供应风险,同时提高美国工业竞争力,扩大生产能力,刺激创造就业机会,并支持美国经济繁荣和国防。

Executive Order 13817 identifies the need to increase activity at all levels of the critical minerals supply chain. This includes activities such as development, mining, concentration, separation, refinement, reduction, and alloying, as well as processing and manufacturing of intermediate and final products. Developing robust domestic supply chains and a resilient defense industrial base for critical minerals should help sustain domestic critical mineral resource development and reduce supply risk, while also improving U.S. industrial competitiveness, expanding production capacity, spurring job creation, and supporting U.S. economic prosperity and national defense.

根据第13806号行政命令《评估和加强美国制造业和国防工业基础及供应链弹性》 ,美国国内关键矿物下游附加值材料加工和相关产品制造的产量长期下降。对于某些关键矿产,以前的美国原材料生产商及其下游客户已经将美国的生产转移到了中国等国家。此外,美国生产商一直在努力与外国生产商竞争,并经历了裁员或业务失败。例如,稀土行业在供应链的各个阶段都经历了缩小规模、业务失败和搬迁,包括采矿、分离、金属还原、合金化和先进技术产品的下游制造,如高性能稀土永磁体。

The U.S. has endured a long period of decline in the domestic production of critical mineral downstream value-added material processing and associated product manufacturing, as identified in the response to Executive Order 13806, Assessing and Strengthening the Manufacturing and Defense Industrial Base and Supply Chain Resiliency of the United States. For certain critical minerals, former U.S. material producers and their downstream customers have relocated U.S. production to foreign countries such as China. Further, U.S. producers have struggled to compete with foreign producers and have experienced downsizing or business failure. For example, the REE industry has experienced downsizing, business failure, and relocation in all phases of the supply chain, including mining, separation, metal reduction, alloying and downstream manufacturing of advanced technology products such as high performance rare earth permanent magnets.

稀土产业也提供了一个很好的例子,说明为什么整个美国供应链都需要增加活动,从研发投资到产业激励。美国恢复了稀土矿的开采,使原材料供应多样化。然而,美国不具备分离和加工稀土精矿的能力,必须将精矿送往国外设施进行这一加工。同样,美国缺乏国内能力生产稀土基高性能磁铁从分离和纯化材料。这导致了美国对进口磁铁的依赖,而进口磁铁对民用和国防应用都至关重要。因此,在不增加加工和制造能力的情况下增加采矿只会使经济和国家安全风险的来源沿供应链下移,并造成这些能力对外国来源的依赖。

The REE industry also provides a good example of why increased activity—from R&D investments to industry incentives—is needed across the entire U.S. supply chain. Mining of ore containing REE has resumed in the U.S., which has diversified the supply of the raw material. However, the U.S. does not possess the capability to separate and process the REE concentrate and must send the concentrate to foreign facilities to perform this process. Similarly, the U.S. lacks the domestic capability to manufacture REE based high performance magnets from the separated and purified material. This results in U.S. reliance on imported magnets, which are crucial for both civilian and defense applications. Accordingly, increasing mining without increasing processing and manufacturing capabilities simply moves the source of economic and national security risk down the supply chain and creates dependence on foreign sources for these capabilities.

美国需要采取战略、政策和投资,以减少我们对外国关键矿产资源和制造供应链的快速增长的依赖,同时尽量减少对外国供应中断的潜在脆弱性。美国应该寻找机会扩大公私伙伴关系,进一步激励美国私营工业投资;促进发展、扩大、现代化和维持国内能力方面的创新;加强下游附加值加工和相关制造业;更有效地利用国防储备计划和其他工业基础商业援助支持计划。除了增加活动外,还需要在整个供应链中进行转型研发,以促进建立这些国内能力。因此,应利用以研发为重点的"行动呼吁1"项下完成的行动,并与"行动呼吁"项下完成的行动协调一致,以增加整个重要矿物供应链的活动。

The U.S. needs to pursue strategies, policies, and investment that reduce our rapidly growing dependence on foreign sources of critical minerals and manufacturing supply chains while minimizing the potential vulnerability to foreign supply disruption. The U.S. should seek opportunities to expand public-private partnerships that further incentivize U.S. private industry investment; promote innovation in developing, expanding, modernizing, and sustaining domestic capabilities; enhance downstream value-added processing and associated manufacturing; and more effectively leverage the National Defense Stockpile (NDS) Program and other industrial base business assistance support programs. In addition to increasing activity, transformational R&D is needed across the entire supply chain to foster the establishment of these domestic capabilities. Therefore, actions completed under Call to Action 1, which is focused on R&D, should be leveraged and coordinated with actions completed under this Call to Action in order to increase activity across the entire critical minerals supply chain.

目标:了解和支持关键矿产行业和相关供应链

Goal: Understand and support the critical minerals industry and related supply chain

关键矿产供应链网络应该更加健全,以便国内生产的关键矿产能够支持我们国家的经济安全和国防。联邦政府应更好地了解这些网络的组织情况,以改善关键矿物及其下游供应链的流动和竞争力。

Critical mineral supply chain networks should be made more robust so that domestically produced critical minerals can support our Nation’s economic security and national defense. The Federal Government should better understand the organization of these networks to improve the flow and competitiveness of critical minerals and their downstream supply chains.

为实现这一目标,建议采取以下行动:

To achieve this goal, the following actions are recommended:

开发一种跨部门的方法,定期评估美国关键矿产行业及其下游供应链的市场趋势和竞争力,以便提出政策和战略建议,如政府研发投资、产能扩张、储存和贸易行动。(美国国防部,工业和安全局(BIS) ,能源部,和 DOI [ USGS ] ;2年)

Develop an interagency methodology to periodically assess market trends and competitiveness of the U.S. critical mineral industry and its downstream supply chains in order to recommend policies and strategies such as government investment in R&D, capacity expansion, stockpiling, and trade actions. (DOD, DOC [Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS)], DOE, and DOI [USGS]; 2 years)

目标:利用联邦政府以外利益攸关方的关键矿物专门知识

Goal: Leverage critical mineral expertise from stakeholders outside of the Federal Government

联邦机构将受益于与来自工业界、学术界、非政府和非营利组织以及州、地方和部落政府的关键矿物专家加强合作。各机构应努力利用利益攸关方的专门知识,解决与关键矿物供应链有关的复杂挑战。

Federal agencies would benefit from increased collaboration with critical minerals experts from industry; academia; non-governmental and non-profit organizations; and State, local, and Tribal governments. Agencies should strive to leverage stakeholder expertise to solve complex challenges related to the critical mineral supply chain.

通过《联邦咨询委员会法》建立全国关键矿物和供应链理事会,就美国工业生产商和初级加工商的金属和非金属部门征求咨询意见。(美国国防部、美国能源部、美国能源部和 DOI;1-2年)

Establish a National Critical Minerals and Supply Chains Council through the Federal Advisory Committee Act to seek advice on the metal and non-metallic sectors of U.S. industry producers and primary processors. (DOD, DOC, DOE, and DOI; 1-2 years)

召集整个关键矿物供应链的利益攸关方:

Convene stakeholders from across the critical mineral supply chain to:

确定在关键矿产供应链的所有阶段实施创新的关键需求和挑战,包括:发展、扩大、现代化和维持国内陆地和海上采矿;下游加工;相关制造业;以及提高美国工业基地的复原力。

Identify key needs and challenges related to implementing innovations in all stages of the critical minerals supply chain, including: developing, expanding, modernizing and sustaining domestic land and offshore mining; downstream processing; associated manufacturing; and improving U.S. industrial base resiliency.

改善国家回收和材料回收基础设施,以创造更安全的关键矿物国内供应。

Improve national recycling and materials recovery infrastructure to create more secure domestic supplies of critical minerals.

确定关键矿物的二次和非传统来源的用途,改进促进关键矿物回收的产品设计,并探索促进材料回收的技术 / 研发需求。(国防部,能源部,DOI [美国地质勘探局] ,美国环保局;1-3年)

Identify uses of secondary and unconventional sources of critical minerals, improve product designs that facilitate critical mineral recovery, and explore technological/R&D needs to facilitate material recovery. (DOD, DOE, DOI [USGS], EPA; 1-3 years)

目标:发展、扩大、现代化和维持美国关键矿产下游材料生产能力和供应链弹性

Goal: Develop, expand, modernize, and sustain U.S. critical minerals downstream materials production capacity and supply chain resiliency

美国继续越来越依赖关键矿物的外国生产商,因此很容易受到潜在供应中断的影响。美国在关键生产能力和产能方面面临供应链缺口。此外,许多美国公司面临着巨大的国外竞争压力、收入下降、公司裁员、生产设施关闭和业务失败。

The United States continues to be increasingly dependent on foreign producers of critical minerals and as a result is vulnerable to potential supply disruptions. The U.S. faces supply chain gaps in key production capabilities and capacities. Further, many U.S. companies face significant foreign competitive pressures, declining revenue, company downsizings, production facility closures, and business failures.

正如对第13806号行政命令和国会的回应中所述,美国的某些关键矿产及其下游材料加工和制造能力对美国的基本民用需求和军事需求构成了特别高的风险。这些风险包括潜在的战时短缺以及对美国工业基地和供应链的其他相关风险。

As described in the response to Executive Order 13806 and to Congress, certain U.S. critical minerals and their downstream materials processing and manufacturing capabilities and capacity represent particularly high-risks to U.S. essential civilian demands and military requirements. These risks include potential wartime shortfalls and other associated risks to the U.S. industrial base and supply chains.

评估并提供建议,以激励美国私营企业特别是国防需求,以:(1)投资国内能力和关键矿产资源的工业规模生产;(2)创新材料替代和替代方法的加工和回收;(3)支持关键矿产加工能力和国防部工业基础设施的基本生产能力。(国防部;正在进行)

Evaluate and provide recommendations to incentivize the U.S. private industry specific to national defense requirements, to: (1) invest in domestic capabilities and industrial-scale production of key critical mineral sources; (2) innovate in material substitution and alternative approaches to processing and recycling; and (3) support critical minerals related processing capabilities and essential productive capacity at DOD’s industrial base facilities. (DOD; ongoing)

评估刺激私营部门增加投资的不同政策:国内工业生产能力和能力;投资税收抵免和资本利得税减免;低息贷款和贷款担保;劳动力培训基金;国内外包政策;贸易调整援助和与小企业有关的采购机会。(CMS,DHS,DOD;1年)

Assess different policies to stimulate increased private sector investment in: domestic industry production capabilities and capacity; investment tax credits and capital gains tax exemptions; low-interest loans and loan guarantees; workforce training funds; domestic sourcing policy; trade adjustment assistance, and small business-related procurement opportunities. (CMS, DHS, DOD; 1 year)

评估加强使用联邦政府国内采购要求的机会,包括购买美国货法案,作为支持美国关键矿产资源及其国内下游制造业供应链的手段,这些供应链被认为对美国国防和安全至关重要。(美国国防部和白宫贸易和制造政策办公室;正在进行)

Assess opportunities to strengthen the use of Federal Government domestic sourcing requirements, including the Buy American Act, as a means for supporting U.S. critical mineral material resources and their domestic downstream manufacturing supply chains that are deemed essential to U.S. national defense and security. (DOD and White House Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy; ongoing)

目标:在美国战时和其他国家紧急情况下,稳定和加强国家发展战略方案快速应对紧急和未预料到的军事和基本平民需求的能力

Goal: Stabilize and strengthen the NDS Program’s abilities to respond rapidly to urgent and unanticipated military and essential civilian requirements during U.S. wartime and other national emergencies

美国严重依赖关键的矿物进口。如果中国或俄罗斯像2010年中国的稀土禁运那样,长期停止向美国及其盟友出口稀土,供应的持续中断可能会对整个美国及外国关键矿产供应链造成重大冲击。

The United States is heavily dependent on critical mineral imports. If China or Russia were to stop exports to the United States and its allies for a prolonged period – similar to China’s rare earths embargo in 2010—an extended supply disruption could cause significant shocks throughout U.S. and foreign critical mineral supply chains.

