部分节目由「时事」改到「学习」,与「新闻」重复的就只放「新闻」。

2019年5月7日

May 7, 2019

香港拟议引渡法案可能扩大北京的强制范围:美国面临的风险

Hong Kong’s Proposed Extradition Bill Could Extend Beijing’s Coercive Reach: Risks for the United States

伊桑·梅克,政策分析师,安全与外交事务

Ethan Meick, Policy Analyst, Security and Foreign Affairs

主要发现

Key Findings

背景

Background

2019年4月3日,香港特区政府正式向立法会提交引渡条例草案。该法案建议修改香港的引渡法律,允许特别引渡到与香港没有此类协议的国家和司法管辖区,包括中国大陆、澳门和台湾。这些变化将修订自1997年中国香港回归以来生效的有关引渡协议和刑事司法互助的法律。当时,由于担心中国的法律制度和缺乏人权保护,法律明确禁止与中国大陆的引渡安排。

On April 3, 2019, the Hong Kong government formally introduced its extradition bill before Hong Kong’s legislature, the Legislative Council (LegCo).1 The bill proposes changes to the territory’s extradition laws to allow ad hoc extraditions to countries and jurisdictions with which Hong Kong does not have such agreements, including mainland China, Macau, and Taiwan.2 These changes would amend laws governing extradition agreements and mutual legal assistance in criminal matters in force since the 1997 handover of Hong Kong to China. At that time, the laws explicitly prohibited extradition arrangements with mainland China due to fears over its legal system and lack of human rights protections.3

拟议中的引渡法案可能在2019年7月前进行最终投票,目的是为100多个与香港没有相互引渡安排的国家和地区弥补漏洞。该法案规定,个人有资格因37项罪行而被引渡,根据香港法律,这些罪行包括贿赂和欺诈等白领犯罪,可判处至少三年监禁。该法案还将把立法会处理引渡请求的权力移交给亲北京的香港特首。经修订的引渡程序包括以下步骤:

The proposed extradition bill—which could reach a final vote by July 2019—is designed to close loopholes for the over 100 countries and territories without mutual extradition arrangements with Hong Kong.* It makes individuals eligible for extradition for 37 offenses, punishable by a minimum three-year jail sentence under Hong Kong law, including some white-collar offenses such as bribery and fraud.4 The bill would also transfer authority over extradition requests from LegCo to the pro-Beijing chief executive of Hong Kong.5 The revised extradition process involves the following steps:

香港政府辩称,迫切需要这样的立法,以填补引渡政策中的漏洞。在2018年2月的一起谋杀案中,香港和台湾当局在起诉一名被控在台湾谋杀其女友的香港居民时遇到了困难。在嫌疑人逃离台湾返回香港后,香港当局缺乏相互引渡协议,因此无法起诉他涉嫌的罪行。然而,2019年4月,香港高等法院以相关洗钱的罪名判处该嫌疑人入狱。观察人士预计,嫌疑人将有资格在10月份从监狱获释,从而延长香港当局安排特别引渡安排的时间。

The Hong Kong government argues that such legislation is urgently needed to fill loopholes in its extraditions policy. In a February 2018 murder case, both Hong Kong and Taiwan authorities experienced difficulty in prosecuting a Hong Kong resident accused of murdering his girlfriend in Taiwan. After the suspect fled Taiwan to return to Hong Kong, Hong Kong authorities lacked a mutual extradition agreement and could not prosecute him for his alleged crimes.7 Nevertheless, Hong Kong’s High Court in April 2019 sentenced the suspect to prison on related money laundering charges. Observers expect the suspect will be eligible for release from prison in October, extending the period the Hong Kong authorities have to arrange a special extradition arrangement.8

香港法律界和亲民主的立法会议员认为,香港政府可以利用现有的法律当局,在与台湾达成一项特别安排,获得立法会的认证后,允许逐案引渡到中华人民共和国境外。作为回应,香港保安局辩称,立法会的参与是有问题的,因为案件细节可能被泄露,增加了嫌疑人逃跑的风险,加上现有的引渡法不包括中国大陆和台湾。

