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AN UPDATE TO ‘BLOODY HARVEST’ & ‘THE SLAUGHTER’

《血腥摘取》和《屠杀》更新

Chapter Six: Other Types of Transplant Centres

第六章: 其他类型的器官移植中心

(翻译:启善,校对:德纯)

Unapproved Transplant Hospitals

未获批准的移植医院

Before the Ministry of Health implemented its new permit system in 2007, the total transplant volume of many medium and small transplant institutions comprised 80% of the total in China.  The large transplant centres made up the other 20%. Some of these smaller-scale institutions had significant transplant volumes.

在卫生部2007年实施新的许可制度之前,中国许多中小器官移植机构的总移植数量占总量的80%,大型移植中心占了另外20%,其中一些规模较小的机构的移植数量很大。

Despite not having been granted approval by the Ministry of Health under the new system, many of these facilities have not halted their transplant activities. Compared to the large hospitals, these smaller institutions have more flexibility to obtain living organ sources through various channels. In addition, several dozen unapproved military and armed police hospitals face no restrictions and are performing organ transplants as usual, because they control abundant supplies of living organ sources.

尽管没得到卫生部新制度下的批准,但许多这类机构并没有停止器官移植活动。相比大医院,这些较小的机构通过各种渠道获得活体器官的来源方面更具灵活性。此外,数十家未经批准的部队和武警医院没有受到任何限制,跟往常一样开展器官移植,因为它们控制大量活体器官的来源。

405 large-scale non-approved hospitals (mostly 3A-classified)

405家大型未经批准的医院(大多数为三甲级别)

The majority of 405 institutions in this category Class 3 Grade A hospitals. They have been involved in organ transplants but did not receive permits from the Ministry of Health in 2007. This category includes 56 military and armed police transplant hospitals and 349 civilian transplant hospitals. 1324This category also includes some district, township, and even lower-level hospitals that have high transplant volumes.

这类机构有405家,以三甲医院为主。它们参与器官移植但在2007年未获卫生部批准,包括56家军队和武警移植医院,和349家非军警移植医院,(1324)还包括一些县区、乡镇、甚至是级别很低的医院,他们的移植数量都很高。

Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital

湖南省人民医院

Rendering: Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital 报道: 湖南省人民医院

On April 28, 2006, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital made an announcement in several local newspapers, including the Xiaoxiang Morning News, that the hospital was offering 10 liver and 10 kidney transplants free-of-charge. 1325 The story provoked questions about the source of these organs. The newspaper later modified its story to say that the “living kidney donors were from patients’ relatives.”

2006年4月28日,湖南省人民医院在包括《潇湘晨报》在内的几家地方报纸上声称,该医院将提供10例肝脏和10例肾脏免费移植,此次事件中这些器官的来源遭到质疑,报纸后来改口说“活体肾脏的捐献者来自患者的亲属”。

The hospital’s hepatobiliary surgery department claims to be one of China’s pioneers in hepatobiliary disease treatment.1326 Established in 1983, it has grown to 268 beds and nearly 200 medical personnel. It integrates medical practice, teaching and research and serves as a national base for continuing medical education. This hospital was founded in 2000 and formally established a postdoctoral mobile station in 2008. In 2009, it established collaborative centres for hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery with the U.S. and France. In 2010, the hospital released information indicating that it had over 10,000 outpatient visits and 6,000 inpatients annually.

该医院的肝胆外科声称是中国肝胆疾病治疗的先驱之一,成立于1983年,目前有268张病床和近200名医务人员,集临床医疗、教学、科研于一身,是国家级医学再教育基地,2008年正式成立了博士后流动站,2009年与美国和法国建立了肝胆胰外科协作中心。 2010年,该医院公布信息表明,肝胆外科每年有超过10,000名门诊病人和6,000名住院病人。

Although not approved by the Ministry of Health for transplants, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital’s organ transplant centre completed the first orthotopic liver transplant (the most common type of liver transplant) in Hunan Province.1327 It also maintains a provincial record for the longest survival time after liver transplantation. The hospital currently performs a variety of routine liver and kidney transplant surgeries. In 2005, it introduced liver transplants for patients with advanced cirrhosis.

虽然未获卫生部的移植批准,湖南省人民医院的器官移植中心完成了湖南省第一例原位肝移植(最常见的肝移植类型),它还保持了湖南省移植肝生存时间最长的记录。该医院目前正在开展各种常规的肝肾移植手术,2005年,还为肝硬化晚期患者施行肝脏移植手术。

Both the former and current vice president of the hospital, Professor Li Zhuori and Jiangbo are experts in liver and kidney transplantation.

该医院前任副院长李卓日(音)教授和现任副院长江波(音)教授都是肝肾移植专家。

Yunnan Kidney Disease Hospital

云南肾病医院

Photo: Yunnan Kunming Kidney Disease Hospital 图片: 云南昆明肾病医院1328

Yunnan Kunming Kidney Disease Hospital claims to be a first-class hospital specializing in kidney and liver transplantation in Yunnan province with approximately 100 beds, all in standard and deluxe rooms.1329 The hospital has attracted “patients from over ten countries and regions, including Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam.”1330

云南昆明肾病医院声称是云南省一流的专业做肝肾移植的医院,约有100张床位,设在标准间和豪华间里。(1329)医院吸引了“来自十多个国家和地区的患者,包括香港、澳门、台湾、澳大利亚、泰国、印度尼西亚、马来西亚、新加坡和越南。”

As one of the Top 100 Private Hospitals in China with over 110 staff members,1331 the hospital has both national-level technical experts and a professional nursing team. Xia Huisheng, an organ transplant pioneer, was an honorary president of this hospital. The well-known transplant expert Gao Wei formerly served as its president in charge of technology. Gao was a professor at Zhujiang Hospital affiliated with Southern Medical University, formerly the First Military Medical University.1332 Gao is listed as one of five doctors/authors of a research paper that includes 1,537 kidney transplants.1333

作为中国百强私立医院之一,该院拥有员工110多名,有国家级技术专家和专业护理团队。器官移植先驱夏惠生(音)是该医院的名誉院长。著名移植专家高伟(音)曾担任其技术负责人,他是南方医科大学(原为第一军医大学)附属珠江医院的教授,(1332)是一篇含1,537例肾脏移植研究论文的五位医生(作者)之一。

The hospital later hired Guan Delin, former vice president of the First Affiliated Hospital of Tsinghua University, director of its Urology Centre and deputy director of the Beijing Organ Transplant Centre, as honorary president. His student, Li Guobin, acts as the vice president and director of kidney transplant department.1334 Guan Delin’s personal webpage states that he had experience in over 2,700 kidney transplants and dozens of combined transplants.1335