Nds 计划为美国及其国内制造商提供了重要的保护,使其免受外国供应中断的影响。其任务是提供关键材料,以支持紧急工业投资需求,并在国家紧急情况下帮助满足基本民用需求。该计划还评估和减轻全国范围内的关键材料风险,以美国军事和基本民用需求的近同行战时和其他潜在的供应中断情况下。

The NDS Program provides important protection to the United States and its domestic manufacturers from vulnerability to foreign supply disruptions. Its mission is to provide critical materials to support emergency industrial investment requirements and help address essential civilian needs during a national emergency. The Program also assesses and mitigates nationwide critical material risks to U.S. military and essential civilian requirements under near-peer wartime and other potential supply disruption scenarios.

国家发展战略计划在财政上是不可持续的,因为国会指示将国家发展战略计划的资金支付给其他账户已经超过20年了。正如参议院第115-262号报告所述,该方案还有大量资金不足的要求。

The NDS Program is not financially sustainable following more than two decades of Congressionally-directed disbursements of NDS Program funds to other accounts. The Program also has substantial unfunded requirements as discussed in Senate Report 115-262.

调查使用现有的国防部快速采购授权和其他操作惯例,以提高 NDS 方案对紧急作战人员需求和非战时国家紧急情况的反应能力。(国防部;正在进行)

Investigate the use of existing DOD rapid acquisition authorities and other operating practices to increase the NDS Program’s response capabilities to urgent warfighter requirements and during non-wartime national emergencies. (DOD; ongoing)

解决国会在参议院第115-262号报告(第四章,副标题? d)中对 NDS 交易基金缺乏长期金融稳定性的关注。(国防部;1-2年)

Address Congressional concerns stated in Senate Report 115-262 (Title IV, Subtitle?D) regarding the lack of long-term financial stability of the NDS Transaction Fund. (DOD; 1-2 years)

行动呼吁3:加强与关键矿物有关的国际贸易与合作

Call to Action 3: Enhance International Trade and Cooperation Related to Critical Minerals

美国进口许多关键矿物。保持对这些资源的访问对美国的经济安全和国防至关重要。增加与盟国和伙伴的贸易和合作有助于减少我国对可能受到破坏的关键矿产资源的依赖。强有力地执行美国贸易法和国际协定也有助于解决扭曲市场的外贸行为的不利影响。

The United States imports many critical minerals. Maintaining access to these sources is vital for U.S. economic security and national defense. Increasing trade and cooperation with allies and partners can help reduce our Nation’s reliance on sources of critical minerals that could be disrupted. Robust enforcement of U.S. trade laws and international agreements could also help address adverse impacts of market-distorting foreign trade conduct.

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美国从世界各地的市场进口许多重要的矿物商品。具体而言,如图1所示,在被指定为关键的35种矿物中,美国有31种依赖进口(进口量超过年消费量的50%) ,100% 依赖从其他国家进口这31种矿物中的14种。

The United States imports many critical mineral commodities from markets around the world. Specifically, of the 35 minerals designated as critical, the United States is import-reliant (imports are greater than 50 percent of annual consumption) for 31 of these minerals, and is 100 percent reliant on imports from other countries for 14 of these 31 minerals, as demonstrated in Figure 1.

随着世界经济的增长,美国在获取外国供应商提供的关键矿物方面将面临越来越激烈的竞争。增加与盟国和伙伴的贸易有助于减少关键矿产供应链中断的可能性。例如,加拿大和墨西哥为美国提供了许多关键矿物的全部或部分消费。美国与这些国家有着历史性的贸易关系,建立了物流链,并且地理位置相近。与他们合作开发他们的关键矿藏可以帮助改善美国供应的安全性。

As the world economy grows, the United States will face increased competition for access to critical minerals sourced from foreign suppliers. Increasing trade with allies and partners can help reduce the likelihood of disruption to critical mineral supply chains. For example, Canada and Mexico supply all or part of U.S. consumption for many critical minerals. The United States has historical trade relationships, established logistic chains, and geographic proximity with these countries. Working with them to develop their critical mineral deposits can help improve the security of U.S. supply.

美国与世界各地的许多伙伴就关键矿物的来源问题进行合作。例如,美国地质调查局与伙伴国家签订了谅解备忘录,对共同感兴趣的主题进行研究。这些谅解备忘录导致开展了许多联合活动,例如与澳大利亚就矿物资料和资源评估不断进行对话。能源部牵头与欧洲联盟和日本在三方研发关键材料小组中进行合作讨论,以实现供应多样化,开发替代品,改进回收,并进行关键性分析。美国地质勘探局和 NDS 计划与美国盟国保持着持续的关系,以分享关于关键和战略性矿物储备的信息和最佳实践。

The United States cooperates with many partners around the globe on issues related to the sourcing of critical minerals. For example, the USGS has Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) with partner countries’ geological surveys to conduct research on topics of mutual interest. These MOUs have led to many joint activities, such as an ongoing dialogue on mineral information and resource assessments with Australia. The DOE has led cooperative discussions with the European Union and Japan in a trilateral R&D critical materials group for diversifying supply, developing substitutes, improving recycling, and performing criticality analyses. The USGS and the NDS Program have an ongoing relationship with U.S. allied countries to share information and best practices on critical and strategic mineral stockpiling.

建立和保持与美国盟友和其他安全伙伴国家的密切合作,以确保国防和经济安全也是国防部的优先事项。国防部有几个现有的权限和机制,以促进与我们的盟友和外国合作伙伴的合作,这可以减少关键的矿物供应中断的脆弱性,包括互惠国防采购协议(RDP)、供应安全安排(sosa) ,以及通过国家技术和工业基地的合作。这些机制可加快美国与盟国和其他安全伙伴国供应商的联系。美国国防部正在寻找机会利用这些和相关形式的合作,以减少美国对关键矿产资源及其下游供应链潜在供应中断的脆弱性。

Establishing and maintaining close collaboration with U.S. allies and other security partner countries to ensure national defense and economic security is also a priority for DOD. DOD has several existing authorities and mechanisms to foster collaboration with our allies and foreign partners, which can reduce vulnerabilities to critical mineral supply disruptions, including Reciprocal Defense Procurement (RDP) agreements, Security of Supply Arrangements (SOSAs), and cooperation through the National Technology and Industrial Base. These mechanisms are available to expedite U.S. access to ally and other security partner country suppliers. DOD is pursuing opportunities to utilize these and related forms of collaboration to reduce U.S. vulnerabilities to potential supply disruptions of critical mineral resources and their downstream supply chains.

2016年,美国美国政府责任署发布了一份报告,呼吁联邦机构评估其他国家或地区的方法,以减轻关键矿产供应链的风险,并确定有用的例子和方法。一些联邦机构寻求机会,借鉴其他国家在关键矿物供应链方面的战略和经验。例如,美国地质调查局收集新的地球物理、地质和地形数据的努力是以加拿大和澳大利亚在类似地球科学数据集方面的投资为模型的。2018年7月,美国地质调查局当局开始讨论如何相互学习以及利用各自的矿物研究投资。同样,环保署的可持续材料管理项目在过去的几年里举办了多次会议,让整个供应链的利益相关者参与到解决产品和材料的整个生命周期的对话中,包括2016年3月的七国集团资源效率联盟研讨会。

In 2016, the U.S. Government Accountability Office issued a report that called on Federal agencies to assess other countries’ or regions’ approaches to mitigating risks to critical mineral supply chains and to identify useful examples and approaches. Several Federal agencies have pursued opportunities to learn from other nations’ strategies and experiences with critical mineral supply chains. For example, the USGS’s effort to collect new geophysical, geological, and topographical data is modeled on Canadian and Australian investments in similar geoscience datasets. In July 2018, the geological survey authorities began discussing ways to learn from one another as well as leverage their respective minerals research investments. Similarly, EPA’s Sustainable Materials Management program has hosted multiple meetings in the past several years that engaged stakeholders from the entire supply chain in conversations addressing the full life cycle of products and materials, including a G7 Alliance on Resource Efficiency workshop in March 2016.

贸易和投资限制以及外国通过各种形式的非法或不公平竞争扭曲市场的行为,可能对美国获得国外关键矿产资源和在美国生产这些矿产的工业的生存能力产生不利影响。美国的贸易法律和相关的国际协议为纠正这种行为提供了工具,解决这种行为对美国工业的不利影响,并确保美国的国家安全利益不会受到依赖进口的威胁。

U.S. access to critical mineral resources abroad and the viability of industries producing these minerals in the United States can be negatively impacted by trade and investment restrictions, and by foreign conduct that distorts markets through various forms of unlawful or otherwise unfair competition. U.S. trade laws and relevant international agreements provide tools to remedy such conduct, address the adverse impacts of such conduct on U.S. industries, and ensure U.S. national security interests are not threatened by import reliance.

目标:增加与伙伴国家的国际交流,以分享最佳做法并确定贸易和协作机会

Goal: Increase international exchanges with partner nations to share best practices and identify opportunities for trade and collaboration

就处理关键矿物问题的最佳做法进行国际信息交流,将提高美国确保获得这些矿物的能力,并减少关键矿物市场风险。联邦政府应组织由美国政府官员和私营部门代表组成的代表团访问伙伴国家,研究它们如何处理关键的矿物问题。与伙伴国家达成的政府间协定是确保持续获得关键矿物的重要机制。

International exchanges of information on best practices for addressing critical mineral issues would improve the ability of the United States to secure access to these minerals and reduce critical mineral market risks. The Federal Government should organize delegations composed of U.S. Government officials and private sector representatives to visit partner countries to study how they have addressed critical mineral issues. Intergovernmental agreements with partner nations are important mechanisms for ensuring continued access to critical minerals.