The Hong Kong legal community and prodemocracy legislators contended the Hong Kong government could use the existing legal authorities that permit case-by-case extraditions outside of the PRC after obtaining a LegCo certification in a special arrangement with Taiwan.9 In response, the Hong Kong Security Bureau argued LegCo’s involvement is problematic due to the possibility case details might be leaked and increasing suspect flight risk, in addition to the existing extradition laws not covering mainland China and Taiwan.10

台湾当局试图与香港当局直接谈判,以达成一项特殊安排,但香港政府没有回应。此外,台北已表示,不会与香港签订将台湾定义为中华人民共和国(PRC)一部分的引渡协议,并反对拟议的法案,因为这将增加台湾公民被引渡到中国的可能性(就像其他案件一样)。

Authorities in Taiwan attempted to negotiate directly with the Hong Kong authorities to work out a special arrangement, but the Hong Kong government did not respond.11 Moreover, Taipei has said it would not enter into an extradition agreement with Hong Kong that defines Taiwan as part of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and opposes the proposed bill, as it would increase the probability of Taiwan citizens being extradited to China (as has happened in other cases).12

香港政府推动引渡立法的同时,中国正加速侵犯香港在"一国两制"政策和香港小宪法《基本法》(Basic Law)保障下的自治和自由。北京最近对香港自治权的侵犯,尤其是在法治方面的侵犯,引起了香港和外国观察人士的担忧,他们认为,香港正变得越来越像其他中国城市,而不是一个在"高度自治"的单独制度下管理的地区。北京已承诺至少保持这种制度到2047年。

The Hong Kong government’s push for extradition legislation comes at the same time China is accelerating its encroachment on the territory’s autonomy and freedoms guaranteed under the “one country, two systems” policy and the Basic Law, Hong Kong’s mini constitution.13 Beijing’s recent intrusions into the territory’s autonomy, particularly in rule of law, are raising concerns in Hong Kong and among foreign observers that the territory is becoming more like any other Chinese city rather than a region administered under a separate system with a “high degree of autonomy,” which Beijing has promised to maintain until at least 2047. 14

对不断变化的政治环境感到关切的例子包括:

Examples of concern about the changing political environment include:

香港特区政府不顾广泛反对推动修订条例草案

Hong Kong Government Moves Forward with Revised Bill despite Broad Opposition

香港当局的引渡提议引发了香港商界和法律界、亲民主和亲商界的立法会议员、媒体组织和外国观察人士的担忧。据组织者称,2019年4月下旬,该法案的反对者举行了一场大规模抗议活动,涉及约13万人(据警方估计,参与者不到2.3万人)。据报道,这是自2014年大规模亲民主抗议以来香港规模最大的抗议活动之一。该提案的批评者表达了两个主要担忧:(1)香港和外国公民由于政治或商业原因可能被引渡到中国大陆;(2)中国的法律制度缺乏公平审判的保障。一些人对政治犯罪的定义表示担忧。

The Hong Kong authorities’ extradition proposal sparked concerns from the territory’s business and legal communities, prodemocracy and pro-business legislators, media organizations, and foreign observers.19 In late April 2019, opponents of the bill staged a major protest involving around 130,000 people, according to the organizers (police estimated under 23,000 participants)—reportedly one of the largest protests in Hong Kong since the 2014 mass prodemocracy protests.20 Critics of the proposal have expressed two primary worries: (1) Hong Kong and foreign citizens could be extradited to mainland China for political or commercial reasons; and (2) China’s legal system lacks guarantees for a fair trial.21 Some expressed concern over how a political offense may be defined.22

这一提议罕见地招致了外国商界以及通常亲北京的香港商界的强烈反对。2019年2月,工商专业人士联盟(Business and Professionals Alliance)主席梁美芬(Priscilla Leung Mei-fun)表示,香港商界对此表示关注,并建议香港政府豁免某些白领犯罪,因为"(香港和中国内地)有些犯罪的门槛非常不同。" 在2019年3月致香港保安局的信件中,香港美国商会(American Chamber of Commerce In Hong Kong)对该建议表示"严重保留",指出:

The proposal drew rare backlash from the foreign business community, as well as Hong Kong’s usually pro-Beijing business sector. In February 2019, the chairwoman of the Business and Professionals Alliance, Priscilla Leung Mei-fun, said the Hong Kong business community was concerned and proposed the Hong Kong government exempt certain white-collar crimes from the bill because “the threshold for some offenses are so different between [Hong Kong and mainland China].”26 In a March 2019 letter to Hong Kong’s Security Bureau, the American Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong expressed “serious reservations” about the proposal, noting,

引渡安排的任何改变,若因内地政府涉嫌经济犯罪(甚至包括完全在中华人民共和国境外采取行动的指控)而大大增加了在香港居住或过境的国际商业行政人员被逮捕和引渡到中华人民共和国的可能性,都会削弱人们对香港是国际商业活动安全可靠的避风港的看法。

Any change in extradition arrangements that substantially expands the possibility of arrest and rendition to the PRC of international business executives resident in, or transiting through, Hong Kong as a result of allegations of economic crimes made by the Mainland government—including even allegations based on actions performed entirely outside the PRC—would undermine perceptions of Hong Kong as a safe and secure haven for international business operations.27

为了回应商界对该提议的反对,香港政府在最终法案的措辞中排除了九项白领犯罪,保留了其他白领犯罪ーー尤其是欺诈和贿赂ーー以及大多数此前有资格被引渡到签有相互引渡条约的国家的犯罪。最终法案的豁免条款似乎在很大程度上安抚了梁美芬的疑虑,以及其他一些在立法会获得投票的本地商业利益,但香港总商会(Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce)和贸易协会等其他机构继续敦促采取更多保障措施。值得注意的是,外国商界仍然反对该法案。3月29日,香港美国商会(American Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong)表示,它"继续对修订后的提案表示严重关切",认为中国薄弱的法律保护仍是一个重大问题。

In response to the business community’s opposition to the proposal, the Hong Kong government excluded nine white-collar offenses** in its final bill language, leaving in place other white-collar offenses—notably fraud and bribery—and most offenses previously eligible for extradition to countries with mutual extradition treaties.28 The final bill language’s exemptions appeared to largely mollify Ms. Leung’s qualms and some other local business interests with votes in LegCo, but others—such as the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and trade associations—continue to urge for more safeguards. 29 Notably, the foreign business community remains opposed to the bill. On March 29, the American Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong said it “continued to have serious concerns about the revised proposal,” inferring that China’s weak legal protections remain a significant problem.30

外国政府和人权组织也对该法案提出警告,包括其对在香港居住或过境的外国公民的潜在影响:

Foreign governments and human rights organizations have also raised alarms over the bill, including its potential effects on foreign citizens residing in or transiting through Hong Kong:

美国利益面临的风险及国会的考虑

Risks to U.S. Interests and Considerations for Congress

引渡法案可能对美国在香港的国家安全和经济利益构成重大风险,如果获得通过和实施,可能会为美国提供理由,重新审视1992年《美国-香港政策法案》(u.s.-Hong Kong Policy Act)中概述的美国与香港目前关系的重要内容。该法案可能会违反该法案的几个关键条款,这些条款强调了美国对香港在"一国两制"框架下的人权、民主化和自治的支持。这些措施包括:(1)批准所有在香港回归之前已存在的条约继续有效,包括美中引渡条约,除非"总统认定香港在法律上没有能力履行其[条约]义务";(2)根据适用的美国和香港法律,美国企业"应被鼓励继续在香港经营"。该法案第202条规定,总统可以通过行政命令,通过"[确定]香港不具备足够的自治权以证明其待遇合理",暂停适用《香港政策法》的任何部分。如果该法案获得立法会通过,它将取消香港的法律保护措施,这些措施将保护香港备受推崇的法治和全球金融中心的声誉。

The extradition bill could pose significant risks to U.S. national security and economic interests in the territory, and if passed and implemented may provide grounds for the United States to reexamine important elements of its current relationship with Hong Kong, as outlined in the U.S.-Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992. The bill could potentially violate several key provisions of the act, which underscores U.S. support for Hong Kong’s human rights, democratization, and autonomy under the “one country, two systems” framework. These include: (1) approving the continuation in force of all preexisting treaties from before the handover of Hong Kong to China, including the U.S.-Hong Kong extradition treaty, unless the “President determines that Hong Kong is not legally competent to carry out its [treaty] obligations”; and (2) that U.S. businesses “should be encouraged to continue to operate in Hong Kong,” in accordance with applicable U.S. and Hong Kong law.40 Section 202 of the act states that the president can, by executive order, suspend the application of any part of the Hong Kong Policy Act by “[determining] that Hong Kong is not sufficiently autonomous to justify treatment.”41 If the bill passes LegCo, which is likely given the pro-Beijing majority, it would remove legal protections in Hong Kong that preserve its well regarded rule of law and reputation as a global financial hub.

