第114届国会

114th CONGRESS

2d 会议

2d Session

第284条

S. 284

在众议院

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

2016年4月18日

April 18, 2016

移交给外交事务委员会和司法委员会,期限随后由议长决定,在每个案件中审议属于有关委员会管辖范围的规定

Referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and in addition to the Committee on the Judiciary, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned

行动

AN ACT

对应对严重侵犯国际公认人权行为负责的外国人实施制裁,并为其他目的实施制裁。

To impose sanctions with respect to foreign persons responsible for gross violations of internationally recognized human rights, and for other purposes.

由美利坚合众国国会众议院和参议院通过,

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

第一部分。短标题。

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

该法案可被称为"全球马格尼茨基人权问责法案"。

This Act may be cited as the “Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act”.

第二节。定义。

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

在本法中:

In this Act:

(1)外国人ー"外国人"一词是指非美国人。

(1) FOREIGN PERSON.—The term “foreign person” means a person that is not a United States person.

(2)个人ー「个人」一词指个人或实体。

(2) PERSON.—The term “person” means an individual or entity.

(3)美国人ーー"美国人"一词是指ーー

(3) UNITED STATES PERSON.—The term “United States person” means—

(a)美国公民或合法入境美国一个永久居留的外国人;或

(A) a United States citizen or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence to the United States; or

(b)根据美国法律或美国境内任何司法管辖区组织的实体,包括该实体的外国分支机构。

(B) an entity organized under the laws of the United States or of any jurisdiction within the United States, including a foreign branch of such an entity.

第三条。授权实施制裁。

SEC. 3. AUTHORIZATION OF IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS.

总统可以根据可信的证据,对总统认定的任何外国人实施第(b)款所述的制裁

(a) In General.—The President may impose the sanctions described in subsection (b) with respect to any foreign person the President determines, based on credible evidence—

(1)对任何外国境内的个人所犯下的法外处决、酷刑或其他严重侵犯国际公认人权的行为负有责任

(1) is responsible for extrajudicial killings, torture, or other gross violations of internationally recognized human rights committed against individuals in any foreign country who seek—

(a)揭发政府官员从事的非法活动;或

(A) to expose illegal activity carried out by government officials; or

(b)获得、行使、捍卫或促进国际公认的人权和自由,例如宗教、言论、结社和集会自由,以及获得公正审判和民主选举的权利;

(B) to obtain, exercise, defend, or promote internationally recognized human rights and freedoms, such as the freedoms of religion, expression, association, and assembly, and the rights to a fair trial and democratic elections;

(2)在与第(1)款所述活动有关的事项上,作为外国人的代理人或代表外国人行事;

(2) acted as an agent of or on behalf of a foreign person in a matter relating to an activity described in paragraph (1);

(三)对重大腐败行为负有责任或同谋下令、控制或以其他方式指挥的政府官员或该官员的高级助理,包括为个人利益没收私人或公共资产、与政府合同或开采自然资源有关的腐败、行贿、或协助或转移腐败所得至外国司法管辖区;或

(3) is a government official, or a senior associate of such an official, that is responsible for, or complicit in, ordering, controlling, or otherwise directing, acts of significant corruption, including the expropriation of private or public assets for personal gain, corruption related to government contracts or the extraction of natural resources, bribery, or the facilitation or transfer of the proceeds of corruption to foreign jurisdictions; or

(4)对第(3)款所述的活动给予物质援助、赞助或提供财政、物质或技术支持,或提供货物或服务支持。

(4) has materially assisted, sponsored, or provided financial, material, or technological support for, or goods or services in support of, an activity described in paragraph (3).

(b)说明的制裁ー本分节所述的制裁如下:

(b) Sanctions Described.—The sanctions described in this subsection are the following:

(1)不得入境美国ーー如外国人是个人ーー

(1) INADMISSIBILITY TO UNITED STATES.—In the case of a foreign person who is an individual—

(a)没有资格获得进入美国或被允许进入美国的签证;或

(A) ineligibility to receive a visa to enter the United States or to be admitted to the United States; or

(b)如果个人已经获得签证或其他证件,则根据《移民和国籍法》第221(i)条(《美利坚合众国法典》第8编第1201(i)节)撤销其签证或其他证件。

(B) if the individual has been issued a visa or other documentation, revocation, in accordance with section 221(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1201(i)), of the visa or other documentation.