为实现这一目标,建议采取以下行动:

To achieve this goal, the following actions are recommended:

继续并扩大与感兴趣的合作伙伴的合作和协作,特别是加拿大、澳大利亚、欧盟、日本和韩国,涉及:(1)关键矿产资源的识别和勘探;(2)关键选矿工程和回收;(3)减轻供应风险和防止供应链中断;(4)关键矿产材料和制造业的研发;(5)追踪和共享外国投资和矿产权、产权和开发收购的信息。国际贸易管理局;美国国防部,能源部,海洋能源管理局(BOEM) ,美国地质勘探局;和 DOS;正在进行中)

Continue and expand cooperation and collaboration with interested partners – particularly Canada, Australia, the European Union, Japan, and South Korea – related to: (1) critical mineral resource identification and exploration, (2) critical mineral processing and recycling, (3) mitigating supply risk and preventing supply chain disruptions, (4) R&D related to critical mineral materials and manufacturing, and (5) tracking and sharing information on foreign investment and acquisitions of mineral rights, property, and development. (DOC [International Trade Administration (ITA)]; DOD, DOE, DOI [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), USGS], and DOS; ongoing)

通过与生产者、买方和投资者部长级论坛协商,确定伙伴国家关键矿物供需的准确估计数。(国防部,DOS,和 DOI [ BOEM,USGS ] ;5年)

Establish accurate estimates of supply and demand of critical minerals in partner countries through consultations in conjunction with Ministerial-level forums for producers, buyers and investors. (DOD, DOS, and DOI [BOEM, USGS]; 5 years)

通过评估其他国家处理私营企业供应链问题的方法(例如,加拿大矿业劳工报告) ,完成一份最佳实践报告。国防部,国土安全部,医生? [ BIS ] ,DOE,DOI,DOL 和 NSF;2年)

Complete a best practice report by evaluating other countries' approaches to private industry supply chain issues (e.g., Canadian Mining Labor Reports). (DOD, DHS, DOC?[BIS], DOE, DOI, DOL, and NSF; 2 years)

目标:通过与国际伙伴的贸易和投资,确保获得关键矿物,同时确保外贸做法不损害美国工业和更广泛的国家利益

Goal: Secure access to critical minerals through trade and investment with international partners, while ensuring that foreign trade practices do not harm U.S. industries and broader national interests

从盟国和伙伴国家采购进口关键矿物有助于确保持续获取,减少对不确定来源的依赖。促进与盟国和伙伴国家的国际贸易也可以导致联系,增加对国内矿山、选矿工程设施和工厂的投资。与此同时,美国的贸易法和国际协议不仅提供了解决阻碍美国获得必要海外矿产资源的限制的工具,而且还提供了扭曲市场的外国经济行为,这种行为使美国的关键矿产工业处于不利地位。

Sourcing imported critical minerals from allies and partner countries helps ensure continued access and reduces reliance on uncertain sources. Facilitating international trade with allies and partner countries could also lead to linkages that increase investment in domestic mines, mineral processing facilities, and factories. At the same time, U.S. trade laws and international agreements provide tools to address not only restrictions that impede U.S. access to necessary mineral resources abroad, but also market-distorting foreign economic conduct that place critical mineral industries in the United States at a disadvantage.

探索利用现有和未来的 sosa、 RDP 协议和国家技术和工业基地协作的机会,以减少美国对关键矿物材料及其下游供应链潜在供应中断的脆弱性。(国防部;正在进行)

Explore opportunities to utilize existing and future SOSAs, RDP agreements, and National Technology and Industrial Base collaborations to reduce U.S. vulnerability to potential supply disruptions of critical mineral materials and their downstream supply chains. (DOD; ongoing)

监测外国对重要的矿物相关贸易和投资设置的障碍,并设法在出现这些障碍时消除这些障碍。(DOC [ ITA ] ,美国贸易代表(USTR)和国防部;正在进行)

Monitor foreign countries’ barriers to critical mineral-related trade and investment?and seek to remove such barriers when they arise. (DOC [ITA], United States Trade Representative (USTR), and DOD; ongoing)

在适用的情况下,利用国际贸易协定对外国的非法或不公平贸易行为提出质疑。(USTR 和 DOC [ ITA ] ;正在进行)

Use international trade agreements to challenge unlawful or otherwise unfair trading practices of foreign countries, where applicable. (USTR and DOC [ITA]; ongoing)

考虑美国依赖进口高风险材料的情况是否值得调查,以确定对美国国家安全的影响。(DOC [ BIS ]和 DOD;正在进行中)

Consider whether the circumstances of U.S. reliance on imports of high risk materials merit investigations to determine the effect on U.S. national security. (DOC [BIS] and DOD; ongoing)

行动呼吁4:提高对国内关键矿产资源的认识

Call to Action 4: Improve Understanding of Domestic Critical Mineral Resources

加强美国查明和使用国内关键矿物资源的能力需要先进的地球观测数据产品;有力的矿物信息收集和分析;公布关键矿物供应和消费数据;以及关键矿物资源评估。所有开发的数据产品都应以易于发现、可访问和可用的电子格式向公众开放。

Enhancing the United States’ ability to identify and use domestic critical mineral resources requires advanced earth observation data products; robust mineral information collection and analysis; publication of critical mineral supply and consumption data; and critical mineral resource assessments. All data products that are developed should be made publicly available in a readily discoverable, accessible, and usable electronic format.

________________________________________________________________________

确定关键矿物的新来源需要有重点的、持续的努力来评估常规、次级和非常规资源的国内潜力。缺乏矿物资源评估和私营部门勘探所需的地球物理、地质、地形和深海测绘是一个关键的信息差距,必须加以弥补,以促进国内发展。美国地质调查局的数据显示,只有不到18% 的美国陆地在必要的尺度上绘制了地质图,只有不到5% 的美国地区拥有所需分辨率的航空磁数据集来进行可靠的矿产资源评估。同样,只有不到35% 的国家专属经济区用现代方法绘制了地下水深图,甚至更少的国家用足够的分辨率绘制了地质图或特征图,以便于进行矿物评估。

Identifying new sources of critical minerals requires a focused, ongoing effort to evaluate the domestic potential of conventional, secondary, and unconventional resources. The lack of geophysical, geological, topographical, and bathymetrical mapping at the scale required for mineral resource assessments and private sector exploration is a critical information gap that must be closed to facilitate domestic development. USGS data has shown that less than 18 percent of the U.S. land mass has been geologically mapped at the necessary scale, and less than five percent of the Nation has regional aeromagnetic datasets at the required resolution to perform robust mineral resource assessments. Similarly, less than 35 percent of the Nation’s Exclusive Economic Zone has been bathymetrically mapped with modern methods, and even less has been geologically mapped or characterized with enough resolution to facilitate mineral assessments.

相比之下,澳大利亚和加拿大这两个与美国具有类似健康、安全和环境问题的主要采矿经济体的国家,已经开展了地质和地球物理调查,并将这些调查提供给私营部门。澳大利亚和加拿大提供了这些国家数据,为私营部门投资于矿产勘探和开发创造了更有利的环境。在美国,改进测绘和地球物理调查将有助于改进关键矿产资源评估和资源开发,从而减轻战略脆弱性。

In contrast, both Australia and Canada, countries with major mining economies with similar health, safety, and environmental concerns as the United States, have developed geological and geophysical surveys and made these available to the private sector. The availability of these national data in Australia and Canada has created a more favorable environment for private sector investment in mineral exploration and development. In the United States, improved mapping and geophysical surveys would facilitate improved critical mineral resource assessments and resource development, which would mitigate strategic vulnerabilities.

联邦机构应该提高现有和未来数据的可发现性、可访问性和可用性。美国地质勘探局正在通过建立一个门户网站来提高有用数据集的可发现性,该门户网站包含广泛的与矿物有关的信息和数据,包括地质、地球化学和地球物理数据库、矿物评估、矿床模型等。

Federal agencies should improve the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of existing and future data. USGS is improving the discoverability of useful datasets by hosting a portal that contains a wide spectrum of minerals-related information and data including geological, geochemical, and geophysical databases; mineral assessments; ore deposit models; and more.

数据的可获得性是一个挑战,因为并非所有现有的有用数据都是电子形式的。一些矿物数据仍以书面形式或其他难以获取的格式存在;其他数据集没有得到维护或更新。在少数情况下,数据抢救程序保留现有的纸质记录,并通过将其转换为数字格式来增加其可访问性。其他举措寻求将图像等不同形式的信息转化为与现有数据集和模型兼容的参数。例如,美国地质勘探局已经制定了国家地质和地球物理数据保存计划。这些方案和倡议有助于解释地质图和关键矿物事件的地球物理数据集。为了最大限度地提高数据的可发现性、可访问性和可用性,联邦数据提供者应该使用一个通用框架或一组标准来支持数据开发。

Data accessibility is a challenge because not all existing useful data are in electronic form. Some mineral data remain on paper or in other difficult-to-access formats; other datasets are not being maintained or updated. In a few cases, data rescue programs preserve existing paper records and increase their accessibility by converting them to digital formats. Other initiatives seek to translate different forms of information, such as images, into parameters compatible with existing datasets and models. USGS, for example, has developed the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program. These programs and initiatives aid the interpretation of geological maps and geophysical datasets for critical mineral occurrences. In order to maximize data discoverability, accessibility, and usability, Federal data providers should use a common framework or set of standards to support data development.

对于近海环境,BOEM 和 NOAA 开发了海洋地籍,这是一个综合的海洋信息系统,为近海能源和海洋规划提供数据、工具和技术支持。正如第13840号行政命令《促进美国经济、安全和环境利益的海洋政策》中所讨论的那样,海洋地籍将增加近海采矿和测绘数据的获取,这可以支持私营部门的投资。

For the offshore environment, BOEM and NOAA developed the Marine Cadastre, which is an integrated marine information system that provides data, tools, and technical support for offshore energy and marine planning. As discussed in Executive Order 13840, Ocean Policy to Advance the Economic, Security, and Environmental Interests of the United States, the Marine Cadastre will increase access to offshore mining and mapping data, which can support private sector investment.

除了联邦数据集,还可以通过支持研发和矿产评估的公私伙伴关系利用大量商业数据。然而,任何这种伙伴关系都需要在数据访问和保护专有信息之间取得平衡。

In addition to Federal datasets, a wealth of commercial data could be leveraged through public-private partnerships that support R&D and mineral assessments. However, any such partnership would need to balance access to the data with protection of proprietary information.