一个主要的担忧是,该法案可能允许北京向香港政府施压,迫使其以虚假理由引渡美国公民。这可能会影响到大约85000名美国公民和1300多家在香港的美国公司,其中大约300家在香港设有亚洲地区业务。由于缺乏公平审判和正当程序,最近在中国任意拘留美国、加拿大和其他外国公民的案件激增,凸显了新法律可能给美国公民带来的风险。

One major concern is that the bill could allow Beijing to pressure the Hong Kong government to extradite U.S. citizens under false pretenses. This could affect the estimated 85,000 U.S. citizens and over 1,300 U.S. firms in Hong Kong—about 300 of which base their Asia regional operations in the territory.42 The recent spike in arbitrary detentions of U.S., Canadian, and other foreign citizens in China on questionable charges with a lack of access to a fair trial and due process highlight the risk the new law could pose to U.S. citizens.43

虽然香港当局已公开表示支持现有的引渡条约,包括与美国的安排,但新法律可能会被用来推翻这些保护。由于存在两种相互竞争的引渡方式,中国政府可能会援引最有利于其利益的条款。鉴于中国政府对引渡法案的解释存在公开问题,美国国会需要考虑三个重要因素:

Although the Hong Kong authorities have publicly stated their support for existing extradition treaties, including arrangements with the United States, the new law may be used to override those protections.44 With two competing approaches to extradition, Beijing may invoke the terms most favorable to their interests. Given the open question of Beijing’s interpretation of the extradition bill, three important considerations for Congress stand out:

免责声明:美中经济与安全审查委员会是由国会成立的,旨在报告美国与中华人民共和国之间的双边贸易和经济关系对国家安全的影响。更多信息,请访问 www.uscc.gov 或在 Twitter 上关注委员会@USCC_GOV。

Disclaimer: The U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission was created by Congress to report on the national security implications of the bilateral trade and economic relationship between the United States and the People’s Republic of China. For more information, visit www.uscc.gov or follow the Commission on Twitter at @USCC_GOV.

这份报告是美中经济与安全审查委员会(U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission)工作人员进行专业研究的成果,是应该委员会的要求为其审议工作提供支持而编写的。根据第106-398号公法和第113-291号公法的规定,委员会正在对美中经济关系及其对美国安全的影响进行评估,将报告张贴到委员会的网站,旨在促进公众更好地了解委员会所处理的问题及其对美国安全的影响。然而,这并不一定意味着委员会、任何个别专员或委员会的其他专业人员赞同这份工作人员研究报告所表达的意见或结论。

This report is the product of professional research performed by the staff of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, and was prepared at the request of the Commission to supports its deliberations. Posting of the report to the Commission’s website is intended to promote greater public understanding of the issues addressed by the Commission in its ongoing assessment of U.S.-China economic relations and their implications for U.S. security, as mandated by Public Law 106-398 and Public Law 113-291. However, it does not necessarily imply an endorsement by the Commission, any individual Commissioner, or the Commission’s other professional staff, of the views or conclusions expressed in this staff research report.

尾注

Endnotes

* Hong Kong has signed mutual extradition agreements with 20 jurisdictions and has signed mutual agreements to provide criminal legal assistance with 32 jurisdictions (both include the United States). Hong Kong Security Bureau, Legislative Council Panel on Security Cooperation between Hong Kong and Other Places on Juridical Assistance in Criminal Matters, February 15, 2019, 2. https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr18-19/english/panels/se/papers/se20190215cb2-767-3-e.pdf.