(2)阻塞物质ー

(2) BLOCKING OF PROPERTY.—

(a)《普通法》ーー根据《国际紧急经济权力法》(《美利坚合众国法典》第50编第1701节及以下各节) ,如果一个外国人的所有财产和财产权益在美国境内,在美国境内,或者在美国境内,或者在美国境内,或者在美国境内,由美国人占有或控制,则阻止该外国人的所有财产和财产权益的所有交易。

(A) IN GENERAL.—The blocking, in accordance with the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), of all transactions in all property and interests in property of a foreign person if such property and interests in property are in the United States, come within the United States, or are or come within the possession or control of a United States person.

(b)国家紧急状态规定的不适用ー《国际紧急状态经济权力法》(《美利坚合众国法典》第50编第1701节)第202节的规定不适用于本节。

(B) INAPPLICABILITY OF NATIONAL EMERGENCY REQUIREMENT.—The requirements of section 202 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701) shall not apply for purposes of this section.

(c)有关货物进口的例外情况ー

(C) EXCEPTION RELATING TO IMPORTATION OF GOODS.—

(i)第一类——根据(a)项阻止和禁止所有财产和财产利益的所有交易的权力不应包括对货物进口实施制裁的权力。

(i) IN GENERAL.—The authority to block and prohibit all transactions in all property and interests in property under subparagraph (A) shall not include the authority to impose sanctions on the importation of goods.

(二) good ー在本分段中,"货物"一词的含义与1979年《出口管理法》第16条(《美国法典》第50条)所规定的含义相同。(根据《国际紧急经济权力法》(《美利坚合众国法典》第50编第1701节以下)继续有效)。

(ii) GOOD.—In this subparagraph, the term “good” has the meaning given that term in section 16 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2415) (as continued in effect pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.)).

(c)在实施制裁时考虑某些资料ーー在决定是否根据第(a)款实施制裁时,总统须考虑ーー

(c) Consideration Of Certain Information In Imposing Sanctions.—In determining whether to impose sanctions under subsection (a), the President shall consider—

(一)由议会各有关委员会的主席和高级成员提供的资料;

(1) information provided by the chairperson and ranking member of each of the appropriate congressional committees; and

(二)监测侵犯人权行为的其他国家和非政府组织获得的可靠信息。

(2) credible information obtained by other countries and nongovernmental organizations that monitor violations of human rights.

主席和国会主管委员会高级成员的请求ーー在收到国会主管委员会主席和高级成员关于外国人是否从事第(a)款所述活动的书面请求后120天内,主席应ーー

(d) Requests By Chairperson And Ranking Member Of Appropriate Congressional Committees.—Not later than 120 days after receiving a written request from the chairperson and ranking member of one of the appropriate congressional committees with respect to whether a foreign person has engaged in an activity described in subsection (a), the President shall—

(一)确定该人是否从事该等活动;及

(1) determine if that person has engaged in such an activity; and

(2)向该委员会的主席和高级成员提交一份报告,内容包括:

(2) submit a report to the chairperson and ranking member of that committee with respect to that determination that includes—

(a)关于总统是否对有关人员实施或打算实施制裁的声明;以及

(A) a statement of whether or not the President imposed or intends to impose sanctions with respect to the person; and

(b)如果总统实施或打算实施制裁,应说明这些制裁。

(B) if the President imposed or intends to impose sanctions, a description of those sanctions.

(e)遵守联合国总部协定和执法目标的例外情况ー如果允许个人进入美国将促进重要的执法目标,或者为了使美国遵守1947年6月26日在胜利湖签署并于1947年11月21日在联合国和美国之间生效的《联合国总部协定》或美国的其他适用国际义务,则第(b)(1)款规定的制裁不适用于该个人。

(e) Exception To Comply With United Nations Headquarters Agreement And Law Enforcement Objectives.—Sanctions under subsection (b)(1) shall not apply to an individual if admitting the individual into the United States would further important law enforcement objectives or is necessary to permit the United States to comply with the Agreement regarding the Headquarters of the United Nations, signed at Lake Success June 26, 1947, and entered into force November 21, 1947, between the United Nations and the United States, or other applicable international obligations of the United States.