目标:利用关键矿物供应和消费数据制定指标,以便针对具体商品制定缓解战略,解决战略脆弱性问题

Goal: Use critical mineral supply and consumption data to develop metrics to enable commodity-specific mitigation strategies addressing strategic vulnerabilities

Doi 与 CMS 合作,使用文档化的方法编制了关键矿物清单。该列表作为本战略文件的初始重点。矿物临界状态不是静态的,而是随时间而变化的。因此,关键矿物清单应定期更新,采用透明、有记录的方法,考虑到供应、需求、生产集中度和当前政策优先事项的变化。

DOI, in collaboration with the CMS, developed the critical minerals list using a documented methodology. The list served as the initial focus for this Strategy document. Mineral criticality is not static, but changes over time. Accordingly, the critical minerals list should be updated periodically using a transparent, documented methodology that considers changes to supply, demand, concentration of production, and current policy priorities.

列入清单的矿物的战略脆弱性应以不同的方式加以缓解,例如:发展国内采矿业,与可靠的盟友和伙伴进行贸易,替代、回收,或第13817号行政命令所确定的这些方式的某种组合。美国应在逐种商品的基础上评估可能的缓解战略,以解决每个材料供应链的独特特点。然而,美国需要更全面的数据,以有效评估个别矿物商品整个材料供应链的脆弱性。

Strategic vulnerabilities for minerals on the list should be mitigated in different ways, such as: development of domestic mining, trade with reliable allies and partners, substitution, recycling, or some combination of these, as identified in Executive Order 13817. The United States should evaluate potential mitigation strategies on a commodity-by-commodity basis to address the unique characteristics of each material supply chain. However, the United States requires more comprehensive data to effectively evaluate vulnerabilities over the entire material supply chain for individual mineral commodities.

美国地质勘探局和美国商务部经济分析局(BEA)已经合作评估开发自然资本账户的可行性,以追踪国家的自然资源财富。然而,由于数据的限制,开发这些账户的范围是狭窄的。作为一项试点工作,使用了美国地质调查局关于铜的矿物资源和工业活动数据,目的是将这种方法扩大到适用于其他矿物商品。这种跨部门合作,包括加拿大和澳大利亚已经使用这种技术的主题专家的支持,已经得到了 NSF 的支持,但是这种努力可以通过更好的数据得到扩展。

USGS and the DOC’s Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) have collaborated to evaluate the feasibility of developing natural capital accounts that could track the Nation’s natural resource wealth. However, due to data limitations, the scope for developing these accounts is narrow. As a pilot effort, USGS mineral resource and industrial activity data on copper was used, with the intent that the approach could be expanded to apply to additional mineral commodities. This interagency collaboration, which includes support from Canadian and Australian subject matter experts who already use this technique, has received support from the NSF, but efforts could be expanded with better data.

为实现这一目标,建议采取以下行动:

To achieve this goal, the following actions are recommended:

根据矿产供应、需求、生产集中度和当前政策重点的变化,定期更新关键矿产清单。这份清单应每两年审查一次,并在必要时予以更新。关键矿物清单的更新将告知各机构在本战略中正在开展的其余工作。(DOI [ USGS ] ,CMS,DOD 和 DOE;2-4年)

Periodically update the list of critical minerals based on changes to mineral supply, demand, concentration of production, and current policy priorities. This list should be reviewed every two years and updated when necessary. Updates to the critical minerals list will inform the rest of the work being performed by agencies in this Strategy. (DOI [USGS], CMS, DOD, and DOE; 2-4 years)

对关键矿物清单上的矿物进行分类并确定优先次序,以实施针对初级商品的缓解战略。(DOI [ USGS ] ,CMS,DOD 和 DOE;2年)

Categorize and prioritize minerals on the critical minerals list to enable commodity-specific mitigation strategies. (DOI [USGS], CMS, DOD, and DOE; 2 years)

开展试点工作,跟踪国家关键矿产财富和关键矿产相关经济活动投资的指标。(DOI [ USGS ]和 DOC [ BEA ] ;2-4年)

Develop a pilot effort to track indicators of the Nation's critical mineral wealth and investments in critical mineral-related economic activity. (DOI [USGS] and DOC [BEA]; 2-4 years)

目标:进行关键矿物资源评估,确定鼓励使用关键矿物的次级和非常规来源的方法

Goal: Conduct critical mineral resource assessments and identify methods to encourage the use of secondary and unconventional sources of critical minerals

区域、国家和全球范围的矿产资源评估对于在全球范围内了解国家的重要矿产储量至关重要。这些评估将有助于了解作为初级或副产品的一种或多种关键矿物的矿床类型的地质状况、空间分布和特点。

Mineral resource assessments at regional, national, and global scales are essential to understanding the Nation's critical mineral endowment in a global context. These assessments would contribute to the understanding of the geologic occurrences, spatial distribution, and characteristics of mineral deposit types that are prospective for hosting one or more critical minerals, either as primary or byproduct commodities.

在进行关键矿物资源评估时,必须注意到,有些矿物在地质学上与初级产品相结合,只能作为副产品生产。例如,作为铝土矿和锌矿加工的副产品,镓是一种关键矿物,在国内许多高科技、军事和民用领域都有应用。副产品矿物生产在很大程度上依赖于主要资源的利润,因为副产品矿物的产量通常很低,与正在开采的主要资源相比,经济价值很低。

When performing critical mineral resource assessments, it is important to note that some minerals are geologically coupled with primary products and can only be produced as byproducts. Gallium, for example, a critical mineral that is utilized in many domestic high technology military and civilian applications, is produced commercially as a byproduct of bauxite and zinc ore processing. Byproduct mineral production is heavily dependent on the profitability of the main resource, as byproduct minerals are typically produced in low volumes and have low economic value when compared to the main resource being mined.

在确定优先次序的基础上,每两年至少进行一次关于潜在矿床类型的国家或区域国内多种商品关键矿物资源评估。(DOI [ BOEM,USGS ] ;正在进行)

Based on prioritization, deliver at least one national or regional domestic multi- commodity critical mineral resource assessment every two years on prospective deposit types. (DOI [BOEM, USGS]; ongoing)

制定关键矿产资源评估方法;从次级和非常规来源确定和绘制关键矿产潜力图;定期向矿产管理系统提供最新情况。(DOI [ USGS ] ,DOE,EPA,DOS 与私营部门合作伙伴合作;正在进行)

Develop critical mineral resource assessment methods; characterize and map the critical mineral potential from secondary and unconventional sources; and provide a periodic status update to the CMS. (DOI [USGS], DOE, EPA, DOS in collaboration with private sector partners; ongoing)

确定重要矿物的潜在重要次级和非常规来源,以及改进国内回收能力所需的技术发展。定期向 CMS 提供状态更新。(美国能源部,国防部,DOI [ USGS ]和 EPA;正在进行)

Identify potential significant secondary and unconventional sources of critical minerals, as well as the technological developments needed to improve domestic recovery capability. Provide a periodic status update to the CMS. (DOE, DOD, DOI [USGS], and EPA; ongoing)

建议联邦机构采取适当措施,采购使用次级和非常规关键矿物来源的产品。(国防部和环保局;2-4? 年)

Recommend appropriate measures for Federal agencies to procure products that use secondary and unconventional sources of critical minerals. (DOD and EPA; 2-4?years)

目标:改进美国及其相关沿海和海洋领土的地球物理、地质、地形和深海测绘

Goal: Improve the geophysical, geological, topographical, and bathymetrical mapping of the United States and associated coastal and ocean territory

了解国家的关键矿产资源需要准确和详细的地图。地球物理学、地质学和地形图可以揭示关键矿物的可能矿床。一些测绘技术,如航磁测量,可以帮助用户推断地下资源的存在。除了陆地测绘外,还需要对美国的海洋和沿海领土进行精确和详细的测绘,以了解矿产潜力。

Understanding the Nation’s critical minerals resources requires accurate and detailed maps. Geophysical, geological, and topographical maps can reveal possible deposits of critical minerals. Some mapping techniques, such as aeromagnetic surveys, can help users infer the presence of subsurface resources. In addition to terrestrial mapping, accurate and detailed mapping of the United States’ ocean and coastal territory is needed to understand mineral potential.

确定陆地和海洋区域具有重大关键矿物资源潜力的优先区域。(DOC [ NOAA ]和 DOI [ BOEM,USGS ] ;1-2年)

Identify priority regions with significant critical mineral resource potential on land and in ocean regions. (DOC [NOAA] and DOI [BOEM, USGS]; 1-2 years)

开展区域范围研究,根据现有数据集、关键矿物的预期密度、矿物的关键程度、供应链安全、矿物需求以及对科学研究的影响,确定关键矿物测绘项目并对其进行优先排序。(DOC [ NOAA ]和 DOI [ BOEM,USGS ] ;1-2年)

Develop regional scoping studies to identify and prioritize critical mineral mapping projects based on existing datasets, the expected density of critical minerals, a mineral’s level of criticality, supply chain security, mineral demand, and impacts on scientific research. (DOC [NOAA] and DOI [BOEM, USGS]; 1-2 years)

制定和使用多机构协议,评估美国专属经济区的海洋矿物资源潜力。(美国国家海洋和大气管理局,能源部[水力发电和技术办公室]和 DOI [美国地质勘探局] ;2-4年)

Develop and use a multi-agency protocol to assess ocean mineral resource potential in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. (DOC [NOAA], DOE [Water Power and Technology Office] and DOI [BOEM, USGS]; 2-4 years)

目标:提高地球物理、地质、地形和深海数据的可发现性、可访问性和可用性

Goal: Improve the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of geophysical, geological, topographical, and bathymetrical data

许多由联邦、州、部落、地方政府和私营公司生成的地图数据集包含与关键矿产有关的信息。由于相关数据集的数量和异构性,提高这些数据的可发现性、可访问性和可用性具有挑战性,这些数据集由各种联邦机构以及不同的用户群组管理。

Many mapping datasets generated by Federal, State, Tribal, local governments, and private companies contain information pertinent to critical minerals. Improving the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of these data is challenging due to the volume and heterogeneity of relevant datasets, which are managed by a variety of Federal agencies, as well as a diverse set of user groups.