Since 2015, Beijing has refused to facilitate repatriation of Taiwan citizens accused of telecommunications fraud in third countries that do not have diplomatic ties with Taiwan. This practice has become more commonplace following President Tsai Ing-wen’s election in 2016, as Beijing has sought to apply further pressure on the Tsai Administration. Angie Chen and Emerson Lim, “2 Taiwanese Deported to China from Philippines,” Central News Agency, March 8, 2019. http://focustaiwan.tw/news/aipl/201903080012.aspx; U.S.-China Economic and

For more detail on the Hong Kong government’s recent tightening of political space and degrading rule of law in line with Beijing’s increasingly assertive policy, see U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, 2018 Annual Report to Congress, November 2018, 388–390, 393.

** The nine excluded offenses included those relating to: (1) bankruptcy, (2) corporate law, (3) securities and futures trading, (4) intellectual property, (5) environmental pollution or protection of public health, (6) imports and exports or international transfer of funds, (7) use of computers, (8) taxes and duties, and (9) trade descriptions (items 10–12, 14, 21, 27, 35–36, and 40 under Schedule 1 of the Fugitive Offenders Ordinance). Fugitive Offenders Ordinance, Schedule 1. https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap503!en/sch1.pdf?FILENAME=Schedule%201.pdf&DOC_TYPE=Y&PUBLISHED=true; Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette, Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019, March 29, 2019. https://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette/pdf/20192313/es3201923139.pdf.

1 Lau Siu-fung, “Hong Kong Tables Law Allowing Rendition of Criminal Suspects to China,” Radio Free Asia, April 3, 2019. https://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/hongkong-rendition-04032019121307.html.

2 Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette, Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019, March 29, 2019. https://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette/pdf/20192313/es3201923139.pdf.

3 Cap. 503 Fugitive Offenders Ordinance, April 25, 1997. https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap503; Cap. 525 Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Ordinance, September 26, 1997. https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap525.

4 Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette, Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019, March 29, 2019. https://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette/pdf/20192313/es3201923139.pdf; Cap. 503 Fugitive Offenders Ordinance, April 25, 1997. https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap503.

5 Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette, Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019, March 29, 2019. https://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette/pdf/20192313/es3201923139.pdf; Hong Kong Security Bureau, Legislative Council Panel on Security Cooperation between Hong Kong and Other Places on Juridical Assistance in Criminal Matters, February 15, 2019, 8. https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr18-19/english/panels/se/papers/se20190215cb2-767-3-e.pdf.

6 Hong Kong Security Bureau, Legislative Council Panel on Security Cooperation between Hong Kong and Other Places on Juridical Assistance in Criminal Matters, February 15, 2019, 3–6, 8–9. https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr18-19/english/panels/se/papers/se20190215cb2-767-3-e.pdf; Alvin Lum, “Hong Kong Is Considering Changing the Law on Transferring Fugitives – So How are Extraditions Dealt with Now, and Why Are There No Deals with Mainland China, Taiwan, and Macau?” South China Morning Post, February 13, 2019. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/2185902/hong-kong-considering-changing-law-transferring-fugitives-so; U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, 2017 Annual Report to Congress, November 2017, 422–423.

7 Alvin Lum and Jeffie Lam, “Lawmakers Threaten to Block Controversial Extradition Bill as Hong Kong Government Struggles to Win Business Support for Watered-Down Plan,” South China Morning Post, March 27, 2019. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3003557/lawmakers-threaten-block-controversial-extradition-bill; Austin Ramzy, “Murder Case Poses Dilemma for Hong Kong on Sending Suspects to China,” New York Times, March 4, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/04/world/asia/hong-kong-china-extradition.html; Hong Kong Security Bureau, Legislative Council Panel on Security Cooperation between Hong Kong and Other Places on Juridical Assistance in Criminal Matters, February 15, 2019, 2. https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr18-19/english/panels/se/papers/se20190215cb2-767-3-e.pdf; Hong Kong Information Office, Co-operation between Hong Kong and Other Places on Judicial Assistance in Criminal Matters, February 13, 2019. https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/201902/13/P2019021300334.htm.

8 Jasmine Siu, “Man Who Killed Girlfriend in Taiwan Could be Free by October, Setting Effective Deadline for Hong Kong Government’s Extradition Plan,” South China Morning Post, April 29, 2019. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/law-and-crime/article/3008099/sentence-man-who-killed-girlfriend-taiwan-sets.