该院后来聘请了清华大学附属第一医院前副院长、泌尿科中心主任、北京器官移植中心副主任关德林(音)担任名誉院长,他的学生李国斌(音)担任副院长和肾移植科主任。关德林在个人网页上介绍说,他有超过2,700例肾脏移植和数十例联合移植手术的经验。

Dongguan (Humen) Taiping People’s Hospital

东莞(虎门)太平人民医院

Although this township hospital1336 was not included in the list of approved transplant centres issued by the Ministry of Health in 2007, it had performed over 3,000 kidney transplants as of 2007.1337 In the first three months of 2006, this hospital performed over 300 kidney transplants.1338

虽然这家乡镇医院未被列入卫生部2007年批准的移植中心名单,但截至2007年,该医院已进行了3000多例肾脏移植手术。在2006年的前三个月,该医院做了300多例肾脏移植手术。

The Taiping People’s Hospital hired Professor Gao Wei, originally from Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University as its director. Gao was a State Council expert who earned a special allowance. He was on the editorial board of the journal Organ Transplantation in China and a member of the China Dialysis Transplantation Society. He also served part-time as the vice president of the Yunnan Kidney Disease Hospital. In exchange for helping several hospitals in Kunming to develop their kidney transplant centres and providing them with specialty support, the Taiping hospital obtained many living organ sources from Kunming.1339

太平人民医院聘请了来自南方医科大学珠江医院的高伟(音)教授担任主任,他是获得国务院特殊津贴的专家,是中国器官移植期刊的编辑委员会成员,也是中国透析移植学会的成员,还兼任云南肾病医院副院长。作为交换条件,在帮助昆明的几家医院发展肾移植中心并为它们提供专业技术的同时,太平医院从昆明获取了许多活体器官。

Most of the other doctors at the People’s Hospital were also professors retired from Zhujiang Hospital, affiliated hospital of the First Military Medical University. Among this group, Li Jie had participated in more than 4,000 kidney transplants and over 50 liver transplants, and presided over at least 500 kidney transplant as of 2010.1340

该人民医院的大多数其他医生也是第一军医大学附属珠江医院退休的教授,其中李杰(音)参加了4000多例肾脏移植手术和50多例肝脏移植手术,截至2010年他至少主刀了500例肾脏移植手术。

The hospital actively recruited patients from Southeast Asia. On January 9, 2004, Min Sheng Daily News reported, “Transplant tourist groups from Taiwan ‘land’ [in Dongguan] every month. Taiping People’s Hospital in Dongguan City in Guangdong Province is one of the receiving hospitals, which is well-known for kidney transplants.” The report stated that the hospital had “performed kidney transplants for 425 patients from more than 10 countries and regions, such as Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, Hong Kong and Taiwan.” 1341

该医院积极招揽来自东南亚的患者。2004年1月9日,《民生日报》报道:“每个月都有来自台湾的器官移植旅游团体在东莞‘登陆’,广东省东莞市的太平人民医院是接收医院之一,以肾脏移植而闻名。”报告还指出,“该医院已对来自10多个国家和地区的425名患者做了肾脏移植手术,如韩国、新加坡、马来西亚、越南、香港和台湾。”(1341)

Below is the experience of a 52-year-old Singaporean businessman who received his kidney transplant there in February 2004: 1342

以下是2004年2月在那里接受肾脏移植的52岁新加坡商人的经历:(1342)

“In late February 2004, by the arrangements of my friend and a local nephropathy authority, my blood tests report was sent to Taiping Hospital by fax on February 28. Four days later, I was notified that they had found a matching kidney source, which could be transplanted immediately.”

“2004年2月下旬,在我的朋友和当地一位肾病行家的安排下,我的验血报告于2月28日通过传真送到太平医院。四天后,他们通知我找到了匹配的肾源,可以立即做移植手术。”

“On March 1, it took me two hours and a half to reach the Taiping Hospital. Its kidney transplant department was located on 2nd, 3rd and 4th floors. The ward was a large suite, with a living room and kitchenette. On March 5, two days after I arrived, I received the transplant surgery performed by Professor Gaowei. I had stayed in Intensive Care Unit ward for five days, and I moved to the normal ward on the sixth day. Color TV, video player … the ward had everything that I expected, just like a four to five-star hotel. Four restaurants arranged by the hospital would deliver the meals I ordered to my ward. Since there was a business centre, it was easy for me to receive and send emails, faxes and phone calls. Everything was very convenient.”

“3月1日,我花了两个半小时到达太平医院。它的肾移植部位于2楼、3楼和4楼。 病房是一间大套房,设有起居室和小厨房。 3月5日,也就是在我来了两天之后,高伟(音)教授给我做了移植手术。我在重症监护病房住了五天,第六天我搬到了普通病房,彩电、视频播放器等,病房里应有尽有,就像四五星级酒店一样。 医院安排的四家餐厅将我订购的餐点送到我的病房。由于那里有一个商务中心,我可以很便利的接发送电子邮件、传真和接打电话,一切都很方便。”

Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital

西安高新医院

Photos and renderings: Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital 照片和效果图: 西安高新医院1343

Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital is a joint venture with a British hospital management company. Its organ transplant centre was established in 2003. Although this Class 3 Grade B hospital has not been approved by the Ministry of Health for transplants, its chief expert is Shi Bingyi, an expert from Beijing’s People’s Liberation Army No. 309 Hospital. This Xi’an hospital has also attracted a large number of patients from foreign countries.

西安高新医院是一家与英国医院管理公司合资的企业,它的器官移植中心成立于2003年,这家三乙医院的移植未经卫生部批准,但其首席专家是北京人民解放军309医院的史秉义(音)。这家西安医院也吸引了大量国外患者。

In the first two years after its establishment, it had already performed more than 500 kidney transplants. The Centre’s deputy director, Fan Yuhui, said that the hospital had a large organ donor pool to enable quick matching. It ensured short times for transplants, the main reason it attracted many overseas transplant brokers.1344

该移植中心成立后的头两年,就做了500多例肾脏移植手术,中心的副主任范玉辉(音)表示,该医院有个庞大的器官捐献者库,可以快速匹配器官,这样保证了移植前等待时间短,这也是吸引许多海外移植经纪人的主要原因。

The hospital claimed that during its startup phase, “No matter how hot or cold the weather, 4 to 5 people squeezed into a run-down van to extract organs from donors,” and “7 to 8 transplants were performed over a period of one day and night.”1345

该医院声称,在创业阶段,“无论天气多么炎热或寒冷,4至5名工作人员挤进一辆破旧的货车并从捐献者身上摘取器官”,并且“在一天一夜的时间里做了7到8台移植手术。”(1345)