继续开展数据抢救程序,将纸张和难以获取的数据转换为更有用的形式,更加注重关键矿物的记录。定期向 CMS 提供状态更新。(DOC [ NOAA ]和 DOI [ BOEM,USGS ] ;正在进行)

Continue data rescue programs to convert paper and difficult-to-access data to more usable forms, with an increased focus on records pertaining to critical minerals. Provide a periodic status update to the CMS. (DOC [NOAA] and DOI [BOEM, USGS]; ongoing)

通过新的或现有的联邦数据档案和传播门户,以易于使用的电子格式公开提供联邦政府机构生成的地球物理、地质、地球化学、地形和深海测量数据。(DOC [ NOAA ]和 DOI [ BOEM,USGS ] ;2-4年)

Make geophysical, geological, geochemical, topographical, and bathymetrical survey data generated by Federal Government agencies publicly available and easily accessible in an easy-to-use electronic format through new or existing Federal data archives and dissemination portals. (DOC [NOAA] and DOI [BOEM, USGS]; 2-4 years)

通过使用支持数据开发和传播的通用框架或标准集,提高数据的可发现性、可访问性和可用性。为实现这一目标,可采用地球观测数据共同框架等现有框架的最佳做法。(DOI,DOC [ NOAA ]和 DOE;2-4年)

Improve data discoverability, accessibility, and usability by using a common framework or set of standards to support data development and dissemination. Best practices from existing frameworks such as the Common Framework for Earth Observation Data could be adopted to achieve this goal. (DOI, DOC [NOAA], and DOE; 2-4 years)

通过建立公私伙伴关系,增加政府获取专有地图数据集的机会。定期向 CMS 提供状态更新。(DOI [ BOEM,USGS ] ,DOC [ NOAA ] ,DOD,DOE,和联邦地理数据委员会;正在进行)

Increase government access to proprietary mapping datasets by building public-private partnerships. Provide a periodic status update to the CMS. (DOI [BOEM, USGS], DOC [NOAA], DOD, DOE, and the Federal Geographic Data Committee]; ongoing)

行动呼吁5:改善获得联邦土地上国内关键矿产资源的机会,缩短联邦许可的时间框架

Call to Action 5: Improve Access to Domestic Critical Mineral Resources on Federal Lands and Reduce Federal Permitting Timeframes

关键矿产对维护美国的经济和国家安全至关重要。因此,改善获得这些资源的机会极为重要。准入包括为勘探和开发提供矿物的所有方面:开采矿物或矿物的基础设施、土地使用政策(包括指定)、允许改革以及长期开发和维持准入所需的经济支助。

Critical minerals are vital for maintaining U.S. economic and national security. Accordingly, improving access to these resources is extremely important. Access includes all aspects of making minerals available for exploration and development: infrastructure to reach the mineral or mine, land-use policies (including designations), permitting reform, and economic support required to develop and maintain access over the long-term.

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美国拥有丰富的矿藏。具体而言,2017年,美国矿业生产的原材料估计为752亿美元,创造的增值产品估计为2.9万亿美元。不幸的是,联邦政府的许可和土地管理政策限制了国内关键矿物的获取和开发,从而加剧了对外国矿物来源的依赖。

The United States is endowed with rich mineral deposits. Specifically, U.S. mines produced an estimated $75.2 billion of raw mineral materials and created an estimated $2.9 trillion in value-added products in 2017. Unfortunately, Federal permitting and land management policies have inhibited access to and the development of domestic critical minerals, which has contributed to increased reliance on foreign sources of minerals.

每个采矿项目都是独一无二的,可能需要不同类型的许可证,这取决于其地质背景、气候条件和接近基础设施的程度。在复杂的地方、州、联邦和部落法规之间穿行是一个挑战,在这种监管环境中穿行的困难通常会导致许可时间的延长。

Each mining project is unique and may require different types of permits depending on its geologic setting, climatic conditions, and proximity to infrastructure. Navigating the complex labyrinth of local, State, Federal, and Tribal regulations for each mine is challenging, and difficulties in navigating this regulatory landscape may often lead to lengthy permitting timelines.

私有、联邦、州或部落土地的混合所有权模式可能使矿产开发进一步复杂化。具体而言,许多发现经济矿藏的土地可能包括专利采矿权(私人)、非专利采矿权(联邦土地)、有偿土地(私人)、州土地或部落 / 阿拉斯加土著公司土地的组合。除了大量的土地使用许可外,许可程序的复杂性还来自于一个复杂的制度,即从适用的矿业法律中取消法律和行政规定,其中包括:军事遗址、荒野地区、国家公园、国家纪念碑、保护区和野生动物避难所。这些提取可能会阻止或限制对矿产丰富的土地的开采。

Mineral development can be further complicated by mixed ownership patterns that include private, Federal, State, or Tribal lands. Specifically, many lands on which economic mineral deposits are discovered may include a combination of patented mining claims (private), unpatented mining claims (Federal lands), fee lands (private), State lands, or Tribal/Alaska Native Corporation lands. In addition to the myriad of land-use designations, complications in the permitting process also arise from a complex system of statutory and administrative withdrawals from applicable mining laws including: military sites, wilderness areas, national parks, national monuments, preserves, and wildlife refuges. These withdrawals may prevent or limit mining of mineral-rich lands.

虽然监管要求可能拖延许可证的发放,但采矿许可证申请往往缺乏足够的质量或监管机构就申请作出决定所需的关键信息。采矿申请中的信息不足会严重延误许可程序,因为它可能需要多次重复申请,直到申请的质量达到允许许可机构作出决定的水平。允许的决定然后受到各种形式的上诉,抗议和诉讼在州和联邦法院。所有这些因素都会显著地延迟矿山的发展和允许矿山的进程。因此,改进许可程序是必要的,以增加获得我国的关键矿物供应。

While regulatory requirements can delay the issuance of permits, mining permit applications often lack sufficient quality or key information needed for regulators to make a decision on an application. Insufficient information in the mining application can significantly delay the permitting process as it may require multiple application iterations until the application is of sufficient quality to allow the permitting agencies to make a decision. Permitting decisions are then subject to various forms of appeal, protest, and litigation in State and Federal courts. All of these factors can significantly delay mine development and the mine permitting process. Accordingly, improvements to the permitting process is necessary in order to enhance access to our Nation’s supply of critical minerals.

目标:修改土地管理局和美国林务局的土地利用规划过程,以识别和保护矿产资源的使用权

Goal: Revise the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) and U.S. Forest Service’s (USFS) land-use planning process to identify and protect access to mineral resources

土地管理局的资源管理计划和美国森林论坛的森林计划为多用途资源管理提供了一个方案框架,并描述了可能授权在土地上开展的酌处活动。联邦土地管理人员不必在土地使用计划开始或修订之前着手进行矿产资源清单或评估。矿产评估一般需要两到三年的时间才能完成,而土地利用规划矿产局的文件则涵盖了这一领域。为了确保有可能进行矿产开发的地区不受特殊土地用途指定的限制,矿产清单和评估应在土地利用规划开始之前完成。

BLM’s resource management plans and the USFS’s forest plans provide a programmatic framework for multiple use resource management and describe discretionary activities that may be authorized on lands. Federal land managers are not required to initiate a mineral resource inventory or assessment prior to the start of a land-use plan or revision. Mineral assessments for an area covered by a land-use planning document generally take two to three years to complete. In order to ensure that areas prospective for mineral development are not encumbered by a special land-use designation, the mineral inventory and assessment should be completed prior to initiation of the land-use planning process.

加强 BLM 和 USFS 与美国地质勘探局、州和部落机构以及采矿业之间的协调,可以帮助土地管理机构在启动土地利用规划之前识别矿物的存在,这将有助于减少长时间的许可时间。对于根据《矿产租赁法》可能出租的矿产,这种协调可以通过要求提供信息或征求意向书来完成,以评估土地利用规划地区是否存在可出租的宝贵矿产。

Increased coordination between BLM and USFS with the USGS, State and Tribal agencies, and the mining industry can help land management agencies identify the presence of minerals prior to initiating the land-use planning process, which would help reduce lengthy permitting times. For minerals that may be leased under the Mineral Leasing Act, this coordination could be accomplished through requests for information or solicitations of expression of interest to evaluate for the presence of valuable leasable minerals within the land-use planning area.

为实现这一目标,建议采取以下行动:

To achieve this goal, the following actions are recommended:

在修订或制定新的土地使用计划之前或期间,修订土地利用规划进程,要求对包括关键矿物在内的矿物进行资源清单和评估。这样的评估应该在公众投入的情况下进行,而且任何用于通知土地利用规划过程的数据都应该公开提供。2年)

Revise land-use planning processes to require a resource inventory and assessment of minerals, including critical minerals, prior to or during the revision or creation of new land-use plans. Such an assessment should be developed with public input and any data used to inform the land-use planning process should be provided publically. (DOI [BLM]; 2 years)

修改土地利用规划的程序,要求地表管理机构根据土地是否对矿产开发有前瞻性的价值来指定和分类土地。这种分类应考虑到矿物资源矿床的勘探和发现的可能性或有利性,并具体讨论开发关键矿物的潜力。(DOI [ BLM ] ;1)

Revise land-use planning processes to require that Surface Management Agencies (SMAs) designate and classify lands based on whether they are prospectively valuable for mineral development. This classification should consider the potential for the presence of or favorability for exploration and discovery of deposits of mineral resources and specifically discuss the potential for the development of critical minerals. (DOI [BLM]; 1 year)

修订政策,确保对勘探或开发矿产资源具有前瞻性价值的联邦土地得到适当考虑,然后才能建议撤回这些土地,或以限制开发这些资源的土地使用指定作为抵押。(DOI [ BLM ]和 USDA [ USFS ] ;1年)

Revise policies to ensure Federal lands identified as prospectively valuable for exploration or development of mineral resources are properly considered before they can be recommended for withdrawal or encumbered with a land-use designation that would restrict the development of these resources. (DOI [BLM] and USDA [USFS]; 1 year)

目标:彻底审查从适用的采矿法和联邦矿产区限制矿物勘探和开发的地区中提取的资金

Goal: Complete a thorough review of withdrawals from applicable mining laws and areas restricted from mineral exploration and development on the Federal mineral estate

由于现有的提取、保留和其他土地使用限制,许多矿产资源无法获取。撤退和保留可以达到各种有用的目的,包括指定荒野、国家公园、军事保留地和重大环境问题地区。土地管理局和美国矿产局应与美国地质调查局、州和部落机构、采矿业和其他有关各方协调,根据《矿产租赁法》要求提供信息或征求意向书,以评估撤出或限制出现矿产的地区。

Many mineral resources cannot be accessed due to existing withdrawals, reservations, and other land-use restrictions. Withdrawals and reservations can serve a variety of useful purposes, including designation for wilderness, national parks, military reservations, and areas of critical environmental concern. BLM and the USFS should coordinate with the USGS, State and Tribal agencies, the mining industry, and other interested parties through requests for information or solicitations of expression of interest under the Mineral Leasing Act to evaluate withdrawn or restricted areas for the presence of minerals.