9 RTHK, “Pan-dems Moot Extradition Bill with Sunset Clause,” April 16, 2019. https://news.rthk.hk/rthk/en/component/k2/1453171-20190416.htm; Hong Kong Bar Association, “Observations of the Hong Kong Bar Association (‘HKBA’) on the Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019,” April 2, 2019. https://www.hkba.org/sites/default/files/HKBA%20Observations%20on%20FOMLACM%20Bill%202019%20%28Final%29.pdf;

10 Hong Kong Bar Association, “Observations of the Hong Kong Bar Association (‘HKBA’) on the Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019,” April 2, 2019. https://www.hkba.org/sites/default/files/HKBA%20Observations%20on%20FOMLACM%20Bill%202019%20%28Final%29.pdf; Hong Kong Security Bureau, Legislative Council Panel on Security Cooperation between Hong Kong and Other Places on Juridical Assistance in Criminal Matters, February 15, 2019, 6–7. https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr18-19/english/panels/se/papers/se20190215cb2-767-3-e.pdf.

11 Mainland Affairs Council, Response to Hong Kong Government’s Proposed Amendments to the Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Ordinance and Fugitive Offenders Ordinance, February 21, 2019. https://www.mac.gov.tw/en/News_Content.aspx?n=A921DFB2651FF92F&sms=37838322A6DA5E79&s=7672454B43B8B5AD.

12 Ng Kang-chung, “Taipei Won’t Sign Any Extradition Deal with Hong Kong If It Implies Taiwan Is Part of China, Official Says,” South China Morning Post, February 22, 2019. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/2187224/taipei-wont-sign-any-extradition-deal-hong-kong-if-it.

13 China’s State Council Information Office, The Practice of the “One Country, Two Systems” Policy in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, June 10, 2014; The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, Chapter II: Relationship between the Central Authorities and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Article 23 (Adopted at the Third Session of the Seventh National People’s Congress on April 4, 1990).

14 Elbert Lee, “How English Can Save Hong Kong from Becoming ‘Just Another Chinese City’,” South China Morning Post, February 1, 2018; Kent Ewing, “Xi Jinping’s Vision of Hong Kong’s Future? Just Another Chinese City,” Hong Kong Free Press, October 27, 2017; Don Lee and Jessica Meyers, “Hong Kong Was Supposed to Be a World Financial Capital in a Communist System. Contradiction?” Los Angeles Times, June 30, 2017; T. Kumar, “After 20 Years—Hong Kong Is Becoming More Like China, Losing Human Rights Protections,” Medium, June 29, 2017.

15 Phila Siu, Ng Kang-chung, and Owen Fung, “Booksellers Lam Wing-kee Reveals Explosive Details of His Mainland China Detention, Claims Lee Po Told Him He Was ‘Taken Away from Hong Kong,’” South China Morning Post, June 16, 2016. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/1976489/bookseller-lam-wing-kee-reveals-explosive-details-his; Agence-France Presse, “‘Missing Hong Kong Bookseller Lee Bo Says He Will Give up British Citizenship,” February 29, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/feb/29/missing-british-bookseller-appears-on-television; BBC, “UK Challenges China over Missing Hong Kong Bookseller Lee Bo,” February 12, 2016. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-35557226.

16 Chris Buckley, “Chinese Police Seize Publisher from Train in Front of Diplomats,” New York Times, January 22, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/22/world/asia/china-police-bookseller-train-gui-minhai.html.

17 U.S. Department of State, Hong Kong Policy Act Report, May 29, 2018. https://www.state.gov/p/eap/rls/reports/2018/282787.htm.

18 Austin Ramzy, “Hong Kong Plans to Expel a Financial Times Editor,” New York Times, October 5, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/05/world/asia/hong-kong-victor-mallet-financial-times.html.

19 Hong Kong Security Bureau, Legislative Council Panel on Security Cooperation between Hong Kong and Other Places on Juridical Assistance in Criminal Matters, February 2019, 4, 8. https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr18-19/english/panels/se/papers/se20190215cb2-767-3-e.pdf.

20 Natalie Lung and Blake Schmidt, “Hong Kong’s Lam Defends Extradition Law after Thousands Protest,” Bloomberg, April 28, 2019. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-04-29/hong-kong-defends-extradition-law-after-largest-protest-in-years.