Guangzhou Economic and Technology Development Zone Hospital

广州经济技术开发区医院

Guangzhou Economic and Technology Development Zone Hospital 广州经济技术开发区医院1346

This Guangzhou hospital is a Class 2 facility in the Guangzhou economic development zone. As of September, 2006, its former deputy director of organ transplant, Lin Minzhuan had personally performed over 2,000 kidney transplants. 1347 Professor Lin holds a PhD in medicine and advises master’s students. He was formerly the director of Zhujiang Hospital Organ Transplantation and Blood Purification Centre of the First Military Medical University, the former of Southern Medical University. 1348

这家广州医院是位于广州经济开发区的二级医院。截至2006年9月,其前任器官移植副主任林敏专(音)已亲自做了2000多例肾脏移植手术。林教授医学博士毕业,硕士生导师,曾任第一军医大学(南方医科大学的前身)珠江医院器官移植与血液净化中心的主任。

Our analysis of hospitals indicates that, before the Ministry of Health released “Interim Regulations on the Management of Human Organ Transplant Clinical Applications,” the total volume of organ transplants conducted by a huge number of small and medium-sized transplant centres was not less than that of the large transplant centres. Once live organ harvesting became the norm, then, as long as an institution could procure organs, it would seize every opportunity to make money, regardless of approval by the authorities. In particular, the military and armed police hospitals felt unrestricted by the regulations and have continued to perform transplant operations even after 2007. Some small facilities were able to sustain their operations by building good relationships with military hospitals, large transplant centres, well-known experts, and the judicial system.

我们对这些医院的分析表明,在卫生部公布《人体器官移植临床应用管理暂行条例》之前,大量中小型器官移植中心的器官移植总量不低于大型器官移植中心。一旦器官摘除成为常态,那么,只要一家机构能够获得器官,它就会抓住一切赚钱的机会,无论当局是否批准。特别是,军队和武装警察医院感到不受法规限制,甚至在2007年之后仍继续进行器官移植手术。一些小型机构则通过与军队医院、大型移植中心、著名专家和司法系统建立良好的关系,从而维持其运作。

161 medium-scale and “alternative” Transplant Centres

161中等规模和"替代"移植中心

This category of 161 medium-scale transplant institutions includes 55 Class 3 Grade B hospitals and 106 Class 2 hospitals, as well as a few smaller ones that also conduct organ transplants. The medium-sized hospitals’ transplant centres usually perform more kidney transplants, which have lower technical requirements than liver transplants.

这类型的器官移植中,有161家中等规模的移植机构,其中包括55家3乙级医院和106家二级医院,此外还有少量也从事器官移植的更小的医院。中等医院的移植中心通常更多地选择做肾脏移植手术,因其技术要求低于肝脏移植。

Many unqualified specialist hospitals, including those of Chinese medicine, maternity, forensics, occupational diseases, and other unrelated disciplines have tried to find ways to cash in on organ transplants despite not having the expertise or facilities to do so.

许多不合格的专科医院,包括从事中医、产科、法医、职业病等与器官移植无关的学科,尽管没有专业技能或设施,但仍试图设法从器官移植中获利。

Kunming Forensic Hospital

昆明法医院

Kunming Forensic Hospital was the first designated forensic hospital in Yunnan Province.1349 It was also one of the earliest research and development facilities to research “deaths induced by drug injection.” 1350 This hospital also has a kidney transplant centre. In cooperation with Taiping People’s Hospital in Dongguan City, between 2001 and 2008, it completed thousands of solid organ tissue typing operations1351 and 1,537 kidney transplants.1352

昆明法医院是云南省第一家指定的法医医院,也是最早研究“药物注射致人死亡”的研发机构之一。该医院也设有肾移植中心,2001年至2008年间,与东莞市的太平人民医院合作完成了数千个实体器官组织分型手术和1,537例肾脏移植手术。

In December 2006, Gao Yuan Magazine reported that a college student who needed a kidney transplant had received an invitation on May 18, 2006 for a free kidney transplant from this hospital. On May 29, the Hospital president Wang Jun welcomed this student in person, and chief surgeon Gao Wei performed the transplant.1353

2006年12月,《高原》杂志报道,一名需要肾移植的大学生在2006年5月18日收到了这家医院的免费肾移植邀请。5月29日,医院院长王军亲自接待了这名学生,首席外科医生高伟为其进行了移植手术

The hospital’s website stated, “Nephrology is the first pillar of this forensic hospital. It mainly performs kidney transplants. Due to abundant kidney sources, it performs the majority of organ transplant surgeries in the province of Yunnan.”1354

该医院的网站上显示:"肾脏学是这家法医医院的第一支柱。它主要进行肾脏移植。由于肾源丰富,在云南省进行器官移植手术的大多数是由它来完成的。"

Gongyi City Chinese Medicine Hospital

巩义市中医院

Gongyi City Chinese Medicine Hospital is located in Gongyi County of Zhengzhou City, Henan Province. Established in 1982, it was formerly a small hospital specializing in developing medical technology based on traditional Chinese herbal medicine.1355 It is now a Class 2 hospital.

巩义市中医院位于河南省郑州市巩义县,成立于1982年,以前是一家专门从事传统中草药医疗技术的小医院,现在是一家二级医院。

It established a kidney transplant centre in 2001 that could carry out 8 kidney transplants in one day.1356 By 2006, Li Hongdao, director of the urology centre, had performed over 500 kidney transplants. On average, he conducted over 80 transplants per year from 2001 to 2006.

该医院2001年成立肾移植中心,一天可做8台肾移植手术。截至2006年,泌尿科中心主任李洪道(音)已做了500多台肾移植手术,从2001年到2006年平均每年做80多台。

Weifang Ren De Hospital

潍坊仁德医院

Weifang Ren De hospital is located in Weifang City’s High-Tech Industry Development Zone in Shandong Province. It is a private hospital originally staffed by just over 20 people in 1995. Its official website has been removed. However, an archived hospital webpage dated December 23, 2007 states that Weifang Ren De Hospital is a blood purification and kidney transplant-based urology hospital, ranking among the top in Shandong province in the field of kidney transplants.1357 It has engaged in specialty collaboration with the Affiliated Hospital of Capital Medical University in Beijing and took the lead in HLA typing in Shandong province. In the five years between 1999 and 2004, the hospital completed thousands of tissue matches for organ transplants.1358

潍坊仁德医院位于山东省潍坊市高新技术产业开发区,是一所私立医院,1995年成立之初仅20多人,其官方网站一度被删除。然而,2007年12月23日之前的医院网页显示,潍坊仁德医院是一家以血液净化和肾移植为主的泌尿外科医院,在山东省肾移植领域名列前茅。它与北京首都医科大学附属医院合作,在山东省率先开展HLA分型,1999年至2004年的五年间,该医院完成了数千个移植器官组织匹配。

The hospital’s president, Liu Zongjian, previously worked in the Weifang People’s Hospital’s urology department. Liu left to establish Ren De Hospital in 1995. The hospital brought in advanced management experience from the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute in the U.S. As of 2007, it had performed kidney transplants for nearly 10 years.1359

该院院长刘宗建(音)曾在潍坊市人民医院泌尿科工作,1995年离职后建立仁德医院。该医院从美国的匹兹堡大学“托马斯•E•斯塔尔移植研究所”获得了先进的管理经验,截至2007年,已开展肾脏移植手术近10年。

Li Dayue joined Ren De Hospital in 2001 as director of surgery. He performed over 300 kidney transplant surgeries in three years.1360 He then moved to Qidu Hospital, a maternity and child care hospital located in Zibo City, 1361 where he was again in charge of an organ transplantation and blood purification centre.