审查现有提款、土地使用指定和规划分配,并提出适当措施建议,以减少它们可能对矿产勘探、开发和其他活动产生的不必要影响。所进行的任何分析都应量化和限定下列行为对经济和国家安全的影响:缩小现有撤离的规模,缩小受土地使用指定影响的面积,改变规划拨款,或撤销现有撤离。在决定审查现有提取、限制或分配的顺序时,土地管理机构应优先考虑最有可能发现关键矿物的地区。(DOI [ BLM ]和 USDA [ USFS ] ;2年)

Review existing withdrawals, land-use designations, and planning allocations and recommend appropriate measures to reduce unnecessary impacts that they may have on mineral exploration, development, and other activities. Any analysis performed should quantify and qualify the economic and national security implications of: reducing the size of an existing withdrawal, reducing the area affected by a land-use designation, changing planning allocations, or revoking an existing withdrawal. When deciding the order in which to review existing withdrawals, restrictions, or allocations, land management agencies should prioritize consideration of areas with the greatest potential for discovery of critical minerals. (DOI [BLM] and USDA [USFS]; 2 years)

目标:审查联邦土地上的旅行管理计划和现有基础设施能力,以便对矿物勘探和开发产生影响

Goal: Review travel management plans and existing infrastructure capabilities on Federal lands for impacts to mineral exploration and development

可以通过法律保证采矿权持有人能够合理地跨越联邦土地进入他们的采矿权。然而,现行政策没有明确界定"准入"一词,这导致在执行旅行管理计划方面出现问题。旅行管理计划确定哪些道路或小径对机动车辆开放,哪些非公路车辆开放,并确定哪些地区可能完全关闭,禁止机动车辆使用。但是,这些计划没有充分考虑到获得土地进行矿物开发的重要性。因此,SMA 的差旅管理计划应该建立或修改,以优先考虑矿产勘探的进入。此外,应维持或改进现有的基础设施,以便能够获得矿物资源。维护基础设施可能是 SMA 或私营部门的责任,取决于基础设施的目的。

Mining claim holders may be guaranteed reasonable access across Federal lands to their mining claims by law. However, the term “access” is not clearly defined under existing policies and this leads to problems with the implementation of travel management plans. Travel management plans identify which roads or trails are open to motorized vehicles, off highway vehicles, and identifies areas that may be closed altogether and blocked from motorized use. However, these plans do not adequately account for the importance of access to lands for mineral development. Accordingly, SMA’s travel management plans should be created or amended to prioritize access for mineral exploration. Further, existing infrastructure should be maintained or improved to allow access to mineral resources. Maintaining infrastructure may be the responsibility of the SMA or the private sector and depends on the purpose of the infrastructure.

管理当局应制定或修订旅行管理计划,以便利在可行范围内进行矿物勘探和开发。土地管理机构在决定修改或制定新的旅行管理计划的顺序时,应优先考虑具有最大关键矿产潜力的地区。(DOI [ BLM ]和 USDA [ USFS ] ;1-2年)

SMAs should create or amend travel management plans to facilitate access for exploration and development of minerals to the extent practicable. When deciding the order in which to amend or create new travel management plans, land management agencies should prioritize consideration of areas that contain the greatest critical mineral potential. (DOI [BLM] and USDA [USFS]; 1-2 years)

目标:采用矿产资源开发模式,跟踪许可要求和时间表

Goal: Adopt a model of mineral resource development to track permitting requirements and timelines

目前,联邦和州监管机构、行业、非政府组织以及美国政府责任署之间还没有就审查、处理和签发探矿、勘探和开发矿区或矿区许可证所花费的时间的统一定义达成一致。因此,土地使用管理和许可机构没有合适的工具来分析许可程序的绩效。

Currently, there is no agreement between Federal and State regulatory agencies, industry, non-governmental organizations, and the Government Accountability Office on a uniform definition for time spent reviewing, processing, and issuing permits for prospecting, exploring, and developing a mine or mine site. Accordingly, land-use management and permitting agencies do not have suitable tools to analyze the performance of permitting processes.

开发一个可公开访问的在线系统,跟踪采矿项目的里程碑,包括州和联邦机构审查、处理和颁发许可证所需的时间。(DOI [ BLM ]和 USDA [ USFS ] ;1-2年)

Develop a publicly accessible online system to track milestones for mining projects, including the time it takes State and Federal agencies to review, process and issue permits. (DOI [BLM] and USDA [USFS]; 1-2 years)

目标:评估《国家环境政策法》(NEPA)和其他法规,及时处理矿产项目的许可申请

Goal: Evaluate the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and other regulations to provide timely processing of permit applications for mineral projects

高级矿物勘探、开发、采矿和复垦的环境评审通常耗费时间,可能会延误项目开发。《国家环境政策法》(NEPA)和其他法规应该得到审查,以加快环境审查,同时不损害环境标准,确保矿产项目开发商及时收到对其申请的回复。《基本法》第3355号秘书令和《国家环境政策法》程序的修订应作为改进许可程序的出发点。然而,重要的是要注意,任何拟议的监管修订应继续提供对联邦土地的保护,同时去除繁琐、多余和不必要的限制。

Environmental reviews for advanced mineral exploration, development, mining and reclamation is often time consuming and can delay project development. SMAs should examine their NEPA processes and other regulations to expedite environmental reviews—without compromising environmental standards—to ensure developers of mineral projects receive a timely response to their applications. BLM Secretarial Order 3355 and Revisions to NEPA Procedures should be used as a starting point to improve the permitting process. However, it is important to note that any proposed regulatory revisions should continue to provide protection of Federal lands, while removing cumbersome, redundant, and unnecessary restrictions.

更新机构的《国家环境政策法》程序,以简化《国家环境政策法》的分析,重点是及时处理采矿业务计划。(国防部[美国陆军工兵(印度)委员会(USACE)] ,DOI [ BLM ] ,美国农业部[ USFS ] ;2-4年)

Update agency NEPA processes to streamline NEPA analysis with an emphasis on providing timely processing of mining Plans of Operations. (DOD [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)], DOI [BLM], and USDA [USFS]; 2-4 years)

评价现有的《国家环境政策法》明确的排除规定,并在必要时提出建议,为授权矿物勘探和开发活动制定新的明确排除规定,这些活动可以证明是例行的,不会造成重大的环境影响。(国防部[ USACE ] ,DOI [ BLM ]和美国农业部[ USFS ] ;2年)

Evaluate existing NEPA categorical exclusions and, if warranted, provide recommendations to create new categorical exclusions for authorizing mineral exploration and development activities that can be shown to be routine and cause no significant environmental impact. (DOD [USACE], DOI [BLM] and USDA [USFS]; 2 years)

制定程序,允许项目提交人参与机构工作人员与国家环境政策规划署承包商之间关于额外信息要求的讨论。(环境质量委员会,DOI [ BLM ] ,美国农业部[ USFS ] ;1-2年)

Develop procedures that allow project proponents to participate in discussions between agency staff and NEPA contractors regarding additional requests for information. (Council on Environmental Quality, DOI [BLM], and USDA [USFS]; 1-2 years)

修订布莱斯管理和统一财务制度程序,以便纳入和验证国家和其他实体完成的采矿项目的现有环境审查和分析。(DOI [ BLM ]和 USDA [ USFS ] ;1-2年)

Revise BLM and USFS procedures to allow for the incorporation and validation of existing environmental review and analysis for mining projects completed by States and other entities. (DOI [BLM] and USDA [USFS]; 1-2 years)

为修订43 CFR 3809,Surface Management 和36 CFR 228 Subpart a,Locatable Minerals 提供建议,以简化和减少冗余审查。(DOI [ BLM ] ,USDA [ USFS ] ;1-2年)

Provide recommendations for revisions to 43 CFR 3809, Surface Management, and to 36 CFR 228 Subpart A, Locatable Minerals, to streamline and reduce redundant reviews. (DOI [BLM], USDA [USFS]; 1-2 years)

协调影响露天采矿的规章制度。(国防部[ USACE ] ,DOI [ BLM ]和美国农业部[ USFS ] ;1-2年)

Harmonize regulations that affect surface mining. (DOD [USACE], DOI [BLM], and USDA [USFS]; 1-2 years)

建议修改现行的采矿法规,包括那些关于可定位的、可出售的和可出租的矿物的法规,以减少冗余和简化许可程序。(DOI [ BLM ]和 USDA [ USFS ] ;1年)

Recommend revisions to current mining regulations, including those governing locatable, salable, and leasable minerals, to reduce redundancy and streamline the permitting process. (DOI [BLM] and USDA [USFS]; 1 year)

执行审查混合所有制地雷行动计划的谅解备忘录,其中包括参与和争端解决的时间表和程序。(DOI [ BLM ]和 USDA [ USFS ] ,与国家机构合作;1-2年)

Execute MOUs for the review of Plans of Operation for mines with mixed ownership status that includes timelines and procedures for participation and dispute resolution. (DOI [BLM] and USDA [USFS], in coordination with State agencies; 1-2 years)

目标:评估《清洁水法案》和《河流和港口法案》 ,以改进许可证的处理

Goal: Evaluate the Clean Water Act and the Rivers and Harbors Act to improve the permitting processing

《清洁水法》第404条规定,在疏浚物或填料可排入通航水域或某些湿地之前,必须获得许可证。基础设施项目,包括采矿作业,都需要这种许可证。2018年7月30日,陆军部与其他机构合作,签署了一份备忘录,该备忘录执行了联邦咨询委员会的建议,即联邦政府如何帮助各州和部落根据《清洁水法》获得河流和湿地许可权。这是多步骤努力的第一步,目的是改善各州和部落根据《清洁水法》获得溪流和湿地管理权的程序,以改善水质,加快创造就业的经济发展和基础设施。

Section 404 of the Clean Water Act requires a permit before dredged or fill material can be discharged into navigable waters or certain wetlands. Infrastructure projects—including mining operations—require such permits. On July 30, 2018, the Department of the Army, in coordination with other agencies, signed a memorandum that carries out the recommendations made by a Federal advisory committee on how the Federal Government can help states and tribes assume stream and wetlands permitting authority under the Clean Water Act. This is the first step in a multi-step effort to improve the process for States and Tribes to assume authority for stream and wetland permitting under the Clean Water Act to improve water quality and accelerate job-creating economic development and infrastructure.

执行与各州和部落的协定备忘录,帮助他们承担河流和湿地的责任,根据《清洁水法》获得许可。(国防部[ USACE ]和 EPA;1-2年)

Execute Memoranda of Agreement with States and Tribes to help them assume stream and wetlands permitting authority under the Clean Water Act. (DOD [USACE] and EPA; 1-2 years)

评估《清洁水法》第404条和第408条以及《河流和港口法》第10条和第14条,并提出简化和改进许可程序的建议。(国防部[ USACE ] ;2-4年)

Evaluate Sections 404 and 408 of the Clean Water Act and Sections 10 and 14 of the Rivers and Harbors Act and develop recommendations to streamline and improve the permitting process. (DOD [USACE]; 2-4 years)

目标:审查条例并考虑提出立法建议,以促进近海关键矿物开发

Goal: Review regulations and consider proposing legislation to facilitate offshore critical mineral development

从海底和海水中进行近海水下开采是矿物生产中一个尚未探索的前沿领域。众所周知,矿产位于太平洋和大西洋沿岸,以及阿拉斯加沿岸和美国领土和财产。在国内,BOEM 拥有联邦外大陆架近海矿产开发的权力,这些区域大部分与美国专属经济区重叠。美国国家海洋和大气管理局负有根据《深海海底硬矿物资源法》授权美国公司勘探和商业开采锰结核活动的主要责任。

Offshore underwater mining from the seafloor and seawater represents an unexplored frontier in minerals production. Minerals are known to be located off the Pacific and Atlantic coasts as well as off the coast of Alaska and U.S. territories and possessions. Domestically, BOEM has authority over offshore mineral development on the Federal Outer Continental Shelf, which largely overlaps the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. NOAA has the primary responsibility for authorizing activities for the exploration and commercial recovery of manganese nodules by U.S. companies under the Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act.