21 Mark O’Neill, “Should Hong Kong Amend its Extradition Law?” Hong Kong Economic Journal, February 18, 2019. http://www.ejinsight.com/20190218-should-hong-kong-amend-its-extradition-law/.

22 James Pomfret and Anne Marie Roantree, “Protesters Arrested in Hong Kong over Proposed China Extradition Law,” Reuters, March 15, 2019. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-hongkong-politics-extradition/protesters-arrested-in-hong-kong-over-proposed-china-extradition-law-idUSKCN1QW1AC.

23 Blake Schmidt and Karen Leigh, “Hong Kong Scales Back Extradition Law that Spooked Business,” Bloomberg, March 26, 2019. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-03-26/hong-kong-scales-back-extradition-law-that-spooked-businesses.

24 Hong Kong Bar Association, “Observations of the Hong Kong Bar Association (‘HKBA’) on the Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019,” April 2, 2019. https://www.hkba.org/sites/default/files/HKBA%20Observations%20on%20FOMLACM%20Bill%202019%20%28Final%29.pdf.

25 Hong Kong Journalists Association, “Joint Statement: Media Organizations Oppose Fugitives Transfer Bill,” Facebook, April 3, 2019. https://www.facebook.com/242729300308/posts/10156930891150309?sfns=xmwa.

26 Tony Cheung, “The Gruesome Taiwan Murder that Lies Behind Hong Kong Leader Carrie Lam’s Extradition Push,” South China Morning Post, March 27, 2019. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3003381/gruesome-taiwan-murder-lies-behind-hong-kong-leader-carrie.

27 Aaron McNicholas (@aaronMCN), “Read the letter sent by @AmChamHK on concerns surrounding proposed changes to Hong Kong’s extradition laws. ‘The international business community in Hong Kong – like many other members of the Hong Kong public – has grave concerns about the Mainland legal and judicial system,” Twitter, March 6, 2019. https://twitter.com/aaronMCN/status/1103435969754099712/photo/1.

28 Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette, Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019, March 29, 2019. https://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette/pdf/20192313/es3201923139.pdf; Blake Schmidt and Karen Leigh, “Hong Kong Scales Back Extradition Law that Spooked Businesses,” Bloomberg, March 26, 2019. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-03-26/hong-kong-scales-back-extradition-law-that-spooked-businesses; Alvin Lum, “Hong Kong-Mainland China Extradition Plan to Be Watered down by Exempting 9 Economic Crimes, under Intense Pressure from Business Community,” South China Morning Post, March 26, 2019. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/law-and-crime/article/3003320/hong-kong-mainland-china-extradition-plan-be-watered.

29 Alvin Lum and Jeffie Lam, “Hong Kong Extradition Bill Hits a Stumbling Block at Legco as First Meeting of Committee Scrutinizing It Fails to Elect a Chairman,” South China Morning Post, April 17, 2019. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3006563/hong-kong-extradition-bill-hits-stumbling-block-legco-first; Alvin Lum, “Hong Kong-Mainland China Extradition Plan to Be Watered down by Exempting 9 Economic Crimes, under Intense Pressure from Business Community,” South China Morning Post, March 26, 2019. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/law-and-crime/article/3003320/hong-kong-mainland-china-extradition-plan-be-watered.

30 American Chamber of Commerce Hong Kong, “Media Statement – Proposed Fugitive Offenders Ordinance,” March 29, 2019. https://amcham.org.hk/news/media-statement--proposed-fugitive-offenders-ordinance.

31 Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Hong Kong: Serious Concerns about Amendments to Extradition Laws, April 4, 2019. https://www.cecc.gov/media-center/press-releases/hong-kong-serious-concerns-about-amendments-to-extradition-laws.

32 Nancy Pelosi (@SpeakerPelosi), “I join my colleagues @CECCgov in expressing concern about the proposed changes to Hong Kong’s extradition laws. Members of Congress continue to support Hong Kong’s autonomy and we are monitoring this situation closely,” Twitter, April 4, 2019. https://twitter.com/SpeakerPelosi/status/1113934360745525248.