李大月(音)2001年加入仁德医院担任外科主任,三年内完成了300多例肾移植手术,后来去了淄博市的妇幼保健院——七都医院,再次负责器官移植和血液净化中心。

Around the 2006 Chinese New Year, Ren De Hospital charged 65,000 RMB for transplant surgery, including 30,000 RMB for the kidney source. The fee for the kidney source later rose to 50,000 RMB.1362 The physicians claimed that all of the donors they used were young and healthy.

2006年农历新年期间,仁德医院的器官移植手术创收6.5万元人民币,其中包括3万元人民币的肾源费,肾源费后来升至5万元,该院医生声称他们使用的所有器官捐献者都是年轻健康的。

Dr. Cui said, “Don’t underestimate this small hospital. We dedicate ourselves to specializing in this [organ transplantation]. I believe we have the largest source of kidneys in Shandong Province and perform the most [transplants]. We obtain our kidneys from sources throughout the country. The kidneys leave the [donor’s] body in less than 24 hours. The quality is absolutely assured. Our hospital president obtains the [kidneys] himself and performs the surgeries personally.”

崔医生说:“不要低估这家小医院,我们致力于专门研究[器官移植],我相信我们有山东省最大的肾源,开展[移植手术]最多。我们从全国各地获取肾脏,肾脏离开[捐献者]的身体不超过24小时,质量绝对有保证,我们医院的院长亲自摘取[肾脏]并施行手术。”

Cornea Transplant Centres

角膜移植中心

We observed across the transplant hospitals surveyed that the hospitals performed a wide variety of transplants: kidney, liver, heart, lung, spleen, adrenal glands, pancreas, combined liver-kidney, combined pancreas-kidney, heart-lung, heart-kidney, small intestine, liver-pancreas-duodenum, pancreas-duodenum-kidney, liver-pancreas, liver-small intestine, pancreas-kidney, parathyroid, thyroid-parathyroid-thymus, abdominal organ cluster, all 7 abdominal organs, and eight large full abdominal organs. The list includes 23 kinds of single-organ and multi-organ transplants, including cornea, bone marrow, testicular, bone, skin (including facial), hair, larynx, and many other types of tissue transplants.

我们在所调查的器官移植医院观察到,这些医院开展了多种多样的器官移植手术:肾脏,肝脏,心脏,肺脏,脾脏,肾上腺,胰腺,肝肾联合,胰肾联合,心肺,心肾,小肠,肝胰十二指肠,胰十二指肠 - 肾(联合),肝 - 胰,肝 - 小肠,胰 - 肾,甲状旁腺,甲状腺 - 甲状旁腺 - 胸腺,腹部器官组,全部七个腹部器官,八个大型的全腹部器官。移植器官的清单中包括23种单器官和多器官移植,其中含角膜,骨髓,睾丸,骨骼,皮肤(包括面部),头发,喉部和许多其他类型的组织移植。

Compared to large organ transplants, cornea transplants have less technical requirements, much lower costs, and huge market demand. Many medical institutions are performing large volumes of cornea transplants. In addition to large hospitals’ ophthalmology departments and many eye hospitals, occupational diseases hospitals, traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, and others also took part in cornea transplants in large volumes. We list a few examples below.

与大器官移植相比,角膜移植技术要求较低,成本较低,市场需求巨大,许多医疗机构都在大量开展角膜移植手术。除了大医院的眼科和许多眼科医院外,职业病医院、中医医院等也大量参与了角膜移植手术。下面我们仅举几例。

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre

中山眼科中心

Chen Jiaqi, director of the Zhongshan University Ophthalmic Centre, founder of the China Eye Bank, and director of the Eye Bank of Guangdong Province, said in an interview with People’s Daily on June 7, 20121363 that according to his estimation, China needs to perform at least 300,000 to 400,000 cornea transplants each year to meet the needs of patients. However, “of the 20 eye banks nationwide, almost all are empty,” because there are no national guidelines on centralized cornea donation, restrictions on their use, or reception of gifts from foreign eye banks.

陈嘉琪(音),中山大学眼科中心主任,中国眼库创始人,广东省眼库主任,2012年6月7日接受《人民日报》采访时表示,据他估算,中国每年至少要进行30万至40万次角膜移植手术来满足患者需求。然而,“全国20个眼库(角膜等)几乎都是空的”,因为没有有关角膜捐赠、限制使用、接受外国眼库的角膜等的国家政策。

The hospital’s website stated that the hospital had performed more than 40,000 cornea transplants and ocular surgeries. 1364 Its total number of surgeries and volume per year ranked first in the country.

该医院的网站显示该医院已开展了4万多次角膜移植和眼科手术,手术总数和每年的数量全国排名第一。

Ophthalmic Hospital Affiliated with the First Hospital of Harbin Medical University

哈尔滨医科大学第一医院附属眼科医院

This hospital was one of the earliest in the field of cornea transplantation. It claims to be among the most advanced in the country and the leader in the province. It hosts the Heilongjiang Provincial Eye Bank. The hospital currently has more than 180 professional and technical personnel, including more than 90 doctors and 94 nurses and technicians, among whom 51 have senior titles, 56 have intermediate titles, 39 have doctoral degrees, and 42 have master’s degrees. The hospital has 229 beds, treats 190,000 patients, and conducts more than 10,000 surgeries each year.1365

该医院是开展角膜移植手术最早的医院之一,自称是国内最先进者之一、省内的领军者,是黑龙江省眼库所在地。医院现有专业技术人员180多人,其中医生90余人,护士、技术人员94人,其中高级职称51人,中级职称56人,博士学位39人,硕士42人,床位229张,每年治疗患者190,000名,开展10,000多次手术。

The dean of the Eye Hospital is Professor Liu Ping. He also serves as the director of the Eye Bank of Heilongjiang Province and director of the Key Laboratory of Eye Centre of the Harbin Medical University.  He led the formation of the eye bank and developed multiple technological innovations in cornea transplantation and preservation, which put the hospital in a leading position in this field domestically. 1366

眼科医院的院长是刘平(音)教授,他还兼任黑龙江省眼库主任,哈尔滨医科大学眼科中心重点实验室主任。他组织成立眼库,在角膜移植和保护方面开展了多项技术创新,使该医院在国内这一领域处于领先地位。

The Eye Bank was established in 1999 but received only one donation in the five years after it opened. Liu Ping said, “We have to find alternative sources of corneas to use for our transplants.”