提供建议,修订现行规章,以促进离岸矿产租赁。(美国国家海洋和大气局) ,DOI [ BOEM ] ;1年

Provide recommendations to revise existing regulations to facilitate offshore mineral leasing. (DOC (NOAA), DOI [BOEM]; 1 year)

提出改进两步勘探许可证和商业采油许可程序的建议。(美国国家海洋和大气管理局) ,DOI [ BOEM ] ;1-2年

Provide recommendations to improve the two-step exploration license and commercial recovery permitting process. (DOC (NOAA), DOI [BOEM]; 1-2 years)

目标:评估将高优先级矿产项目作为修复美国地面运输(FAST)法案第41条和一个联邦决策框架的一部分进行审查的可行性

Goal: Evaluate the feasibility of including high-priority mineral projects for review as part of Title 41 of the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act and One Federal Decision Framework

《 FAST 法》(FAST-41)第41条和《一个联邦决定框架》旨在提高联邦环境审查的及时性和可预测性,并为高度优先的基础设施项目提供授权。这些程序保证各机构将共同努力,为环境审查和授权决定制定单一的许可时间表,编写单一的环境影响说明,签署单一的决定记录,并在决定记录发布后90天内发布所有必要的授权决定,但有限的例外情况除外。目前,矿产项目不在这些框架内考虑。

Title 41 of the FAST Act (FAST-41) and the One Federal Decision Framework were designed to improve the timeliness and predictability of the Federal environmental review and authorization for high priority infrastructure projects. These processes provide assurance that agencies will work together to develop a single permitting schedule for environmental review and authorization decisions, prepare a single environmental impact statement, sign a single record of decision, and issue all necessary authorization decisions within 90 days of issuance of the record of decision, subject to limited exceptions. Currently, mineral projects are not considered under these frameworks.

向联邦许可改进指导委员会执行主任提出建议,说明允许将矿物项目纳入 FAST-41的可行性,以及根据第13807号行政命令确定"基础设施项目"的定义,该行政命令建立了一个联邦决定框架。?(DOI [ BLM ] ,USDA [ USFS ] ;1年)

Provide recommendations to the Executive Director of the Federal Permitting Improvement Steering Council on the feasibility of allowing mineral projects to be included as part of FAST-41 and the definition of “infrastructure project” under Executive Order 13807, which established One Federal Decision framework.?(DOI [BLM], USDA [USFS]; 1 year)

行动呼吁6:培养美国关键矿产劳动力

Call to Action 6: Grow the American Critical Minerals Workforce

整个美国关键矿产供应链面临着劳动力挑战,包括老龄化和退休的人员和教员;公众对采矿和选矿工程的本质的看法;以及外国对美国人才的竞争。除非这些挑战得到解决,否则美国可能没有足够的合格工人来满足整个关键矿产供应链的国内生产需求。

The entire U.S. critical minerals supply chain faces workforce challenges, including aging and retiring personnel and faculty; public perceptions about the nature of mining and mineral processing; and foreign competition for U.S. talent. Unless these challenges are addressed, there may not be enough qualified U.S. workers to meet domestic production needs across the entire critical minerals supply chain.

________________________________________________________________________

矿产供应链部门的劳动力数量目前正在减少,因为退休人员比毕业生还要多。正如2013年美国国家学院关于国内能源和采矿行业新兴劳动力趋势的研究所指出的,这些劳动力面临着一系列广泛的挑战,例如:老龄化和退休的劳动力和教员;采矿、矿产工程和经济地质学项目的减少;对工作性质的负面看法;以及外国对美国人才的竞争。

The mineral supply chain sector workforce is currently decreasing in number as there are more retirements than graduating students. As noted in a 2013 National Academies study on emerging workforce trends in the domestic energy and mining industries, this workforce faces a wide array of challenges such as: aging and retiring workforce and faculty; a decrease in mining, mineral engineering, and economic geology programs; negative perceptions with respect to the nature of the work; and foreign competition for U.S. talent.

采矿业技能人才供应的萎缩反映了这一领域研发活动的广泛下降。联邦政府重新表现出的兴趣有助于启动帮助解决矿产供应链部门劳动力减少问题的方案。例如,美国能源部的 CMI 正在寻求建立必要的技能,这些技能在最近几十年已经丧失了。此外,美国大学的一些卓越中心已经或正在建立,以专注于工程挑战,包括培训个人更快地应对经济波动。然而,在勘探、采矿、分离技术、提炼、加工和制造方面仍然需要更广泛的进步。

The contractions in the supply of individuals with skills in the mining industry reflect broader declines in R&D in this field. A renewed interest by the Federal Government has contributed to the initiation of programs to help address reductions in the minerals supply chain sector workforce. For example, DOE’s CMI is looking to build necessary skills that have been lost in recent decades. Further, several centers of excellence at U.S. universities have been or are being established to focus on engineering challenges, including training individuals to respond more quickly to economic volatility. However, broader advances in exploration, mining, separation techniques, refining, processing, and manufacturing are still required.

国家科学技术委员会已经开始解决与科学、技术、工程和数学(STEM)有关的劳动力问题,并在2018年12月的一份报告《绘制成功路线:美国的 STEM 教育战略》(Charting a Course for Success:America's Strategy for STEM Education)中概述了一项五年战略计划。同样,全国科技委员会先进制造业小组委员会发布了一份2018年的报告,美国在先进制造业中的领导地位战略,其中强调了对制造业劳动力进行教育、培训和联系的必要性。下面列出的许多目标和建议应该利用现有的联邦举措,如科学、技术、工程和数学以及先进制造业报告,以帮助加强矿产供应链部门的劳动力。

The NSTC has begun to address workforce issues related to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and outlined a five-year strategic plan in a December 2018 report, Charting a Course for Success: America’s Strategy for STEM Education. Similarly, the NSTC’s Subcommittee on Advanced Manufacturing released a 2018 report, Strategy for American Leadership in Advanced Manufacturing, which highlighted the need to educate, train, and connect the manufacturing workforce. Many of the goals and recommendations listed below should leverage existing Federal initiatives, such as the STEM and advanced manufacturing reports to help bolster the minerals supply chain sector workforce.

目标:加强采矿工程、地质学和其他与重要矿产开采和制造相关领域的教育

Goal: Bolster education in mining engineering, geology, and other fields related to critical minerals mining and manufacturing

政府、学术界和行业合作伙伴联合支持采矿技术和技术的创新,可以改善行业以及毕业生和本科教育。培养参与前沿研究的学院和部门贡献新知识可以提高高等教育的质量,并确保大学有能力在教师即将退休后满足未来对矿产供应链部门工程师的需求。社区和技术学院也可以促进相关的教育和培训工作。

Joint support for innovation in mining techniques and technology by Government, academia, and industry partners could improve the industry as well as graduate and undergraduate education. Fostering university faculty and departments involved in cutting-edge research to contribute new knowledge could enhance the quality of higher education and ensure the ability of universities to meet future demand for mineral supply chain sector engineers after impending faculty retirements. Community and technical colleges could also promote relevant education and training efforts.

为实现这一目标,建议采取以下行动:

To achieve this goal, the following actions are recommended:

与学术界和私营部门发展伙伴关系,支持参与矿物研究和课程的大学,以提高高等教育的质量。定期向 CMS 提供状态更新。(美国国家海洋和大气管理局) ,国防部,能源部[能源部国家实验室] ,DOI [美国地质勘探局] ,ED,? 和 NSF;正在进行中)

Develop partnerships with academia and the private sector to support universities involved with mineral-related research and courses to enhance the quality of higher education. Provide periodic status updates to the CMS. (DOC [NOAA], DOD, DOE [DOE National Laboratories], DOI [USGS], ED,?and NSF; ongoing)

评估促进工业、社区学院和技术学院之间伙伴关系的机会,以协调必要的资格认证 / 技能调整,特别注意采掘业和关键矿产的区域性质。定期向 CMS 提供状态更新。(DOI 和 ED;正在进行)

Evaluate opportunities to facilitate partnerships between industry, community colleges, and technical colleges to coordinate necessary credentialing/skillset alignment, with special attention to the regional nature of extractive industries and critical minerals. Provide periodic status updates to the CMS. (DOI and ED; ongoing)

利用《21世纪加强职业和技术教育法》的规定,加强矿产供应链部门的劳动力。(教育署;2-4年)

Bolster the mineral supply chain sector workforce by leveraging provisions in the Strengthening Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century Act. (ED; 2-4 years)

目标:促进材料科学、计算机科学和相关学科之间的跨学科合作,以实现矿产供应行业的现代化,并使该领域对新人才更具吸引力

Goal: Promote interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, computer science, and related disciplines to modernize the minerals supply sector industry and make the field more attractive to new talent

传统的采矿工程专业很难吸引到学生。材料科学、计算机科学和其他学科之间的跨学科合作可以吸引顶尖人才,同时使工业现代化。跨学科项目是培训个人掌握21世纪现代采矿作业所需技能的重要一步,这些技能包括自动化重型设备、无人机、过程自动化以及生物媒介的提炼过程和控制。

Traditional mining engineering programs have had trouble attracting students. Interdisciplinary collaboration among fields such as material science, computer science, and other disciplines could attract top talent while modernizing the industry. Interdisciplinary programs are an important step to train individuals with the skills necessary to staff modern 21st century mining operations, including autonomous heavy equipment, drones, process automation, and bio-mediated refining processes and controls.

促进材料科学、计算机科学和其他学科之间的合作,以吸引顶尖人才,同时使工业现代化。定期向 CMS 提供状态更新。(美国国家海洋和大气管理局,美国国防部,能源部,教育部和国家科学基金会;2-4年)

Foster collaboration among fields such as material science, computer science, and other disciplines to attract top talent while modernizing the industry. Provide periodic status updates to the CMS. (DOC [NOAA], DOD, DOE, ED, and NSF; 2-4 years)

目标:实施人事和管理改革,以确保适当的人力资本,支持在联邦土地上勘探和开发关键矿物

Goal: Implement personnel and management reform to ensure appropriate human capital to support exploration and development of critical minerals on Federal lands

Blm 和 USFS 在招募和留住一支训练有素的劳动队伍以支持重要的矿产项目(例如,生物学家、考古学家、地质学家和工程师)方面面临重大挑战。这些挑战造成了采矿项目审批的延误和瓶颈。进行人事和管理改革有助于提高劳动力市场和劳动力市场的效率。

BLM and USFS have major challenges in recruiting and retaining a trained workforce to support critical mineral programs (e.g., biologists, archaeologists, geologists, and engineers). These challenges cause delays and bottlenecks in permitting mining projects. Undertaking personnel and management reform could help improve the efficiency of BLM and USFS.