33 U.S. Consulate General Hong Kong & Macau, Transcript of Consul General Kurt Tong’s TVB Straight Talk Interview with Michael Chugani, February 26, 2019. https://hk.usconsulate.gov/sp-2019022601/.

34 Hong Kong Watch, “Breaking: UK Government Raises Concerns about Extradition Law as UK MPs Blast Plans,” April 7, 2019. https://www.hongkongwatch.org/all-posts/2019/4/7/hunt; UK Parliament, Hong Kong Extradition Law EDM #2254, March 29, 2019. https://edm.parliament.uk/early-day-motion/52773/hong-kong-extradition-law.

35 Xiao Xu, “Canada Worried about Implications of New Extradition Treaty between Hong Kong and China,” Globe and Mail, April 18, 2019. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-canada-worried-about-implications-of-new-extradition-treaty-between/.

36 Kris Cheng, “U.S. Lawmakers Concerned about Hong Kong’s Proposed China Extradition Law, Says Democrats,” Hong Kong Free Press, March 19, 2019. https://www.hongkongfp.com/2019/03/19/us-lawmakers-concerned-hong-kongs-proposed-china-extradition-law-say-democrats/; Jeffie Lam, “European Union Voices Concern over Hong Kong’s Plan to Allow Extraditions to Mainland China,” South China Morning Post, March 15, 2019. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3001905/european-union-voices-concern-over-hong-kongs-plan-allow.

37 Duncan Deaeth, “Taiwan Mulls Travel Warning for Hong Kong If New Extradition Law Adopted,” Taiwan News, March 26, 2019. https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3666411; Tony Cheung, “Taiwan Says It Could Issue Travel Warnings for Hong Kong If Extradition Plans Are Not Ditched,” South China Morning Post, March 25, 2019. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3003188/taiwan-says-it-could-issue-travel-warning-hong-kong-if.

38 Human Rights Watch, “Re: Proposed Changes to Hong Kong’s Extradition Laws,” March 31, 2019. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/supporting_resources/letter_to_ce_extradition.pdf.

39 Michael J. Abramowitz, “Letter to Hong Kong’s Carrie Lam: Government Should Postpone Vote on Extradition Amendments,” Freedom House, April 1, 2019. https://freedomhouse.org/article/letter-hong-kongs-carrie-lam-government-should-postpone-vote-extradition-amendments.

40 U.S.-Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992, Pub. L. No. 102–383, 1992.

41 U.S.-Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992, Pub. L. No. 102–383, 1992.

42 U.S. Department of State, 2019 Hong Kong Policy Act Report, March 21, 2019. https://www.state.gov/p/eap/rls/reports/2019/290526.htm.

43 Javier C. Hernandez, “The Foreign Billionaires, Activists and Missionaries Detained in China,” New York Times, December 12, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/12/world/asia/china-foreigners-detained.html.

44 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government Information Centre, Government Responds to Today’s Procession, April 28, 2019. https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/201904/28/P2019042800794.htm.

45 U.S.-Hong Kong Extradition Treaty, August 19, 1997, 2–3, 8–10. https://www.congress.gov/105/crpt/erpt2/CRPT-105erpt2.pdf.

香港拟议引渡法案可能扩大北京的强制范围:美国面临的风险:机译:机译中文  2019-05-11 03:08   刷新   线路1   线路2 

(2019年5月7日,美国国会)美中经济与安全审查委员会(USCC)发表一份研究报告,指目前在香港广受争议的《逃犯条例》修订草案不单可以扩大北京当局在香港施行的政治影响力,更对美国的国家安全与在香港的经济利益构成严重风险。

https://www.uscc.gov/Research/hong-kongs-proposed-extradition-bill-could-extend-beijings-coercive-reach-risks-united

如无法浏览,请切换线路。音视频下载,请点击顶部。扫描二维码,直达本节目。点击二维码,分享到微信。下载安卓版,才不会失联。搜索直达:c1035652

🌕 机译中文  🌕 英文

浏览 926
收藏 1
评论 0

网门大陆网址(自带翻墙) | https://x.co/ogate | https://git.io/ogate2 | https://bit.ly/ogate8

网门安卓版(自带翻墙) | 网门电脑版(自带翻墙) | https://x.co/ofile | https://gitlab.com/ogate2/up | https://github.com/opipe/up