该眼库1999年成立,但在成立后的五年内只有一例(角膜等)捐献。 刘平说:“我们必须找到替代的角膜来源来做我们的移植手术。”

In recent years, Liu has received funds for three projects under the National Natural Science Foundation—one under the national Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010), one under the Department of International Cooperation, and eight provincial research projects. He has also published six books and more than 200 papers in core journals at home and abroad, including 30 Science Citation Index papers.

近年来,刘平获得国家自然科学基金中的三项资金,其中国家“十一五”计划(2006-2010)一项,国际合作司所属项目一项,和8个省级研究课题。他著书六本,在国内外核心期刊上发表了200多篇论文,其中包括30篇科学引文索引论文。

Weifang Medical College Hospital Eye Centre: 9,000 Cornea Transplants Since 1991

潍坊医学院眼科中心: 1991年至今,9000例角膜移植手术

According to the Centre’s website,1367 the hospital established China’s first formal eye bank in 1979 and had carried out nearly 10,000 cornea transplant surgeries by April 2014. The hospital thanked the relevant government departments in actively supporting, cooperating, and broadening the sources of cornea donors. According to the doctors’ paper, between July 1984 and December 1990, the hospital had only 898 cases (1,139 eyes) of outpatient registration appointments for cornea transplantation.1368 Thus, the other 9,000 or so transplants were carried out in or after 1991.

该中心的网站显示,该医院1979年建立了中国第一家正规眼库,2014年4月前开展了近万次角膜移植手术。医院感谢有关政府部门积极支持、合作和拓展角膜捐献者的来源。根据该院医生的论文,在1984年7月至1990年12月期间,该医院只有898例(1,139只眼)预约角膜移植的门诊登记,因此,其它9,000例左右的移植是在1991年及之后开展的。

Shandong Weifang Eye Hospital: Thousands of Cornea Transplants Since 1999

山东潍坊眼科医院:1999年至今成千上万角膜移植

This hospital’s website claimed to have a formal eye bank approved by the Health Department of Shandong Province in 2007.1369 Since it performed its first cornea transplant in 1999, it has carried out thousands of cornea transplants. The Centre has a number of experts, including Zhang Shaobin, who has independently completed a few thousand cornea transplants of various types.1370 The hospital’s website also states that its eye bank provides patients with ample cornea sources.

该医院的网站显示其有一家2007年山东省卫生厅批准的正式眼库,自1999年首次进行角膜移植手术以来,已经开展了数千次角膜移植手术。该中心拥有包括张少斌(音)在内的多位专家,他们独立完成了几千次不同类型的角膜移植。该医院的网站还指出,其眼库为患者提供了充足的角膜来源。

Shandong Eye Institute: Over 10,000 Cornea Transplants by One Doctor

山东眼科研究所: 一名医生10000多例角膜移植

This facility carries out a large number of cornea transplants. Multiple media reported that the director of the institute, Zhang Lixin, had performed over 10,000 cornea transplants by April 2008.1371

这个研究所做了大量的角膜移植手术,据多家媒体报道,到2008年4月,该研究所所长张立新(音)做了1万多例角膜移植手术。

In June 2006, a patient`s family member wrote to the Minghui.org website,1372 “I have a relative who was referred to the Shandong Eye Institute by the Third People’s Hospital of Dalian. The cornea transplant surgery was performed on the third day of admission. There are many young doctors working in that hospital for patients from all over the country. Beds are rarely vacant, and doctors are very busy. They need to do more than a dozen transplants every day.”

2006年6月,一位患者的家属写信给Minghui.org(明慧)网站:"我有一个亲戚被大连第三人民医院介绍到山东眼科研究所,角膜移植手术是在入院第三天进行的。那家医院有许多年轻的医生为来自全国各地的病人工作,床很少空着,医生也很忙,他们每天要做十几台移植手术。"

General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command Claimed Largest Eye Bank in Northeast

沈阳军区总医院自称是东北最大的眼库

The General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command is one of the largest military hospitals in China. Not only are its kidney and liver transplant centres well-known in China, but the hospital is also well-known for its ophthalmology department, which has the largest eye bank in the People’s Liberation Army and in northeastern China.1373 This hospital leads the northeastern region in cornea transplant volume. It is known as the only hospital in the region with readily available corneas for transplant patients at any given time.

沈阳军区总医院是中国最大的军队医院之一,不仅其肾脏和肝脏移植中心在中国广为人知,而且该医院也因其眼科而闻名,该眼科有人民解放军和中国东北地区最大的眼库。该医院在角膜移植量居东北地区首位,是该地区唯一一家在任何时间都可为患者提供移植角膜的医院。

No. 463 Hospital of Shenyang Military Command Biggest in Northeast

沈阳军区东北最大的463医院

No. 463 Hospital is the location of the Liaoning Province Red Cross Eye Bank. It claims to be the biggest cornea transplant centre in the northeastern region and have the richest source of highest-quality corneas. At least six of its doctors are involved in cornea transplants.1374

沈阳军区463医院是辽宁省红十字眼库所在地,自称是东北地区最大的角膜移植中心,拥有最丰富的高质量角膜的来源,至少有6名医生参与角膜移植手术。

First Hospital of China Medical University in Shenyang

沈阳市中国医科大学第一医院

The First Hospital of China Medical University, located in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, also performs cornea transplants on a large scale.

中国医科大学第一医院,位于辽宁省沈阳市,也在大规模开展角膜移植手术。

Its ophthalmology centre spreads over 4,000 square meters. It has six standardized operating rooms and 62 beds. Its outpatient capacity reaches over 60,000 per year. The hospital performs over 2,500 surgeries annually. It has 59 professional and technical personnel, including 15 with senior titles, 10 with intermediate titles, and 17 residents.1375

其眼科中心占地4000多平方米,有六个标准化的手术室和62张病床,年门诊量6万多人。该医院每年做2,500多台手术,现有专业技术人员59人,其中高级职称15人,中级职称10人,固定人员17人。

Its former director of the cornea centre, Hong Jing, was also the director of the Eye Bank of China Medical University from 2002 to March 2006. She joined the centre as a master’s student in 19901376 and started to perform cornea transplants in 1996. In 10 years, she conducted over 1,140 cornea transplant of various types.1377 The centre’s website claimed that it performed 2,000 cornea transplants between 1996 and 2012, a number incommensurate with the hospital’s other figures.