(f)封锁财产的执行ーー违反、企图违反、共谋违反或导致违反第(b)(2)款或为执行第(b)(2)款而发布的任何规章、许可证或命令的人,应受到《国际紧急经济权力法》(《美利坚合众国法典》第50编第1705节)第206条第(b)和(c)款规定的处罚,处罚程度与实施第(a)款所述非法行为的人相同。

(f) Enforcement Of Blocking Of Property.—A person that violates, attempts to violate, conspires to violate, or causes a violation of subsection (b)(2) or any regulation, license, or order issued to carry out subsection (b)(2) shall be subject to the penalties set forth in subsections (b) and (c) of section 206 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1705) to the same extent as a person that commits an unlawful act described in subsection (a) of that section.

(g)终止制裁ーー如果总统不迟于制裁终止前15天决定并向有关的国会委员会报告,则总统可终止根据本节对某人实施的制裁ー

(g) Termination Of Sanctions.—The President may terminate the application of sanctions under this section with respect to a person if the President determines and reports to the appropriate congressional committees not later than 15 days before the termination of the sanctions that—

(1)有可靠情报表明,该人没有从事受到制裁的活动;

(1) credible information exists that the person did not engage in the activity for which sanctions were imposed;

(二)该人因从事受处分的活动而受到适当的检控;

(2) the person has been prosecuted appropriately for the activity for which sanctions were imposed;

(3)该人已经可信地证明其行为发生了重大变化,已经为实施制裁的活动支付了适当的后果,并且已经可信地承诺将来不从事第(a)款所述的活动;或者

(3) the person has credibly demonstrated a significant change in behavior, has paid an appropriate consequence for the activity for which sanctions were imposed, and has credibly committed to not engage in an activity described in subsection (a) in the future; or

(四)终止制裁符合美国的重大国家安全利益。

(4) the termination of the sanctions is in the vital national security interests of the United States.

(h)监管机构ーー总统应发出执行本节所需的规章、许可证和命令。

(h) Regulatory Authority.—The President shall issue such regulations, licenses, and orders as are necessary to carry out this section.

负责民主、人权和劳工事务的助理国务卿经与安全与领事事务的助理国务卿和国务院其他部门酌情协商,有权向国务卿提交可能符合第(a)款所述标准的外国人的姓名,供其审查和考虑。

(i) Identification Of Sanctionable Foreign Persons.—The Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, in consultation with the Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs and other bureaus of the Department of State, as appropriate, is authorized to submit to the Secretary of State, for review and consideration, the names of foreign persons who may meet the criteria described in subsection (a).

(j)国会的适当委员会定义ーー在本节中,"适当的国会委员会"一词是指ーー

(j) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.—In this section, the term “appropriate congressional committees” means—

(一)银行、住房和城市事务委员会和参议院对外关系委员会;以及

(1) the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate; and

(2)众议院金融事务委员会和外交事务委员会。

(2) the Committee on Financial Services and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives.

第四条。向国会报告。

SEC. 4. REPORTS TO CONGRESS.

(a)总则ーー总统须根据第(b)款向有关的国会委员会提交一份报告,其中包括ーー

(a) In General.—The President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees, in accordance with subsection (b), a report that includes—

(1)在提交报告之前的一年内,总统根据第3节对每一外国人实施制裁的名单;

(1) a list of each foreign person with respect to which the President imposed sanctions pursuant to section 3 during the year preceding the submission of the report;

(二)说明对每名上述人士实施的处分类别;

(2) a description of the type of sanctions imposed with respect to each such person;

(3)总统就多少外籍人士ー

(3) the number of foreign persons with respect to which the President—

(a)在该年度根据第3(a)条施加的制裁;以及

(A) imposed sanctions under section 3(a) during that year; and

(b)在该年内根据第3(g)条终止制裁;

(B) terminated sanctions under section 3(g) during that year;

(四)视乎情况实施或终止该等制裁的日期;

(4) the dates on which such sanctions were imposed or terminated, as the case may be;

(五)施加或终止该等制裁的原因;及

(5) the reasons for imposing or terminating such sanctions; and

(6)说明总统为鼓励其他国家政府实施类似第3节授权的制裁所作的努力。

(6) a description of the efforts of the President to encourage the governments of other countries to impose sanctions that are similar to the sanctions authorized by section 3.