制定政策和培训,以确保 DOI 和 USDA 的适当管理人员和工作人员认识到关键矿产勘探和开发的重要性和国家高度优先事项。(DOI [ BLM ]和 USDA [ USFS ] ;2-3年)

Develop policies and training to ensure appropriate managers and staff at DOI and USDA recognize the importance and high national priority of critical mineral exploration and development. (DOI [BLM] and USDA [USFS]; 2-3 years)

审查和考虑增加现场工作人员专家职位,包括国家矿物检验队和认证矿物检验员方案。最终确定《矿业管理法》和美国矿业局《矿业法管理谅解备忘录》 ,以促进各机构的人员配置。(DOI [ BLM ]和 USDA [ USFS ] ;1-2年)

Examine and consider an increase in field staff expert positions, including the National Mineral Examination Team and Certified Mineral Examiner programs. Finalize BLM and USFS Mining Law Administration MOU to facilitate staffing across agencies. (DOI [BLM] and USDA [USFS]; 1-2 years)

目标:促进与关键矿物利益攸关方和公众的持续互动

Goal: Facilitate sustained interaction with critical mineral stakeholders and the general public

联邦政府和关键的矿物利益攸关方需要向公众有效宣传关键矿物的重要性。可以使用诸如公共服务公告、社交媒体、教育课程、解释性展示、在线产品和公共论坛上的演示等选项。

The Federal Government and critical mineral stakeholders need to effectively communicate the importance of critical minerals to the general public. Options such as public service announcements, social media, educational curricula, interpretive displays, online products, and presentations at public fora could be used.

与学术界和教育界合作伙伴开展有效的外联工作,向公众传达关键矿物对美国经济和国家安全的重要性。(CMS,DOE,和 DOI [ BLM,BOEM,USGS ] ;正在进行)

Develop effective outreach efforts to the general public to convey the importance of critical minerals to the U.S. economy and national security by working with academia and educational partners. (CMS, DOE, and DOI [BLM, BOEM, USGS]; ongoing)

下一步

Next Steps

该战略确定了一些目标和建议的行动,联邦各部门和机构可以采取这些行动,以改善关键矿物及其下游供应链在美国的供应情况,减少美国对供应中断的脆弱性。为了使《战略》取得成功,各机构应协调并投入资源以实现每一个目标。

This Strategy identifies a number of goals and recommended actions Federal departments and agencies can pursue to improve the availability of critical minerals and their downstream supply chains in the United States, reducing the Nation’s vulnerability to supply disruptions. In order for the Strategy to be successful, agencies should coordinate and dedicate resources to accomplish each goal.

鉴于关键矿物问题的动态性和贯穿各领域的性质,要实现该战略的目标和建议,就需要联邦政府作出适应性强的协调努力。这需要持续的分析和利益相关者联系活动,监测不断变化的条件,综合一系列主题的信息,包括关键矿物的研发、生产、贸易、消费和回收。这些活动使美国政府有能力通过识别新出现的问题、确定应对措施的优先次序和评估进展情况来不断进行调整。

Given the dynamic, crosscutting nature of critical minerals issues, pursuing the goals and recommendations in this Strategy demands adaptive, coordinated efforts across the Federal Government. This requires ongoing analysis and stakeholder outreach activities that monitors changing conditions and synthesizes information across a range of topics, including critical minerals R&D, production, trade, consumption, and recycling. Such activities provide the capacity for the U.S. Government to continuously adapt by identifying emerging issues, prioritizing responses, and assessing progress.

Cms 是关键矿物的跨部门协调机构。作为他们工作的一部分,CMS 应该是协调该战略实施的实体。总体而言,应在发布《战略》5年后对其进行评估,以确定各项建议的效力,并鉴于美国政府目前面临的优先事项和挑战,确定各项建议的相关性。此外,矿物管理系统应适应性地协调该战略的执行,以反映新出现的关键矿物优先事项和挑战。

The CMS is the interagency coordinating body for critical minerals. As part of their work, the CMS should be the entity that coordinates implementation of this Strategy. Overall, the Strategy should be evaluated 5 years after issuance to determine the efficacy of the recommendations and to determine the relevance of the recommendations given current priorities and challenges the U.S. Government is facing. Further, the CMS should adaptively coordinate the implementation of this Strategy to reflect emerging critical mineral priorities and challenges.

根据第13817号行政命令,DOI 于2018年5月公布了关键矿物清单,这也是该战略的一个重要部分。因此,海洋矿产局应与矿产管理局协调,根据矿物供应、需求、生产集中度和当前政策优先事项的变化,每两年评价一次关键矿物清单。根据这一评价,应在必要时更新清单,从而为调整本战略的执行情况提供信息。

The list of Critical Minerals published by DOI in May 2018 in response to Executive Order 13817 is also an important part of this Strategy. Accordingly, DOI, in coordination with the CMS, should evaluate the list of critical minerals biennially based on changes to mineral supply, demand, concentration of production, and current policy priorities. Based on this evaluation, the list should be updated if necessary, which should in turn inform adjustments to the implementation of this Strategy.

总结

Conclusion

矿物质是制造美国人日常生活中使用的许多产品所需的原材料,例如手机、电脑、汽车和飞机。美国严重依赖许多矿物的外国来源和生产附加值产品的外国供应链,从而可能对我国的经济繁荣和国家安全造成战略脆弱性。因此,唐纳德·j·特朗普总统发布了第13817号行政命令,寻求解决这些薄弱环节,并责成内政部与其他联邦机构协调,制定一份被视为至关重要的矿物清单,并责成商务部与其他联邦机构协调,制定一项战略,以减少美国对关键矿物供应中断的脆弱性。

Minerals are the raw materials needed to build many products used by Americans in everyday life, such as cell phones, computers, automobiles, and airplanes. The United States is heavily dependent on foreign sources of many minerals and on foreign supply chains that build value-added products, resulting in the potential for strategic vulnerabilities to our Nation’s economic prosperity and national security. Accordingly, President Donald J. Trump issued Executive Order 13817, which seeks to address these vulnerabilities and tasked the Department of the Interior, in coordination with other Federal agencies, to develop a list of minerals deemed critical, and the Department of Commerce, in coordination with other Federal agencies, to develop a strategy to reduce the Nation’s vulnerability to disruptions in the supply of critical minerals.

2018年5月,内政部公布了35种关键矿物的清单。这份题为《确保关键矿产安全可靠供应的联邦战略》的报告,是行政命令要求的战略。这是一项综合性的跨部门战略,旨在解决从原材料保障到民用和国防用途的最终用途的整个关键矿产供应链中的薄弱环节。具体而言,该战略确定了24项目标和61项建议,它们将:

The Department of the Interior published a list of 35 critical minerals in May 2018. This report, A Federal Strategy to Ensure Secure and Reliable Supplies of Critical Minerals, is the strategy requested by the Executive Order. It is a comprehensive interagency strategy that seeks to address vulnerabilities within the full critical minerals supply chain, which spans from securement of raw materials to end-uses in both civilian and defense applications. Specifically, this Strategy identifies 24 goals and 61 recommendations that will:

帮助确定关键矿物的新来源;

help identify new sources of critical minerals;

加强供应链各个层面的活动,包括勘探、采矿、浓缩、分离、合金化、回收和再加工;

enhance activity at all levels of the supply chain, including exploration, mining, concentration, separation, alloying, recycling, and reprocessing;

寻求刺激私营部门投资和国内下游增值加工和制造业的增长;

seek to stimulate private sector investment and growth of domestic downstream value-added processing and manufacturing;

确保矿工、生产者和土地管理者能够获得最先进的地图数据;

ensure that miners, producers, and land managers have access to the most advanced mapping data; and

为简化租赁流程和以安全和生态智慧的方式批准流程制定一个大纲。

outline a path to streamline leasing and permitting processes in a safe and environmentally responsible manner.

鉴于关键矿物问题的跨领域性质,要实现该战略的目标和建议,就需要联邦政府作出适应性强的协调努力。因此,鉴于美国政府目前的优先事项和挑战,应定期评估这一战略,以确定这些建议的有效性和相关性。

Given the crosscutting nature of critical minerals issues, pursuing the goals and recommendations in this Strategy demands adaptive, coordinated efforts across the Federal Government. Accordingly, this Strategy should be periodically evaluated to determine the efficacy and relevance of the recommendations given current U.S. Government priorities and challenges.

缩写

Abbreviations

经济分析局

BEA Bureau of Economic Analysis

工业和安全局

BIS Bureau of Industry and Security

土地管理局

BLM Bureau of Land Management

海洋能源管理局

BOEM Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

关键材料研究所

CMI Critical Materials Institute

关键矿物小组委员会

CMS Subcommittee on Critical Minerals

国土安全部国土安全部

DHS Department of Homeland Security

商务部

DOC Department of Commerce

国防部国防部

DOD Department of Defense

美国能源部

DOE Department of Energy

内政部

DOI Department of the Interior

劳工部

DOL Department of Labor

国务院

DOS Department of State

教育署教育署

ED Department of Education

美国环境保护局

EPA Environmental Protection Agency

快速修复美国地面运输法案

FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act

国际贸易管理局

ITA International Trade Administration

谅解备忘录

MOUs Memoranda of Understanding

国防储备

NDS National Defense Stockpile

国家环境政策法

NEPA National Environmental Policy Act

美国国家标准与技术研究所

NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology

美国国家海洋和大气管理局 / 美国国家海洋和大气管理局

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

美国国家科学基金会

NSF National Science Foundation

国家科学技术委员会

NSTC National Science and Technology Council

研究与发展

R&D Research and Development

稀土元素

REE rare earth elements

相互防御采购

RDP Reciprocal Defense Procurement

表面管理机构

SMA Surface Management Agencies

供应保安安排

SOSA Security of Supply Arrangement

科学、技术、工程和数学

STEM science, technology, engineering and mathematics

美国陆军工程兵团

USACE United States Army Corps of Engineers

美国农业部

USDA United States Department of Agriculture

美国林务局

USFS United States Forest Service

美国地质勘探局美国地质调查局

USGS United States Geological Survey

美国贸易代表

USTR United States Trade Representative

确保关键矿产安全可靠供应的联邦战略:机译:机译中文  2019-06-07 14:21   加密线路   快速线路 

(2019年6月4日,美国商务部)关键矿产的可靠供应及其供应链的韧性对美国的经济繁荣和国防至关重要。美国严重依赖外国关键矿产资源和外国供应链,这可能导致经济和军事面临战略脆弱性。

https://www.commerce.gov/news/reports/2019/06/federal-strategy-ensure-secure-and-reliable-supplies-critical-minerals

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