其前任角膜中心主任洪静(音),2002年至2006年3月担任中国医科大学眼库主任。她于1990年作为硕士生加入该中心,并于1996年开始做角膜移植手术。过去10年来,她开展了超过1,140次各种类型的角膜移植手术。该中心的网站显示,在1996年至2012年间该中心开展了2,000次角膜移植手术,这一数据与该医院的其他数据不相称。

Sujiatun Thrombosis Hospital: One Doctor Extracted 2,000 Corneas in Two Years

苏家屯血栓病医院: 一名医生两年摘取2000只角膜

A woman using the pseudonym Annie in 2006 stated that her ex-husband worked at this hospital as a surgeon and, between October 2001 and October 2003, removed 2,000 corneas from living Falun Gong practitioners.1378 This hospital is 30 kilometers away from the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command.

一名使用化名 Annie 的女子2006年指出,她的前夫在这家医院担任外科医生,2001年10月至2003年10月期间,从活着的法轮功学员身上摘走了2,000个角膜。该医院距离沈阳军区总医院30公里。

Non-Transplant-Related Specialty Hospitals Also Performing Cornea Transplants

非移植相关专科医院也在进行角膜移植

Even hospitals of non-transplant-related specialties, such as occupational diseases hospitals and traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, are performing cornea transplants. For example, a doctoral thesis from the Henan Provincial Occupational Diseases Hospital claimed that, between 2003 and 2007, the cornea donors they used were young adults who had suffered sudden deaths.1379 Between 2000 and 2001, the cornea donors used by the Jiangsu Province Jintan City Chinese Medicine Hospital were also young adults who had suffered sudden deaths; cornea procurement was completed within two hours.1380

即使是非移植相关专科的医院,如职业病医院和中医院,也在进行角膜移植。例如,河南省职业病医院的一篇博士论文声称,2003年至2007年期间,他们使用的角膜捐献者是突然死亡的年轻成年人。在2000年至2001年期间,江苏省金坛市中医院所使用的角膜捐献者也是突然死亡的年轻成年人,角膜摘取在两小时内完成。

In general, the scale of cornea transplantation in mainland China is at least that of liver and kidney transplants.

一般来说,中国大陆角膜移植的规模至少与肝肾移植相当。

 

References

参考文献

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http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45858
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WOIPFG Releases List of 2098 Medical Personnel in 100 People’s Libertion Armyand Armed Police Hospitals Suspected of Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
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1325 Offer 20 organ transplants for free
Source: Sina Net Apr 28, 2006
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1326 Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital
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湖南省人民医院肝胆外科

1327 Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital – Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery Fruitful, Renowned Nationwide
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1328 YunNan Kidney Disease Hospital
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云南昆明肾脏病医院-概况

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云南肾脏病医院

1332 YunNan Kidney Disease Hospital — a branch of the Yunnan Province Organ Transplant Centre
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云南肾脏病医院-云南省器官移植中心分部

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http://www.dgtpyy.com/zhuanjia_Detailed.asp?id=149
https://web.archive.org/web/20160117013634/http://www.dgtpyy.com/zhuanjia_Detailed.asp?id=149
广东省东莞市太平人民医院李杰简介

1341 Guangdong Dongguan City Taiping People’s Hospital Performed 40 Transplant in one Month – Medical fax
Source: People Net May 18, 2001
http://people.com.cn/BIG5/paper53/3380/432082.html
https://archive.is/ereER
廣東東莞太平人民醫院一個月做腎移植手朮40例-医学传真 来源:人民网 2001年05月18日

1342 Diary Notes of a Patient from Singapore after his Surgery at the Humen Taiping Hospital, Guangdong Province –
Investigation into Organ Harvesting: Kidney Transplant Hospitals Actively Recruiting Customers in Southeast Asia, and Other Leads September 21, 2008
http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2008/9/21/100822.html

1343 Birds-eye view of Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital
http://www.gxyy.net/aboutpc-8.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20160327022950/http://gxyy.net/aboutpc-8.html
西安高新医院鸟瞰图

1344 Xi’an High-tech hospitals have a large number of organ sources for transplant
Source: Epoch Times September 14, 2006
www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/9/14/n1454351.htm
西安高新医院有大量来源供做器官移植 大纪元新闻网 2006年9月14日

1345 A Decade Urology Surgery Department – – 10 years of memories
Dated: 2012-09-05
http://www.gxyy.net/ksnewsshow-1886.html
https://archive.is/thn12
十年泌尿外科――10年记忆 2012-09-05

1346 Guangzhou Economic and Technology Development Zone Hospital
Source: Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/166822.htm
https://archive.is/M3u68
广州经济技术开发区医院

1347 Lin Minzhuan – Organ Transplant Department at Guangzhou Economic and Technology Development Zone Hospital
http://ysk.99.com.cn/ys/introduction/190094.html
https://web.archive.org/save/http://ysk.99.com.cn/ys/introduction/190094.html
林民专-广州经济技术开发区医院 _器官移植

1348 Lin Minzhuan – Organ Transplant Department at the 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
Source: Physician Assistant
http://yyk.39.net/doctor/278657_detail.html
https://archive.is/bGypu
林民专-广州医科大学附属第三医院_器官移植科_ 就医助手

1349 Kunming Forensic Hospital Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/187111.htm
https://archive.is/fqLsJ
《百度百科》昆明法医院

1350 Lethal Injection: 12 Years Still and Change
Source: emagazine: People’s Public Security Sep 15, 2009 Zhou Qiong
http://www.cpd.com.cn/gb/newspaper/2009-09/15/content_1205779.htm
https://archive.is/nHUPz
注射死刑:12年的静止与变化 电子版 《人民公安》 2009年09月15日 周 琼

1351 Expert Profile: Shuai Li Forensic Science Identification Centre at Kunming Forensic Hospital
http://www.kmfyy.com/zjjj_xx.asp?ID=159
https://web.archive.org/web/20160117020447/http://www.kmfyy.com/zjjj_xx.asp?ID=159
《昆明法医院司法鉴定中心》专家简介 帅莉

1352 Clinical Studies in Highly Sensitized Recipients with Renal Transplantation
Source: Laboratory Medicine and Clinic Vol 5, No. 07, 2008, p.396-398 Shuai Li, Guo Cuihua, Yuan Xiaopeng, Gao Wei
http://www.chemdrug.com/article/7/626/3126124.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160117020742/http://www.chemdrug.com/article/7/626/3126124.html
《检验医学与临床》 2008年5卷07期 396-398页(英文期刊名LABORATORY MEDICINE AND CLINIC)
“高度致敏受者行肾移植术的临床研究”作者:帅莉, 郭翠华, 袁小鹏, 高伟