(b)提交日期ー

(b) Dates For Submission.—

(1)初次报告ー总统应在本法颁布之日起120天内根据第(a)款提交初次报告。

(1) INITIAL REPORT.—The President shall submit the initial report under subsection (a) not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

(2)其后的报告

(2) SUBSEQUENT REPORTS.—

(a)第一般规定ーー总统应于12月10日或其后国会两院开会的第一天根据第(a)款提交下一份报告ー

(A) IN GENERAL.—The President shall submit a subsequent report under subsection (a) on December 10, or the first day thereafter on which both Houses of Congress are in session, of—

(i)若初次报告是在该历年的十二月十日前提交,提交初次报告的历年;及

(i) the calendar year in which the initial report is submitted if the initial report is submitted before December 10 of that calendar year; and

(ii)其后每一历年。

(ii) each calendar year thereafter.

(b)国会声明ー国会指出,自1950年以来,每个日历年的12月10日在美国和国际上都被确认为"人权日"。

(B) CONGRESSIONAL STATEMENT.—Congress notes that December 10 of each calendar year has been recognized in the United States and internationally since 1950 as “Human Rights Day”.

(c)报告文学形式ー

(c) Form Of Report.—

(1)第(a)款规定的每份报告须以非分类形式提交,但可包括分类附件。

(1) IN GENERAL.—Each report required by subsection (a) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

(2)例外ーー根据第(a)(1)款规定列入名单的外国人的姓名,只有在下列情况下方可在第(1)款授权的分类附件中提出:

(2) EXCEPTION.—The name of a foreign person to be included in the list required by subsection (a)(1) may be submitted in the classified annex authorized by paragraph (1) only if the President—

(a)确定这样做对美国的国家安全利益至关重要;

(A) determines that it is vital for the national security interests of the United States to do so;

(b)以符合国会意图和本法目的的方式使用该附件;

(B) uses the annex in a manner consistent with congressional intent and the purposes of this Act; and

(c)不迟于在机密附件中提交姓名之前15天,向有关的国会委员会发出通知,并说明将姓名列入机密附件的理由,尽管有任何公开的可信信息表明此人从事第3(a)节所述活动。

(C) not later than 15 days before submitting the name in a classified annex, provides to the appropriate congressional committees notice of, and a justification for, including the name in the classified annex despite any publicly available credible information indicating that the person engaged in an activity described in section 3(a).

(d)公共服务ー

(d) Public Availability.—

(1)第(a)款规定的报告的非保密部分应向公众公开,包括在《联邦登记册》中公布。

(1) IN GENERAL.—The unclassified portion of the report required by subsection (a) shall be made available to the public, including through publication in the Federal Register.

(2)签证记录保密要求不适用ーー总统应公布第(a)(1)款所要求的清单,而无需顾及《移民与国籍法》第222(f)条(《美利坚合众国法典》第8编第1202(f)节)关于签发或拒绝签证或许可进入美国的记录保密的要求。

(2) NONAPPLICABILITY OF CONFIDENTIALITY REQUIREMENT WITH RESPECT TO VISA RECORDS.—The President shall publish the list required by subsection (a)(1) without regard to the requirements of section 222(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1202(f)) with respect to confidentiality of records pertaining to the issuance or refusal of visas or permits to enter the United States.

(e)国会的适当委员会定义ーー在本节中,"适当的国会委员会"一词是指ーー

(e) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.—In this section, the term “appropriate congressional committees” means—

(1)拨款委员会、银行、住房和城市事务委员会、对外关系委员会和参议院司法委员会;

(1) the Committee on Appropriations, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate; and

(2)拨款委员会、金融事务委员会、外交事务委员会和众议院司法委员会。

(2) the Committee on Appropriations, the Committee on Financial Services, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives.

2015年12月17日参议院通过。

Passed the Senate December 17, 2015.

作证人:julie e. adams

Attest: julie e. adams,

秘书

Secretary

全球马格尼茨基人权问责法:机译:机译中文  2019-06-07 05:10   线路1   线路2   线路3 

(2016年12月23日)美国国会以原本针对俄罗斯的马格尼茨基法为基础,在2016年制定《全球马格尼茨基法》,允许行政机关对世界任何地方犯下人权侵害或重大贪腐的人员实施签证禁令和个别制裁。

https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/senate-bill/284

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