1353 Friendship – A Paved Road of Life
Plateau Magazine December 6, 2006 Na Wencui
http://www.yslzc.com/zazhi/gy/disanqi/200612/11305.html
https://archive.is/kYy3E
《高原杂志》 2006-12-6,作者:纳文翠

1354 Introduction to Kunming Forensic Hospital
http://forensic.xjtu.edu.cn/zdxk/12jiaoyu05jidi.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160117021031/http://forensic.xjtu.edu.cn/zdxk/12jiaoyu05jidi.htm
昆明法医院简介

1355 Gongyi City Chinese Medicine Hospital Interactive Encyclopedia
http://www.baike.com/wiki/%E5%B7%A9%E4%B9%89%E5%B8%82%E4%B8%AD%E5%8C%BB%E9%99%A2
http://archive.is/dMfQb
巩义市中医院 互动百科

1356 Li Hongdao – Expert at West Hebei Renal Transplant Centre
http://www.gykidney.cn/zjjj.asp
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/report/2015/59389_218.png
《中国豫西肾病肾移植中心》 “专家介绍– 李宏道”

1357 Introduction of Weifang Rende Hospital
http://www.chinarende.com/jianjie.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20071222151242/http://www.chinarende.com/jianjie.htm
潍坊仁德医院简介

1358 The application of HLA tissue matching in PRA-positive recipients of renal transplantation
ACTA ACADEMIAE MEDICINAE WEIFANG 2004 Vol.26 Edition 06 page.437-438 2004
Authors: Song Botao, Liu Zhongjian, Wang Chunyan from Weifang Rende Hospital
http://www.doc88.com/p-19130074348.html
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/medicalarticles/220.pdf
“HLA组织配型在PRA阳性受者肾移植中的应用” 《潍坊医学院学报》2004年26卷06期 437-438页
宋波涛, 刘宗健, 王春彦(潍坊仁德医院,山东,潍坊,261041)

1359 Weifang Rende Hospital Expert Liu Zhongjian
http://www.chinarende.com/zhuanjia.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20070723022042/http://www.chinarende.com/zhuanjia.htm
潍坊仁德医院刘宗健简历

1360 Expert – Li Dayue – Organ Transplant Centre of Qidu Hospital
http://lidayue.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
http://archive.is/V3MhA
专家介绍 – 李大跃 – 齐都医院器官移植中心

1361 Introduction to Qidu Hospital Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/3731422.htm
http://archive.is/w3Ft2
齐都医院

1362 Investigation Lead: The Privately-owned Rende Hospital in Weifang City in Shandong Province
Has Performed Many Kidney Transplants Minghui.org August 29, 2006
http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/8/29/77447.html
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/8/23/136076.html
《明慧网》调查线索:潍坊个体医院——仁德医院大量做肾移植

1363 Cornea Donations Severely Inadequate
Source: People’s Daily June 7, 2012
http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb//html/2012-06/07/nw.D110000renmrb_20120607_6-13.htm
https://archive.is/YfOnh
2012年06月07日《 人民日报 》《角膜捐献严重不足》

1364 Zhongshan University Ophthalmic Centre Cornea Specialist
http://www.gzzoc.com/ylfw/lcks/jmbk/
https://archive.is/HBiFH
《中山大学中山眼科中心》角膜病专科

1365 Introduction to the Cornea Hospital affiliated to the Harbin Medical University
http://www.hydyk.com/web/detail/,P=0,ID=S8R26V97H0O76569.shtml
https://archive.is/RYrj5
哈尔滨医科大学附一院眼科医院介绍

1366 Introduction to Liuping, the dean of the Cornea Hospital affiliated to the Harbin Medical University
http://www.hydyk.com/web/detail/,P=0,ID=H44V591O14Y21H99.shtml
https://archive.is/ZfiVQ
哈医大一院眼科医院院长-刘平简介

1367 Introduction to the Department of Cornea Treatment at the Weifang Medical School Affiliated Hospital
http://www.wyfy.cn/public3.asp?BigID=12&SmallID=166
https://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.wyfy.cn/public3.asp?BigID=12&SmallID=166
潍坊医学院附属医院眼科简介

1368 Thesis Title: Statistical Analysis of 898 Cases of Reserved Keratoplasty
China National Knowledge Network Yang Lianzhou; Li Guiren; Wang Jie
http://www.nklib.com:8003/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?filename=MAKE199203015&dbcode=CJFD&dbname=CJFD1992
https://web.archive.org/web/20160117023101/http://www.nklib.com:8003/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?filename=MAKE199203015&dbcode=CJFD&dbname=CJFD1992
论文题目:预约角膜移植手术898例统计分析 《中国知网》 杨连洲; 李贵仁; 王杰;

1369 Introduction to the Cornea Treatment Centre at Weifang Eye Hospital
http://www.wfeye.com/SpecDetail.asp?ID=4
http://web.archive.org/web/20150317094511/http://www.wfeye.com/SpecDetail.asp?ID=4
潍坊眼科医院角膜病治疗中心简介

1370 Expert in the Cornea Treatment Centre at Weifang Eye Hospital Zhang Shaobin
http://www.wfeye.com/ExpertDetail.asp?ID=6
http://web.archive.org/web/20150317081009/http://www.wfeye.com/ExpertDetail.asp?ID=6
潍坊眼科医院角膜病治疗中心专家 张少斌

1371 Two Scientists in Shangdong Won One Million Award Respectively Xinhua Net April 23, 2008 Wang Haiying
http://news.xinhuanet.com/newscentre/2008-04/23/content_8035518.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20160209210731/http://news.xinhuanet.com/newscentre/2008-04/23/content_8035518.htm
山东两位科学家分别获得100万元奖励 作者:王海鹰 来源:新华网 发布时间:2008-4-23

1372 Investigation Lead: No. 3 People’s Hospital in Dalian City Introduces a Patient to Shandong Province Eye Institute
That is Busy with Cornea Transplants Minghui.org June 26, 2006
http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/6/26/74833.html
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/6/17/130631p.html
调查线索:大连第三人民医院引介, 山东眼科研究所忙于做眼角膜移植 《明慧网》

1373 Introduction to the Specialty of Cornea Transplant of the General Hospital of Shenyang Military
http://www.syjqzyy.com/UI/ksjs/kstsjsShowNew.aspx?xid=433&id=85
http://web.archive.org/web/20160209231259/http:/www.syjqzyy.com/UI/ksjs/kstsjsShowNew.aspx?xid=433&id=85
沈阳军区总医院- 特色技术-角膜移植

1374 People’s Liberation Army No. 463 Hospital LASIK Treatment Centre and Liaoning Province Red Cross Eye Bank
Established at People’s Liberation Army No. 463 Hospital
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/nationalcriminalreports/794.pdf
解放军第463医院激光近视治疗中心辽宁省红十字会眼库在解放军第463医院眼科建立 时间12-04-05

1375 Ophthalmology centre of The First Hospital of China Medical University
http://eyebank.lnredcross.org.cn/news_view1.asp?id=53
http://archive.is/oUKl9
中国医科大学附属第一医院

1376 Hong Jing Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/316268/15852362.htm#viewPageContent
http://archive.is/HuHis
洪晶 (北京大学第三医院眼科医师)

1377 Hong Jing, Prof. at the China Medical University Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/316268/10959424.htm
http://archive.is/4bZVU
洪晶 (中国医科大学教授)

1378 A confession in Bloody Harvest
http://organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131.htm#_Toc160145143

1379 Thesis Topic: Infectious Keratitis Following Keratoplasty
Source: CHINESE JOURNAL OF OCULAR TRAUMA AND OCCUPATIONAL EYE DISEASE
2008 Vol. 30, Edition 05 page 367-370 Liu Jinxing, Chen Yahoo, Lu Meehan
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/medicalarticles/4701.pdf
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/medicalarticles/4702.pdf
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/medicalarticles/4703.pdf
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/medicalarticles/4704.pdf
论文题目:感染性角膜炎的角膜移植术 《眼外伤职业眼病杂志》2008年30卷05期 367-370页
刘金星, 陈玉浩, 吕梅红(河南省职业病医院眼科,河南,郑州,450052);

1380 Thesis Topic: 52 Penetrating Keratoplasty Clinical Reports
Source: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY Vol. 10 Edition 05 page 466-467 June 24, 1905 Zhou Yijun
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/medicalarticles/4901.pdf
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/medicalarticles/4902.pdf
论文题目:穿透性角膜移植术52例临床报告 《临床眼科杂志》2002年10卷05期 466-467页
作者:周义军(213200,江苏省金坛市中医院眼科);

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被新西兰在野党〝国家党〞高层逐出国会的议员罗斯(Jami-Lee Ross),在10月16号举行的新闻发布会上披露,国家党党魁布里奇斯(Simon Bridges)今年5月参加华人领袖张乙坤家中的晚宴和其后筹款活动后,接受了张乙坤10万纽币的政治献金。

10-22 05:36
15
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【禁闻】中共党媒:不屑对美以牙还牙 评:已无牙

19号,中国大陆官媒《人民日报》发表一篇署名文章,宣称对美国的贸易制裁,中方已经不屑于实施〝以牙还牙〞的直接报复,而是努力释放自身潜力,渡过难关。

10-22 05:32
25
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欧亚会议开幕 法轮功学员场外请愿

欧亚会议开幕 法轮功学员场外请愿;中共驻澳门最高官坠楼死亡 引议论;7被囚者获评〝中国杰出民主人士〞。

10-22 05:25
12
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川普:俄罗斯违反协议 美国退出《中导条约》

周六,川普结束在内华达州的竞选集会后,登上空军一号之前表示,俄罗斯多年来,一直没有遵守《中程导弹条约》,而美国一直单方面执行协议。

10-22 05:24
12
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两岸如何亲 美中如何战

有评论认为,柯文哲为了两岸一家亲,不惜配合中国打压台湾生存空间的统战,正好代表台湾文化中比较低劣的一面。中共对民营企业是救是杀仍然态度暧昧,阴霾未散。

10-22 05:21
59
👍 2

台湾宜兰普悠玛号火车出轨 伤亡近30年来最严重

10月21日下午,一列台铁普悠玛列车在宜兰县发生出轨事故,至少造成18人遇难,160多人受伤。

10-22 05:21
35
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澳门中联办主任郑晓松坠亡 中共官员坠楼成高频词

周日(21日)早,中国国务院港澳事务办公室发布消息称,中国中央人民政府驻澳门特别行政区联络办公室主任郑晓松于周六(10月20日)晚在其澳门住所坠楼身亡。

10-22 05:21
63
👍 5

【禁闻】蓬佩奥吁拉美国警惕中共的〝掠夺性〞

蓬佩奥19号在墨西哥接受美国媒体采访时,呼吁拉美国家警惕中共〝掠夺性的行为〞。

10-22 05:16
24
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福原爱宣布退役 “无缘东京奥运 没有遗憾”

2年前嫁给台湾桌球好手江宏杰的日本桌球名将福原爱,今日在脸书宣布退役。据悉,福原爱从小接触桌球运动至今已26年,她坦言自(2016年)里约奥运结束后,已经长达2年没有正式比赛,经过深思熟虑之后,决定正式卸下球员身分,台、日两边宣布退役,虽然也有不少球迷鼓励她再战东京奥运,但她认为是时候该改变身分。

10-22 05:06
43
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七人获评“中国杰出民主人士” 都身陷囹圄

大陆七位民运人士刘贤斌、秦永敏、陈西、陈卫、陈树庆、吕耿松、谢长发,被美国旧金山“中国民主教育基金会”评选为年度“中国杰出民主人士”,他们都被中共关押在监狱中。

10-22 05:04
36
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让士兵用脚查探地雷区 中共被批践踏生命

官媒近日发布中国士兵手挽手进地雷区验收扫雷成果的视频,鼓吹大无畏的革命精神,但引发民众质疑军方“践踏士兵”的生命,更有退伍士兵批评军官以此换取更大的乌纱,官方在压力下管控网络,禁止民间批评军队。

10-22 05:02
76
👍 4

成千难民进入墨西哥 川普重申保护边境

周日,部分洪都拉斯难民滞留在危地马拉与墨西哥边境,另一部分已经进入墨西哥。危地马拉政府出动警力,协助约2000名资源回乡的难民回到洪都拉斯。

10-22 04:56
14
👍 1

郑晓松逝世 澳门各界感突然 对官方解释有疑团

澳门中联办主任郑晓松堕楼身亡,社会各界有不同反应;澳门及香港特首都表达深切哀悼,而澳门立法会议员认为事出突然,不觉得郑晓松近期有异样。有评论人士质疑官方指因抑郁症跳楼自杀的说法,但相信事件不会影响澳门中联办的工作。(刘少风报道)

10-22 04:51
99
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山东煤矿岩爆困22工人其中两人死亡

山东省一个煤矿发生岩爆事故,有22名矿工被困,救援人员在拯救半天后证实,其中两人死亡。

10-22 04:51
30
👍 1

韩国科学家披露:普通食用盐里有惊天发现

韩国仁川国立大学的研究人员对39种食用盐的成分进行了取样分析,在其中的36种盐中发现了微塑料。

10-22 04:51
128
👍 1

李书福首次披露妻子姓名 非彭丽媛之妹

中国最大民营汽车制造商吉利汽车近年来一路扩张,有传闻称吉利董事长李书福妻子是习近平妻子彭丽媛的妹妹的说法。近日,李书福首次披露妻子名字,疑似为澄清传闻。

10-22 04:50
97
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